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Full text of "The American biographical dictionary: containing an account of the lives, characters, and writings of the most eminent persons deceased in North America from its first settlement"

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tost Eminent &tttm mastfc m 

















Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1857, by 

In the Clerk s office of the District Court for the District of Massachusetts, 



THE following work presents itself to the public with no claims to attention, but such as 
are founded upon the interest which may be felt in the lives of Americans. Finding 
himself, a few years ago, in a literary retirement, with no important duties which pressed 
immediately upon him, the author conceived the plan of this Dictionary. He was desirous 
of bringing to the citizens of the United States more information than was generally 
possessed, respecting the illustrious men of former times, the benefactors and ornaments of 
this country, who have passed away. He persuaded himself that, if he could collect the 
fragments of biography, which were buried in the mass of American history, or scattered 
amidst a multitude of tracts of various kinds, and could fashion these materials into a 
regular form, so as to place before the eye our great and good men, if not in their full 
dimensions, yet in their true sliape, he should render an acceptable service to his country 
men. This work, with no little labor, he has now completed ; and the inexperienced artist, 
in his first essay, can hope only that his design will be commended. He wishes chiefly, 
that, as the images of departed excellence are surveyed, the spirit which animated them 
may be caught by the beholder. 

As an apology, however, for the deficiencies and errors of various kinds which may be 
found in the work, a full exposition of his plan, and some representation of the difficulty of 
executing it, seem to be necessary. 

It was proposed to give some account of the persons who first discovered the new world; 
of those who had a principal agency in laying the foundations of the several colonies ; of 
those who have held important offices and discharged the duties of them with ability and 
integrity ; of those who have been conspicuous in the learned professions ; of those who 
have been remarkable for genius and knowledge, or who have written anything deserving 
of remembrance ; of the distinguished friends of literature and science ; of the statesmen, 
the patriots, and heroes, who have contended for American liberty, or aided in the estab 
lishment of our civil institutions ; and of all, whose lives, bright with Christian virtue, 
might furnish examples which should be worthy of imitation. It was determined to enlarge 
this wide field by giving as complete a list as could be made of the writings of each 
person, and by introducing the first ministers of the principal towns, for the purpose of 
illustrating the history of this country. The design included, also, a very compendious 
history of the United States, as well as of each separate colony and State, for the satisfac 
tion of the reader who might wish to view the subjects of the biographical sketches in 
connection with the most prominent facts relating to the country in which they lived. In 
addition to all this, it was intended to annex such references as would point out the 
sources from which information should be derived, and as might direct to more copious 
intelligence than could be contained in this work. 

Such were the objects which the author had in view, when he commenced an enterprise, 
of whose magnitude and difficulty he was not sufficiently sensible, before he had advanced 
too far to be able to retreat. The modern compilers of similar works in Europe have 
little else to do but to combine or abridge the labors of their predecessors, and employ the 

229532 (iii) 


materials previously collected to their hands. But in the compilation of this work a new 
and untrodden field was to be explored. It became necessary, not only to examine the 
whole of American history, in order to know who have taken a conspicuous part in the 
transactions of this country, but to supply, from other sources, the imperfect accounts of 
general historical writers. By a recurrence to the references, it will be seen that much 
toil has been encountered. But, although the authorities may seem to be unnecessarily 
multiplied, there has been some moderation in introducing them, for in many instances they 
do not, by any means, exhibit the extent of the researches which have been made. It 
could not be expected, or wished, that newspapers, pamphlets, and other productions should 
be referred to for undisputed dates and single facts which they have afforded, and which 
have been embodied with regular accounts. The labor, however, of searching for inform 
ation has frequently been less than that of comparing different statements, endeavoring to 
reconcile them when they disagreed, adjusting the chronology, combining the independent 
facts, and forming a consistent whole of what existed only in disjointed parts* Sometimes 
the mind has been overwhelmed by the variety and abundance of intelligence ; and some 
times the author has prosecuted his inquiries in every direction, and found only a barren 

For the large space which is sometimes occupied in describing the last hours of the 
persons of whom a sketch is given, the following reasons are assigned. In the lives of our 
fellow-men, there is no period so important to them, and so interesting to us, as the period 
which immediately precedes their dissolution. To see one of our brethren at a point of 
his existence, beyond which the next step will either plunge him down a precipice into an 
abyss from which he will never rise, or will elevate him to everlasting glory, is a spectacle 
which attracts us, not merely by its sublimity, but because we know that the flight of time 
is rapidly hastening us to the same crisis. We wish to see men in the terrible situation 
which inevitably awaits us; to learn what it is that can support them, and can secure them. 
The gratification of this desire to behold what is great and awful, and the communication 
of the aids which may be derived from the conduct of dying men, have accordingly been 
combined in the objects of this work. After recounting the vicissitudes attending the 
affairs of men, the author was irresistibly inclined to turn from the fluctuations of human 
life, and to dwell, when his subject would give him an opportunity, upon the calm and firm 
hopes of the Christian, and the sure prospects of eternity. While he thus soothed his 
own mind, he also believed that he should afford a resting-place to the minds of others, 
fatigued with following their brethren amidst their transient occupations, their successes, 
their disappointments, and their afflictions. 

Some terms are used which relate to local circumstances, and which require those 
circumstances to be pointed out. In several of the New England States, when the annual 
election of the several branches of the legislature is completed, and the government is 
organized, it has been an ancient practice to have a sermon preached in the audience of 
the newly-elected rulers, which is called the election sermon. This phrase would not need 
an explanation to an inhabitant of New England. The names of pastor and teacher, as 
distinct officers in the church, frequently occur. Soon after the first settlement of this 
country, when some societies enjoyed the labors of two ministers, they bore the titles of 
teacher and pastor, of which it was the duty of the former to attend particularly to doctrine, 
and of the latter to exhortation ; the one was to instruct, and the other to persuade. But 
the boundary between these two offices was not well defined, and was in fact very little 
regarded. The distinction of the name itself did not exist long. 

Great care has been taken to render the dates accurate, and to avoid the mistakes which 
have been made from inattention to the former method of reckoning time, when March was 


the first month of the year. If any one, ignorant of this circumstance, should look into 
Dr. Mather s Magnalia, or ecclesiastical history of New England, he would sometimes 
wonder at the absurdity of the writer. He would read, for instance, in the life of President 
Chauncy, that he died in February, 1671, and will find it previously said that he attended 
the commencement in the same year, which was in July. Thus, too, Peter Hobart is said 
to have died in January, and yet to have been infirm in the summer of 1 G78. When it is 
remembered that March was the first month, these accounts are easy to be reconciled. 
There seems not, however, to have been any uniformity in disposing of the days between 
the first and the twenty-fifth of March, for sometimes they are considered as belonging to 
the antecedent, and sometimes to the subsequent year. American writers, it is believed, 
have generally, if not always, applied them to the latter. When the figures for two years 
are written, as in dates before the adoption of the new style in 1752 is found frequently to 
be the case, not only for the days above mentioned, but for the days in January and 
February, it is the latter year which corresponds with our present mode of reckoning. 
Thus, March 1, 1689, was sometimes written March 1, 1688-9, or with the figures placed 
one above the other. The months were designated usually by the names of the first, the 
second, etc. ; so that February was the twelfth month. 

No apology is necessary for the free use which has been made of the labors of others, for 
the plan of this book is so essentially different from that of any which has preceded it, that 
the author has not encroached upon the objects which others had in view. He has had no 
hesitation in using their very language, whenever it suited him. Compilers seem to be 
licensed pillagers. Like the youth of Sparta, they may lay their hands upon plunder 
without a crime, if they will but seize it with adroitness. The list of American literary 
productions, which has been rendered as complete as possible, is, for the sake of method, 
placed at the close of each article ; and, in giving the titles of them, it will be perceived 
that there has frequently been an economy of words, as far as was consistent with distinct 
ness of representation. 

The author is aware that he lives in times which are like all other times, when the sym 
pathies of parties of different kinds are very strong ; and he believes that he has sought 
less to conciliate them than to follow truth, though she might not lead him into any of the 
paths along which the many are pressing. Without resolving to be impartial,, it would 
indicate no common destitution of upright and honorable principles to attempt a delineation 
of the characters of men. He may have- misapprehended, and he may have done what is 
worse. All are liable to errors, and he knows enough of the windings of the heart to 
remember that errors may proceed from prejudice, or indolence of attention, and be crimi 
nal, while they are cherished as honest and well-founded convictions, the result of impartial 
inquiry. He trusts, however, that nothing will be found in this book to counteract the 
influence of genuine religion, evincing itself in piety and good works, or to weaken the 
attachment of Americans to their well-balanced republic, which equally abhors the tyranny 
of irresponsible authority, the absurdity of hereditary wisdom, and the anarchy of lawless 



AFTER a long interval since the first edition of this work, the author now offers this 
second edition to the public. During twenty years past he has been repeatedly urged to 
accomplish what he has not found leisure to accomplish till the present time. But the 
delay, as the death-harvest among the eminent men of our country has been gathered in, 
has swelled the catalogue of those who ought to be commemorated in a biography of " the 
mighty dead " of America. The first edition was the first general collection of American 
biography ever published ; and it is still the largest work of the kind which has appeared. 
In the prospectus of this second edition it was proposed to print seven hundred and fifty 
pages, and it was thought that the separate biographical notices would amount to about twelve 
hundred, being about five hundred more than are contained in the first edition. But the 
book has reached the unwieldly size of eight hundred and eight pages, and the biographical 
articles exceed eighteen hundred, presenting an account of more than one thousand indi 
viduals not mentioned in Lord s edition of Lempriere, and of about sixteen hundred not 
found in the first ten volumes of the Encyclopedia Americana. Yet the author has been 
obliged to exclude accounts of many persons of whom he would willingly have said some 
thing. If he has at times misjudged in his exclusions and admissions, yet for some 
omissions an apology will be found in the difficulty of obtaining intelligence, as well as in 
oversight, which could hardly fail to occur in a work of such extent, embracing such a 
multitude of facts, and requiring, while in the press, such incessant attention and labor, 
he can only promise, should he live to publish an additional volume, or to prepare another 
edition, an earnest effort to render the work more complete, and more free from error. In 
the mean time he solicits the communication of intelligence respecting individuals worthy 
of being remembered, who have escaped, or who are likely to escape, his unassisted 

To those gentlemen in different parts of our country, who have favored him with notices 
of their friends, or of others, he returns his acknowledgments. He has been particularly 
indebted to the biographical collections of Mr. Samuel Jennison, Jun., of Worcester, 
Mass., and to the accurate antiquarian researches of Mr. John Farmer, of Concord, N. II., 
whose New England Genealogical Register will enable most of the sons of the Pilgrims 
of New England to trace their descent from their worthy ancestry. The authorities 
referred to, though abridged from the first edition, will show to what books he has been 
chiefly indebted. 

America is reproached in Europe for deficiency in literature and science ; but if one will 
consider that it is not two hundred years since the first press was set up in this country, 
and will then look at the list of publications annexed to the articles in this Biography, he 
will be astonished at the multitude of works which have been printed. New England was 
founded by men of learning, whose first care was to establish schools ; and the descendants 
of the fathers have inherited their love of knowledge and mental energy. No race of men 
on the face of the earth, it may be safely asserted, are so rational, so intelligent, so 



enlightened, and of such intellectual power, as the descendants of the New England Pil 
grims, and the inhabitants generally of our extensive country. 

Although the wide diffusion of knowledge is preferable to its convergence into a few 
points of splendor, yet America can boast of names of eminence in the arts and in various 
departments of science, and can speak of her sons of inventive power, of metaphysical 
acuteness, of philosophical discovery, of profound learning, and thrilling eloquence, and 
especially of a multitude skilled in the knowledge and the maintenance of the rights of 
man. Happy will it be for our country, if ancient wisdom, and patriotism, and piety shall 
not, in a future race, dwindle down into the hunger for office, and the violence of party, 
and the cheerlessness of infidelity. 

This body of American Biography will be found to comprise the first SETTLERS and 
FATHERS of our country ; early NAVIGATORS, and adventurous TRAVELLERS ; the 
STATESMEN, PATRIOTS, and HEROES, who have contended for American liberty, or 
assisted in laying the foundations of our republican iustitutions ; all the SIGNERS of the 
Declaration of Independence ; brave and skilful MILITARY and NAVAL COMMANDERS ; 
many of the GOVERNORS of the several States, and the deceased PRESIDENTS of our 
country ; profound LAWYERS, and skilful PHYSICIANS ; men of GENIUS, LEARNING, and 
and HISTORIANS, POETS and ORATORS ; ingenious ARTISTS, and men celebrated for their 
INVENTIONS ; together with many eminent PHILANTHROPISTS and CHRISTIANS, whose 
examples have diffused a cheering radiance around them. 

The author, in conclusion, cannot avoid expressing the wish that, as the reader surveys 
the lives of such men, the commendable zeal which animated them may come upon his 
own soul, and that he may help to bear up the honors of a country which has been the 
abode of a race of enlightened, noble-minded, disinterested, and virtuous men. 

BRUNSWICK, MAINE, July 17, 1832. 


THE reprint of the Prefaces to the two former editions the first dated forty-eight 
years ago, and the second twenty-five years renders unnecessary any new remarks on 
the design and importance of such a collection of general American biography, as is fur 
nished by this book ; which was, in fact, the first work of the kind ever published, and is 
now the only general and exclusively American biography to which the inquirer has access. 
The only change in the plan is the omission of the brief histories of the several States, 
which histories might have been useful and convenient many years ago, but "which, at the 
present day, with the great increase of the number of the States, and the rapid growth of 
the various interests of the country, should give way to fuller and more copious and satis 
factory historical accounts. This work is therefore now purely biography ; and, instead of 
" An American Biographical and Historical Dictionary," the title is now " The American 
Biographical Dictionary." 

This book of American biography has not been superseded nor approached in value by 
any book of the kind which has been published. Without referring again to such books as 
were mentioned in the second preface, I may allude to two general biographies which have 
been recently printed, namely : Appletons Cyclopaedia of Biography, and Blake s General 
Biography. They each include in one volume both foreign and American, chiefly foreign, 
and only in small part American, biography. While they may have each ten or twelve thou 
sand foreign names, the former has only about one thousand, and the latter about two 
thousand, American names; but my book has, of the distinguished men of our country, the 
great number of six thousand seven hundred seventy-five, exceeding the largest of these 
two books by about four thousand seven hundred American names. And my whole book 
of nine hundred pages, in two columns, royal octavo, is made up, not chiefly of foreigners, 
but of ALL AMERICANS. Moreover, I may be permitted to add, my articles are not shallow 
abridgments of my second edition, but full and ample accounts, including a list of the 
writings of each person. If the Appletons book gives one page of letter type to Wash 
ington, my own book gives to our greatest man twelve pages ; if that book gives to Rev. 
Dr. John M. Mason, of New York, eight lines, mine gives to him a page and a half; if 
that book gives to John Adams half a page, mine gives to him six pages. Such will often 
be found the proportion in the articles, without referring to such a case as Rev. Dr. Morse, 
the father of American geography, who has one line, while in my book he has nearly half 
a page ; such the abridgment to which my book has been subjected. 

I can truly say of my book, that it is my own labor of half a century, during which 
period I have been gleaning from the wide field of American history, and from an immense 
multitude of journals, papers, and memorials of the dead, aided also by the contribution of 
facts from the friends of the deceased. I have introduced many anecdotes, for they often 
combine useful and important instruction with amusement. I have attempted truly to 
describe all characters ; and, in following the pathway of truth, I have not invested men 
with excellencies which do not belong to them, nor regarded with equal favor contradictory 
systems of faith and irreconcilable principles of conduct. As an honest man, not deprived 



of intelligence nor void of benevolence, I have, as I think, known how to censure as well 
as to praise. 

The first edition contained an account of more than seven hundred deceased Americans, 
the second of more than eighteen hundred, which large number, in the present edition, 
brought down to the present time, is more than trebled ; so that in this book may be 
found an account of nearly seven thousand Americans, of some note and worthiness of 
being remembered. And how vast must be the number of American citizens, spread 
over our wide country, who may find here recorded the names of their own ancestors, 
which, elsewhere, they may not be able to find ? 

If, as a reviewer regarded this book, when, many years ago, the second edition was pub 
lished, it was " one of that class of books which may be reckoned as among the necessaries 
of literary life, the implements of study," and if " this work should be in the hands, or at 
least within the reach, of every literary and professional man throughout the country ; " 
then, at the present time, after the lapse of a quarter of a century, this greatly enlarged 
book cannot be less necessary and important. 

It must be wanted, if I mistake not, by our statesmen ; it must be wanted by every 
minister of the gospel, of whatever denomination ; it must be wanted in every school and 
town library. That the print is fair and easy to the eye, every reader will perceive ; and 
I rejoice that my publishers present this work to the lovers of American biography in a 
form which must be satisfactory to their wishes, associating nothing of meanness or nar 
rowness with this memorial of the mighty dead of our country. 

Intelligent, patriotic inquirers concerning the lives of their predecessors may here obtain 
the information which, unaided by this book, it might be impossible for them to procure ; 
and which they certainly will not find in the books, whether called dictionaries or cyclo 
paedias, containing abridgments of my condensed biography. The author of one of them had 
indeed the grace to ask of me permission to abridge my second edition for his own purposes, 
a request which I could not grant. The use which, without my consent, has been actually 
made of my book, by way of abridgment or abstracts, will, I hope, create a thirst for the 
more copious biography, to be found in this book. It may be added, that this biographical 
book will not like many other works which have only a temporary interest be liable 
to become antiquated by years ; for the memory of the worthy dead, the memory of the 
fathers, will ever be cherished and fresh in the American heart. The Pilgrims who landed 
on the rock of Plymouth were never so reverenced as they are now. 

It is rare that an author is permitted to superintend the publication of a book, the first 
edition of which he published nearly half a century before. To the kind Providence 
which has preserved my life, I offer my grateful acknowledgments ; and, as my age and 
my labors in this book of record, which speaks of the dead, have rendered my thoughts 
familiar with death, I may be allowed, lastly, to utter the prayer for the readers of this 
work, that God will give us, at the moment of our departure from the earth, the peace and 
triumph often given, as here recorded, to his Christian servants ; and that, when we shall 
meet in a great company of hundreds of millions of revivified men of all countries, He will 
grant that we may meet as fellow-sharers in the unutterable blessings revealed in the 
gospel of his Son, whose death has made atonement for our sins, and by whose teach 
ing and resurrection " life and immortality have been brought to light." 




ABBOT, HULL, a respectable minister of 
Charlestown, Mass., was graduated at Harvard 
College in the year 1720, and ordained Feb. 5, 
1724, as colleague with Mr. Bradstreet. After 
continuing fifty years in the ministry, he died 
April 19, 1774, aged 80 years. He published 
the following sermons : on the artillery election, 
1735; on the rebellion in Scotland, 1746; against 
cm-sing and swearing, 1747. 

ABBOT, SAMUEL, one of the founders of the 
Theological Seminary at Andover, died in that 
town, of which he was a native, April 30, 1812, 
aged 80. He had been a merchant in Boston. 
His donation for establishing the Seminary, August 
31, 1807, was 20,000 dollars; he also bequeathed 
to it more than 100,000 dollars. He was a 
humble, conscientious, and pious man, remark 
able for prudence, sincerity, and uprightness; 
charitable to the poor, and zealous for the inter 
ests of religion. He bestowed several thousands 
of dollars for the relief of ministers of the gospel 
and for other charitable objects. It was a 
maxim with him, " to praise no one in his 
presence and to dispraise no one in his absence." 
In his last sickness he enjoyed a peace, which the 
world cannot give. " I desire to live," he said, 
" if God has any thing more for me to do or to 
suffer." When near his end he said, "there is 
enough in God; I want nothing but God." He 
left a widow, with whom he had lived more than 
fifty years, and one son. Woods 1 Funeral Ser 
mon ; Panoplist, Till. 337. 

ABBOT, ABIEL, D. 1)., a minister in Beverly, 
Mass., was born at Andover Aug. 17, 1770, and 
graduated at Harvard College in 1787, having an 
unstained character and a high rank as a scholar. 
After being an assistant teacher in the Academy 
at Andover, and studying theology with Mr. 
French, he was settled about 1794 as the minister 
of Ilaverhill, where he continued eight years. 
An inadequate support for his family induced him 
to ask a dismission, though with great reluctance. 
He was soon afterwards, about 1802, settled in 
Beverly, as the successor of Mr. McKecu, who had 

been chosen president of Bowdoin College. The 
remainder of his life, about twenty-four years, was 
passed in Beverly in his ministerial office, except 
Avhen his labors were interrupted by sickness. 
He passed the winter of 1827-1828 in and near 
Charleston, S. C., for the recovery of his health. 
Early in Feb., 1828, he embarked for Cuba, 
where he continued three months, exploring 
different parts of the island, and making a dili 
gent record of Ms observations in letters to his 
family and friends. On his return, he sailed from 
the pestilential city of Havana, with his health 
almost restored. He preached at Charleston, 
June 1, and the next day sailed for New York. 
But, although able to go on deck in the morning, 
he died at noon, June 7th, just as the vessel came 
to anchor at the quarantine ground near the city 
of New York, and was buried on Statcn Island. 
It is probable, that he was a victim to the yellow 
fever, the contagion of which he received at Ha 
vana. Dr. Abbot was. very courteous and inter 
esting in social intercourse, and was eloquent in 
preaching. His religious sentiments are not 
particularly explained by his biographer, who 
says, that he belonged " to no sect but that of 
good men." Happy are all they, who belong to 
that sect. He seems to have been, in his last 
days, extremely solicitous on the subject of reli 
gious controversy. In the love of peace all good 
men will agree with him, and doubtless there has 
been much controversy concerning unimportant 
points, conducted too in an unchristian spirit ; but, 
in this world of error, it is not easy to imagine 
how controversy is to be avoided. If the truth 
is assailed, it would seem, that those who love it, 
should engage in its vindication ; for men always 
defend against unjust assault what they deem 
valuable. Besides, if an intelligent and benevo 
lent man thinks his neighbor has fallen into a 
dangerous mistake, why should he not, in a 
friendly debate, endeavor to set him right ? Es 
pecially ought the preachers of truth to recom 
mend it to others, with meekness indeed and in 
love, but with all the energy which its relation to 




human happiness demands. When this is done, 
the enemies of the truth, by resisting it, will pre 
sent to the world the form of religious dissension. 
If infidels endeavor to subvert the foundations 
of Christianity ; if corrupt heretics deny the plain 
doctrines of the gospel ; if bewildered enthusiasts 
bring forward their whims and fancies as doc 
trines revealed from heaven ; shall the dread of 
controversy prevent the exposure of their false 
reasonings, their presumptuous comments, and 
their delusive and perilous imaginations ? Since 
the death of Dr. Abbot and the settlement of his 
Unitarian successor, many of the congregation 
have withdrawn and connected themselves with 
the Second Church and Society. His interesting 
and valuable letters from Cuba were published 
after his death, Svo., Boston, 1829. lie published 
also artillery election sermon, 1802; sermons to 
mariners, 1812; address on intemperance, 1815; 
sermon before the Salem Missionary Society, 1816 ; 
before the Bible Society of Salem, 1817; conven 
tion sermon, 1827. Flint s Sermon; Sketch in 
Letters from Cuba. 

ABBOT, Jonx, died at Andover, the place of 
his birth, July 2, 1843, aged 84. He graduated 
at Harvard in 1754, was the first professor of 
languages at Bowdoin College, and for many years 
its librarian and treasurer. 

ABBOT, BENJAMIN, LL. I)., brother of the 
preceding, graduated at Harvard in 1788, and 
died in Exeter Oct. 25, 1849, aged 87. From 
1788 to 1838 he was the highly respected prin 
cipal of Phillips Exeter Academy. Many emi 
nent men were his pupils ; and, on his retire 
ment in 1838, they united in a testimonial to his 

ABBOT, JACOB, died at Farmington, Me., Jan. 
25, 1847, aged 70 a worthy and useful man, the 
father of distinguished sons, Jacob, John, Gor- 
ham, and Charles. He was a native of Andover : 
for many years he lived in Brunswick. His sons 
write the family name, Abbott. 

ABBOT, SAMUEL, was born in Wilton, X. II., 
in 178G, graduated at Harvard in 1808, and died 
in 1839. He invented the process of extracting 
and clarifying strach from the potato. 

ABBOT, JOHN EMERY, a minister in Salem ; 
died in 1819, aged 26. He was a graduate of 
Bowdoin in 1810. His sermons, with a memoir 
by II. Ware, were published in 1829. 

ABEEL, JOHN NELSON, I). IX, an eloquent 
preacher, graduated at Princeton College in 1787. 
He relinquished the study of the law, Avhich he 
had commenced under Judge Patterson, and pur 
sued the study of divinity with Dr. Livingston. 
He was licensed to preach in April, 1793. After 
being for a short time a minister of a Presby 
terian church in Philadelphia, he was in 1795 
installed as pastor of the Reformed Dutch Church 
in the city of New York. He died Jan. 20, 1812, 

in the 43d year of his age, deeply lamented on 
account of his unassuming, amiable manners, and 
his eloquence as a preacher of the gospel. With 
a discriminating mind, and a sweet and melo 
dious voice, and his soul inflamed with pious zeal, 
he was pre-eminent among extemporaneous ora 
tors. In performing his various pastoral duties 
he was indefatigable. Gunn s Funeral Sermon. 

ABEEL, DAVID, missionary to China, died at 
Albany, Sept. 4, 1846, aged about 40. He em 
barked at New York, and arrived at Canton Feb. 
19, 1830, and at Bankok in 1831. From 1833 to 
1839 he was from ill health in the United States, 
but returned to Canton in 1839. In 1842 he 
commenced a mission at Amoy. Ill health com 
pelled his return to America in 1845. He was 
first a preacher to seamen at Canton ; then a 
useful, respected, and important missionary. 

ABEPcCIlOMBIE, JAMES, a British major-gen 
eral, took the command of the troops assembled 
at Albany in June, 1756, bringing over with him 
two regiments. It was proposed to attack Crown 
Point, Niagara, and Fort Du Quesne. But some 
difficulty as to the rank of the provincial troops 
occasioned delay, and in August the Earl of 
Loudoun took the command. The capture of 
Oswego by Montcalm disarranged the projected 
campaign. In 1757 Montcalm took Fort Wil 
liam Henry ; and thus the French commanded 
all the lakes. The British spirit was now roused. 
Mr. Pitt in 1758 placed 50,000 troops under the 
command of Abercrombie, determined to recover 
the places which had been captured by the 
French, and also to capture Louisbourg. Aber 
crombie, at the head of 15,000 men, proceeded 
against Ticonderoga, which he assaulted injudi 
ciously and unsuccessfully, July 8th, with the loss 
of nearly 2,000 men, killed, wounded, and missing. 
He then retired to his intrenched camp on the 
south side of Lake George. An expedition which 
he sent out against Fort Frontenac, under Col. 
Bradstrect, was successful. He was soon super 
seded by Amherst, who the next year recovered 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and captured 
Quebec. Marshall, I. 4 C 2-3 6 ; Holmes, II. 82. 
Manic, 59, 107, 144, 161. 

ABEKCKOMBIE, JAMES, I). D., died at Phil 
adelphia, June 26, 1841, aged 83, the oldest Epis 
copal minister in the city. He had been a teacher 
of youth, and was a venerable divine. 

ABE11NETIIEY, HOBF.RT, M. D., died in 
Woodbury, Conn., Sept. 24, 1851, aged 77. He 
was the son of Dr. William A., of Harwinton, 
and practised physic in Woodbury for 25 vears. 
He was a man of distinction, and the delight of 
his friends ; also a man of religion, a worthy pro 
fessor for 46 years, loving the house of God and 
the assembly of Christians for conference and 
prayer. His son, John J. A., is a surgeon in the 



ACKLAXD, Jonx D., major, a British offi 
cer, was at the head of the grenadiers on the 
left, in the action near Stillwater, Oct. 7, 1777. 
lie bravely sustained the attack ; but, overpow 
ered by numbers, the British were obliged to 
retreat to their camp, which was instantly stormed 
by Arnold. In this action, Major Ackland was 
shot through the legs, and taken prisoner. He 
was discovered and protected by Wilkinson. His 
devoted wife, in the utmost distress, sought him 
in the American cam]), favored with a letter from 
Burgoync to Gates. After his return to England, 
Major Ackland, in a dispute with Lieut. Lloyd, 
defended the Americans against the charge of 
cowardice, and gave him the lie direct. A duel 
followed, in which Ackland was shot through the 
head. Lady Harriet, his wife, in consequence 
lost her senses for two years ; but she afterwards 
married Mr. Brudenell, who accompanied her 
from the camp at Saratoga in her perilous pursuit 
of her husband. When will there cease to be 
victims to private combat and public war ? It 
will be, when the meek and benevolent spirit of 
the gospel shall universally reign in the hearts 
of men. Remembrancer for 1777, p. 461, 465; 
Wilkinson s Memoirs, 269, 376. 

ADAIIl, JAMES, a trader with the Indians of 
the Southern States, resided in their country forty 
years. From 1735, he lived almost exclusively in 
intercourse with the Indians, cut off from the 
society of his civilized brethren, chiefly among 
the Chickasaws, with whom he first traded in 
1744. His friends persuaded him to publish a 
work, which he had prepared with much labor, 
entitled, " The History of the American Indians ; 
particularly those nations adjoining the Missis 
sippi, East and West; Florida, Georgia, South 
and North Carolina, and Virginia. London, 4to, 
177,3." In this book he points out various cus 
toms of the Indians, having a striking resemblance 
to those of the Jews. His arguments to prove 
them descended from the Jews are founded on 
their division into tribes ; their worship of Je 
hovah ; their festivals, fasts, and religious rites ; 
their daily sacrifice ; their prophets and high 
priests ; their cities of refuge ; their marriages 
and divorces ; their burial of the dead, and 
mourning for them ; their language and choice 
of names adapted to circumstances ; their manner 
of reckoning time ; and various other particulars. 
Some distrust seems to have fallen upon his 
statements, although he says that his account is 
"neither disfigured by fable nor prejudice." Dr. 
Boudinot, in his " Star in the West," has adopted 
the opinions of Aclair. 

AD AIR, JOHN, general, died May 19, 1840, 
aged ,82, at Harrodsburg, Ky. He was a soldier in 
the early north-western wars, and commanded the 
Kentucky troops at Xew Orleans in 1814. He 
was a senator in 180,3, and a representative in 
congress in 1831. 

ADAMS, WILLIAM, the second minister of 
Dedham, was the son of W. A., and born in 
16*30, at Ipswich : he died Aug. 17, 1685, aged 
35. He graduated in 1671, and was ordained as 
Mr. Allen s successor, Dec. 3, 1673. By his first 
wife, Mary Manning of Cambridge, he had three 
children, one of whom was Rev. Eliphalet A. 
His second wife was Alice Bradford, daughter of 
William B., and grand-daughter of Gov. Brad 
ford, of Plymouth ; by her he had Elizabeth, 
who married, at the age of fifteen, Rev. S. 
Whiting, of Windham, afterwards Rev. S. Niles ; 
Alice, who married Rev. N. Collins, of Enfield ; 
William ; and Abial, born after his death, who 
married Rev. J. Metcalf, of Falmouth. His 
widow married James Fitch. He published a 
fast sermon, 1679; an election sermon, 1685. 

ADAMS, ELIHIALET, son of the preceding, 
an eminent minister of New London, Conn., was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1694. He was 
ordained Feb. 9, 1709, and died Oct. 4, 1753, 
aged 76. Dr. Chauncey speaks of him as a great 
Hebrician. His son William, graduated at Yale 
in 1730, and died in 1798, having been a preacher 
sixty years, but never settled nor married ; he 
published a thanksgiving sermon, 1760. He pub 
lished a sermon, 1706, on the death of Rev. James 
Noyes of Stonington ; election sermons, 1710 and 
1783 ; a discourse occasioned by a storm, March 
3, 1717; a thanksgiving sermon, 1721; a sermon 
on the death of Gov. Saltonstall, 1724; at the 
ordination of William Gager, Lebanon. May 27, 
1725; of Thomas Clap, Windham, 1726; and a 
discourse before young men, 1727. 

ADAMS, JOHN, a poet, was the only son of 
John Adams, of Nova Scotia, and was graduated 
at Harvard College in 1721. He was settled in 
the ministry at Newport, R. I., April 11, 1728, in 
opposition to the wishes of Mr. Clap, who was 
pastor. Mr. Clap s friends formed a new society, 
and Mr. Adams was dismissed in about two 
years. He died at Cambridge in Jan., 1740, 
at the age of 36, deeply lamented by his ac 
quaintance. He was much distinguished for his 
learning, genius, and piety. As a preacher he 
was much esteemed. His uncle, Matthew Ad 
ams, describes him as " master of nine languages," 
and conversant with the most famous Greek, 
Latin, Italian, French, and Spanish authors, as 
well as with the noblest English writers. He 
also speaks of Ms " great and undissembled piety, 
which ran, like a vein of gold, through all his 
life and performances." He published a sermon 
on his ordination, 1728, and a poem on the love 
of money. A small volume of his poems was 
I published at Boston, in 1745, which contains imi- 
I tations and paraphrases of several portions of 
Scripture, translations from Horace, and the 
whole book of Revelation in heroic verse, to 
gether with original piece s. The versification is 



remarkably harmonious for the period and the 
country. Mr. Adams productions evince a lively 
fancy, and breathe a pious strain. The following 
is an extract from his poem on Cotton Mather : 

" What numerous volumes scattered from his hand, 
Lightened his own, and warmed each foreign land? 
What pious breathings of a glowing soul 
Live in each page, and animate the whole? 
The breath of heaven the savory pages show, 
As we Arabia from its spices know. 
Ambitious, active, towering was his soul, 
But flaming piety inspired the whole." 

Mass. Magazine for April, 1789; Backus 
Hist. Abridged, 158; Preface to his Poems; 
Specimens of American Poetry, I. 67. 

ADAMS, MATTHEW, a distinguished writer in 
Boston, though a mechanic or " tradesman," yet 
had a handsome collection of books, and culti 
vated literature. Dr. Franklin acknowledges his 
obligations for access to his library. He was one 
of the writers of the Essays in the New England 
Journal. He died poor, but with a reputation 
more durable than an estate, in 1733. His son, 
Her. John Adams, a graduate of 1745, was the 
minister of Durham, N. II., from 1748 to 1778. 
By a grant of 400 acres of land, he was induced 
to remove to the small plantation of Washington, 
or Xewfield, county of York, Me., having only 
five families, in Feb., 1781. Here he passed 
the remainder of his life, preaching and prac 
tising physic in Newfield, Limington, Parsons- 
field, and Limerick, till his death, June 4, 1792, 
aged GO. He was .subject, occasionally, to a deep 
depression of feeling ; and, at other times, was 
borne away by a sudden excitement, which gave 
animation to his preaching. A fine letter from 
Durham to the town of Boston in 1774, with a 
donation, was written by him. Eliot : Green- 
Icuf s Ecclesiastical History of Maine, 113. 

ADAMS, AMOS, minister of Itoxbury, Mass., 
was graduated at Harvard College, in 1752. He 
was ordained as successor to Mr. Peabody, Sept. 
12, 1753, and died at Dorchester, Oct. 5, 1775, aged 
47, of the dysentery, which prevailed in the camp 
at Cambridge and Roxbury. His son, Thomas 
Adams, was ordained in Boston as minister for 
Camdcn, S. C., where, after a residence of eight 
years, he died Aug. 16, 1797. 

Mr. Adams, in early life, devoted himself to 
the service of his Redeemer ; and he continued 
his benevolent labors as a preacher of the gospel 
with unabated vigor till his death. He was fer 
vent in devotion ; and his discourses, always ani 
mated by a lively and expressive action, were 
remarkably calculated to warm the heart. He 
was steadfast in his principles, and umvearied in 

lie published the following sermons : On the 
death of Lucy Dudley, 1756; at the artillery 
election, 1759; on a thanksgiving for the reduc 
tion of Quebec, 1759; at the ordination of S. 

Kingsbury, Edgartown, Xov. 25, 1761 ; at the 
ordination of John "\Vyeth, Gloucester, Feb. 5, 
1766; the only hope and refuge of sinners, 1767 ; 
two discourses on religious liberty, 1767 ; a view 
of New England, in two discourses on the fast, 
April 6, 1769; sermons at the ordination of Jon 
athan Moore, Rochester, Sept. 25, 1768, and of 
Caleb Prentice, Reading, Oct. 25, 1769. He 
preached the Dudleian lecture of Harvard Col 
lege in 1770, entitled, " Diocesan Episcopacy, as 
founded on the supposed Episcopacy of Timothy 
and Titus, subverted." This work is a specimen 
of the learning of the writer. It is lodged in 
manuscript in the library of the college. 

ADAMS, JOSEPH, minister of Newington, N. 
H., was graduated at Harvard College in 1710, 
was ordained in 1715, and died in 1783, aged 
almost 95, a descendant of Henry A., of Quincy. 
He preached till just before his death. He pub 
lished a sermon on the death of John Fabian, 
1757; and a sermon on the necessity of rulers 
exerting themselves against the growth of im 
piety, 1760. 

ADAMS, ZABDIEL, minister of Lunenburg, 
Mass., was born in Braintree, now Quincy, Nov. 5, 
1739. His father was the uncle of John Adams. 
He was graduated at Harvard College in 1759, 
having made while in that seminary great profi 
ciency in learning, and much improved the vigor 
ous powers of mind with which he was endued. 
He was ordained Sept. 5, 1764, and died March 
1, 1801, in the 62d year of his age, and 37th 
of his ministry. 

Mr. Adams was eminent as a preacher of the 
gospel, often explaining the most important doc 
trines in a rational and scriptural manner, and 
enforcing them with plainness and pungency. 
His language was nervous ; and, while in his 
public performances he gave instruction, he also 
imparted pleasure. In his addresses to the throne 
of grace he was remarkable for pertinency of 
thought and readiness of utterance. Though by 
bodily constitution he was liable to irritation, yet 
he treasured no ill will in his bosom. His heart 
was easily touched by the afflictions of others, and 
his sympathy and benevolence prompted him to 
administer relief, when in his power. About the 
year 1774 he wrote a pamphlet, maintaining, 
without authority from the platform of 1648, that 
a pastor has a negative upon the proceedings of 
the Church. Some ministers, who embraced his 
principles, lost by consequence their parishes. 
He preached the Dudleian lecture on Presbyterian 
ordination in 1794. He published a sermon on 
church music, 1771; on Christian unity, 1772; 
the election sermon, 1782; on the 19th of April, 
1783 ; at the ordination of Enoch Whipplc, 1788. 
Whitney s Funeral Sermon. 

ADAMS, ANDREW, LL. D., chief justice of 
Connecticut, was appointed to that place in 1793, 



having been upon the bench with reputation as a 
judge from 1789. He was a native of Stratford, 
a graduate of Yale College in 1760, and a mem 
ber of Congress about the year 1782. He re 
sided at Litclificld, and died Nov. 26, 1797, aged 
61 years. 

ADAMS, SAMUEL, governor of Massachusetts, 
and a most distinguished patriot in the American 
Revolution, was born in Boston Sept. 16, O. S., 
1722. His father, Samuel, the son of John and 
Hannah A., was born in 1689, and died in 1747, 
whose wife was Mary Fifield. Mr. S. A. married 
in 1749 Elizabeth, daughter of Ilev. S. Checkley ; 
and his second wife in 1764, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Francis Wells. He was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1740. When he commenced master of 
arts in 1743, he proposed the following question 
for discussion : " Whether it be lawful to resist the 
supreme magistrate, if the Commonwealth cannot 
otherwise be preserved ? " He maintained the 
affirmative, and thus early showed his attachment 
to the liberties of the people. 

Early distinguished by talents as a writer, his 
first attempts were proofs of his filial piety. By 
his efforts he preserved the estate of his father, 
which had been attached on account of an engage 
ment in the land bank bubble. He was known 
as a political writer during the administration of 
Shirley, to which he was opposed, as he thought 
the union of so much civil and military power in 
one man was dangerous. His ingenuity, wit, and 
profound argument are spoken of with the high 
est respect by those, who were contemporary with 
him. Ac this early period he laid the founda 
tion of public confidence and esteem. His first 
office of tax-gatherer made him acquainted with 
every shipwright and mechanic in Boston, and 
over their minds he ever retained a powerful in 
fluence. From this employment the enemies of 
liberty styled him Samuel, the Publican. 

In 176.5 he was elected a member of the Gen 
eral Assembly of Massachusetts, in the place of 
Oxenbridge Thachcr, deceased. He was soon 
chosen clerk, and he gradually acquired influence 
in the Legislature. This was an eventful time. 
But Mr. Adams possessed a courage, which no 
dangers could shake. He was undismayed by 
the prospect, which struck terror into the hearts 
of many. He was a member of the Legislature 
nearly ten years, and he was the soul, which ani 
mated it to the most important resolutions. No 
man did so much. He pressed his measures with 
ardor; yet he was prudent; he knew how to 
bend the passions of others to his purpose. Gov. 
Hutchinsou relates that, at a town meeting in 
1769, an objection having been made to a motion 
because it implied an independency of parlia 
ment, Mr. Adams, then a representative, con 
cluded his speech with these words : " Independ 
ent we arc, and independent we will be." He 

represents, too, that Mr. Adams, by a defalcation 
as collector, had injured his character ; but he 
adds : " The benefit to the town from his defence 
of their liberties he supposed an equivalent to 
his arrears as their collector." As a political 
writer he deemed him the most artful and insin 
uating of all men, whom he ever knew, and the 
most successful in " robbing men of their char 
acters," or "calumniating governors, and other 
servants of the crown." 

When the charter was dissolved, he was chosen 
a member of the Provincial Convention. In 1774 
he was elected a member of the General Con 
gress. In this station, in which he remained a 
number of years, he rendered the most impor 
tant services to his country. His eloquence was 
adapted to the times, in which he lived. The 
energy of his language corresponded with the 
firmness and vigor of his mind. His heart 
glowed with the feeh ngs of a patriot, and his 
eloquence was simple, majestic, and persuasive. 
He was one of the most efficient members of 
Congress. He possessed keen penetration, un 
shaken fortitude, and permanent decision. Gor 
don speaks of him in 1774 as having for a long 
time whispered to his confidential friends, that 
this country must be independent. Walking in 
the fields, the day after the battle of Lexing 
ton, he said to a friend : " It is a fine day, I 
mean, this day is a glorious day for America." 
He deemed the blow to be struck, which would 
lead to independence. In the last official act 
of the British government in Massachusetts he 
was proscribed with John Hancock, when a gen 
eral pardon was offered to all who had rebelled. 
This act Avas dated June 12, 1775, and it teaches 
Americans what they owe to the denounced 

In 1776 he united with Franklin, J. Adams, 
Hancock, Jefferson, and a host of worthies in 
declaring the United States no longer an ap 
pendage to a monarchy, but free and independent. 

When the constitution of Massachusetts was 
adopted, he was chosen a member of the Senate, 
of which body he was elected president. He 
was soon sent to the western counties to quiet a 
disturbance, which was rising, and he was suc 
cessful in his mission. He was a member of the 
convention for examining the constitution of the 
United States. He made objections to several 
of its provisions; but his principal objection was 
to that article, which rendered the several States 
amenable to the courts of the nation. He thought 
this reduced them to mere corporations ; that the 
sovereignty of each would be dissolved ; and that 
a consolidated government, supported by an 
army, would be the consequence. The consti 
tution was afterwards altered in this point, and 
in most other respects according to his wishes. 

In 1789 he was chosen lieutenant-governor, 



and was continued in this office till 1794, when 
he was elected governor, as successor to Mr. 
Hancock. He was annually replaced in the chair 
of the first magistrate of Massachusetts till 1797, 
when his age and infirmities induced him to retire 
from public life. He died Oct. 2, 1803, in the 
8l2d year of his age. His only son, of the same 
name, was born in 1751, graduated at Harvard 
College in 1770, and, after studying under Dr. 
Joseph Warren, served his country as a surgeon 
during the war. lleturning home with a broken 
constitution, he at length died Jan. 17, 1788. 
The avails of his claims for services in the army 
gave his father a competency in liis declining 

The leading traits in the character of Mr. Ad 
ams were an unconquerable love of liberty, in 
tegrity, firmness, and decision. Some acts of his 
administration as chief magistrate were censured, 
though all allowed, that his motives were pure. 
A division in political sentiments at that time 
existed, and afterwards increased. When he dif 
fered from the majority, he acted with great inde 
pendence. At the close of the Avar he opposed 
peace with Great Britain, unless the Northern 
States retained their full privileges in the fisheries. 
In 1787 he advised the execution of the condign 
punishment, to which the leaders of the rebellion 
in 1786 had been sentenced. It was his settled 
judgment, that in a republic, depending for its 
existence upon the intelligence and virtue of the 
people, the law should be rigidly enforced. At 
tached to the old confederation, he often gave as 
a toast " The States united, and the States 
separated." He was opposed to the treaty with 
Great Britain, made by Mr. Jay in 1794, and he 
put his election to hazard by avowing his dislike 
of it. The three topics, on which lie delighted to 
dwell, were British thraldom, the manners, laws, 
and customs of New England, and the impor 
tance of common schools. 

Mr. Adams was a man of incorruptible integ 
rity. Gov. Hutchinson, in answer to the inquiry 
" Why Mr. Adams was not taken off from his 
opposition by an office ? " writes to a friend in 
1 .,!"! -uid, "Such is the obstinacy and inflexible 
disposition of the man, that he never can be con 
ciliated by any office or gift whatever." 

He was poor. While occupied abroad in the 
most important and responsible public duties, the 
partner of his cares supported the family at home 
by her industry. Though his resources were very 
small, yet, such were the economy and dignity of 
his house, that those, who visited him, found 
nothing mean or unbecoming his station. His 
country, to whose interests he devoted his life, 
permitted him to remain poor ; but there were 
not wanting a few friends, who showed him their 
regard. In this honorable poverty he continued 
to a. very late period of his life; and had not a 


decent competency fallen into his hands by the 
very afflicting event of the death of an only son, 
he must have depended for subsistence upon the 
kindness of his friends, or the charity of the 

To a majestic countenance and dignified man 
ners there was added a suavity of temper, which 
conciliated the affection of his acquaintance. Some, 
Avho disapproved of his political conduct, loved 
and revered him as a neighbor and friend. He 
could readily relax from severer cares and studies 
to enjoy the pleasures of private conversation. 
Though somewhat reserved among strangers, yet 
with his friends he was cheerful and compan 
ionable, a lover of chaste wit, and remarkably 
fond of anecdote. He faithfully discharged the 
duties arising from the relations of social life. 
His house was the seat of domestic peace, regu 
larity, and method. 

Mr. Adams was a Christian. His mind was 
early imbued with piety, as well as cultivated by 
science. He early approached the table of the 
Lord Jesus, and the purity of his life witnessed 
the sincerity of his profession. On the Christian 
Sabbath he constantly went to the temple ; and 
the morning and evening devotions in his family 
proved, that his religion attended him in his sea 
sons of retirement from the world. His senti 
ments were strictly Calvinistic. The platform of 
the New England churches he deemed an ample 
guide in all matters of ecclesiastical discipline 
and order. The last production of his pen was 
in favor of Christian truth. He died in the faith 
| of the gospel. 

He was a sage and a patriot. The independ 
ence of the United States of America is perhaps 
to be attributed as much to his exertions, as to 
the exertions of any one man. Though he was 
called to struggle with adversity, he was never 
discouraged. He was consistent and firm under 
the cruel neglect of a friend and the malignant 
rancor of an enemy; comforting himself in the 
darkest seasons with reflections upon the wisdom 
and goodness of God. 

Mr. John Adams speaks of him in the follow 
ing terms : " The talents and virtues of that great 
man were of the most exalted, though not of the 
most showy land. His love of his country, his 
exertions in her service through a long course of 
years, through the administrations of the gov 
ernors Shirley, Pownall, Bernard, Ilutchinson, 
and Gage, under the royal government and 
through the whole of the subsequent revolution, 
and always in support of the same principles ; 
his inflexible integrity, his disinterestedness, his 
invariable resolution, his sagacity, his patience, 
perseverance, and pure public virtue were not 
exceeded by any man s in America. A collection 
of his writings would be as curious as voluminous. 
It would throw light upon American history for 



fifty years. In it would be found specimens of a 
nervous simplicity of reasoning and eloquence, 
that have never been rivalled in America." 

His writings exist only in the perishable col 
umns of a newspaper or pamphlet. In his more 
advanced life, in the year 1790, a few letters 
passed between him and John Adams, in which 
the principles of government are discussed ; and 
there seems to have been some difference of sen 
timent between those eminent patriots and states 
men, who had toiled together through the Revo- 
lution. Tlus correspondence was published in 
1800. An oration, which Mr. Adams delivered 
at the State House in Philadelphia Aug. 1, 177G, 
was published. The object is to support Ameri 
can Independence, the declaration of which by 
Congress had been made a short time before. 
He opposes kingly government and hereditary 
succession with warmth and energy. Not long 
before liis death he addressed a letter to Paine, 
expressing his disapprobation of that unbeliever s 
attempts to injure the cause of Christianity. 
Thachcr s Sermon; Sullivan s character of him 
in public papers ; Polyanthos, in. 73-82 ; Gor 
don, I. 347, 410; BYissot, Nouv. Voy., I. 151; 
Thacker s Medical Biography ; Ilutchinson s 
Last History, 265 ; Eliot s Biographical Dic 
tionary ; Encyclopaedia Americana, and liees. 

ADAMS, Joiix, president of the United States, 
was born at Braintrec, Mass., Oct. 19, 1735, O.S., 
or Oct. 30th, present style. His father, John, 
was a deacon of the church, a farmer, and a 
mechanic, and died May 25, 1761, aged 69; his 
grandfather, Joseph, died Feb. 12, 1737, aged 
82 ; his great-grandfather, Joseph, was born in 
England, and died at Braintrce Dec. 6, 1697, 
aged 03 ; the father of this ancestor was Henry, 
who, as the inscription on his monument, erected 
by John Adams, says, " took his flight from the 
Dragon Persecution, in Devonshire, England, and 
alighted with eight sons near Mount Wollaston." 
Of these sons four removed to Medfield and the 
neighboring towns, and two to Chclmsford. The 
year of Henry s arrival at Braintree, now Quincy, 
is not known, but is supposed to be 1632 ; he 
died Oct. 8, 1646. His ancestry has been traced 
up six or seven hundred years to John Ap Adam, 
of the Marches of Wales. 

John Adams, while a member of Harvard Col 
lege, where he was graduated in 1755, Avas dis 
tinguished by diligence in his studies, by boldness 
of thought, and by the powers of his mind. 
While he studied law at Worcester with Col. 
James Putnam, an able lawyer in extensive prac 
tice, from 1755 to 1758, he instructed pupils in 
Latin and Greek, as a means of subsistence. 
At this early period he had imbibed a prejudice 
against the prevailing religious opinions of New 
England, and became attached to speculations 
hostile to those opinions. Nor were his views 

afterwards changed. Perhaps the religious sen 
timents of most men become settled at as early a 
period of their lives. If therefore the cherished 
views of Christianity have any relation to prac 
tice and to one s destiny hereafter; with what 
sobriety, candor, and diligence, and with what 
earnestness of prayer for light and guidance from 
above ought every young man to investigate re 
vealed truth ? In April, 1756, he was deliberating 
as to his profession. Some friends advised him 
to study theology. In a few months afterwards 
he fixed upon the profession of law. He had 
not " the highest opinion of what is called Or 
thodoxy." He had known a young man, worthy 
of the best parish, despised for being suspected 
of Arminianism. He was more desirous of being 
an eminent, honorable lawyer, than of " heading 
the whole army of Orthodox preachers." In a 
letter to Dr. Morse in 1815 he says : " Sixty-five 
years ago my own minister, Rev. Lemuel Bryant ; 
Dr. Mayhew, of the West Church in Boston ; 
Rev. Mr. Shute, of Hingham ; Rev. John Brown, 
of Cohasset ; and perhaps equal to all, if not 
above all, Rev. Mr. Gay, of Hingham, were Uni 
tarians. Among the laity how many could I 
name, lawyers, physicians, tradesmen, and farmers ? 
More than fifty-six years ago I read Dr. S. 
Clarke, Emlyn, etc." 

In Oct., 1758, Mr. Adams presented himself 
a stranger, poor and friendless to Jeremy 
Gridley, of Boston, attorney-general of the 
crown, to ask of him the favor to offer him to 
the Superior Court of the province, then sitting, 
for admission to the bar. Mr. Gridley examined 
him in his office, and recommended him to the 
court ; and at the same time gave him excellent 
paternal advice. For his kindness Mr. Adams 
was ever grateful, and was afterwards his intimate 
personal and professional friend. As Mr. Gridley 
was grand master of the Massachusetts Grand 
Lodge of Free Masons, Mr. Adams once asked 
his advice, whether it was worth his while to be 
come a member of the society ; the reply of the 
grand master was, " No " ; adding, that he did 
not need the artificial support of the society, and 
that there was " nothing in the Masonic Institu 
tion worthy of his seeking to be associated with 
it." In consequence of this advice he never 
sought admission to the lodge. 

Mr. Adams commenced the practice of the law 
at Quincy, then in the county of Suffolk, and 
soon had a sufficiency of lucrative business. In 
1761 he was admitted to the degree of barrister- 
at-law. In this year a small estate became his 
by the decease of his father. At this period his 
zeal for the rights of his country was inflamed by 
the attempt of the British cabinet to introduce in 
Massachusetts writs of assistance a kind of 
general search-^ arrant for the discovery of goods 
not discharged from the parliamentary taxes. 


The affair was argued in Boston by Mr. Otis. 
Mr. Adams says, " Every man of an immense, 
crowded audience appeared to me to go away, as 
I did, ready to take arms against writs of as 
sistance." "Then and there the child Inde 
pendence was bom." 

In 1764, he married Abigail Smith, daughter 
of Rev. William Smith of Weymouth, and grand 
daughter of Colonel Quincy, a lady of uncommon 
endowments and excellent education. In the 
next year he published an essay on Canon and 
Feudal Law, reprinted at London in 1768, and at 
Philadelphia in 1783. His object was to show 
the conspiracy between Church and State for the 
purpose of oppressing the people. He wished to 
enlighten his fellow-citizens, that they might prize 
their liberty, and be ready, if necessary, to assert 
their rights by force. 

He removed to Boston in 1765, and there had 
extensive legal practice. In 1768 Gov. Bernard 
offered him, through his friend Mr. Sewall, the 
place of advocate-general in the Court of Ad 
miralty, a lucrative post; but he decidedly de 
clined the offer. He was not a man thus to be 
bribed to desert the cause of his country. The 
office was the same which Mr. Otis had resigned, 
in 1761 in order to oppose the writs of assistance. 
Yet Mr. Hutchinson states, that he was at a loss 
which side to take, and that the neglect of Ber 
nard to make him a justice of the peace roused 
his patriotism ! He adds : " His ambition was 
without bounds ; and he has acknowledged to his 
acquaintance, that he could not look with com 
placency upon any man, who was in possession 
of move wealth, more honor, or more knowledge 
than himself." In 1769, he was chairman of the 
committee of the town of Boston for drawing up 
instructions to their representatives to resist the 
British encroachments. His colleagues were R. 
Dana and Joseph Warren. These instructions 
were important links in the chain of revolutionary 
events. In consequence of the affray with the 
British garrison March 5, 1770, in which several 
of the people of Boston were killed, the soldiers 
were arraigned before the civil authority. Not 
withstanding the strong excitement against them, 
Mr. Adams, with J. Quincy and S. S. Blowers, 
defended them, and procured the acquittal of all 
except two, who were convicted of manslaughter, 
and branded in punishment. This triumph of 
justice, for the soldiers were first attacked, was 
honorable to the cause of America. In May, 
1770, he was chosen a member of the Legisla 
ture, in which he took a prominent part. 

In 1773 he wrote ably in the Boston Gazette 
against the regulation, making judges dependent 
for their salaries upon the crown. In 1773 and 
1774 he was chosen into the council by the as 
sembly, but negatived by the governor. To the 
struggle, at tin s period, betAvcen the house and 


the governor in respect to the council, his friend 
Sewall, pleasantly alludes thus : " We have some 
times seen half-a-dozen sail of tory navigation 
unable, on an election day, to pass the bar, formed 
by the flux and reflux of the tides at the entrance 
of the harbor, and as many whiggish ones stranded 
the next morning on Governor s Island." June 
17, 1774, he was chosen by the assembly, to 
gether with T. Cashing, *S. Adams, and II. T. 
Paine, to the first Continental Congress. To 
Sewall, who, while they were attending the court 
at Portland, endeavored to dissuade him, in a 
morning walk on " the great hill," from accepting 
this appointment, he said : " The die is now cast ; 
I have passed the Rubicon ; swim or sink, live or 
die, survive or perish with my country is my un 
alterable determination." Thus he parted with 
his tory friend, nor did he converse with him 
again till 1788. 

He took his seat in Congress Sept. 5, 1774, and 
was on the committee, which drew up the state 
ment of the rights of the colonies, and on that, 
which prepared the address to the king. At this 
period the members of Congress generally were 
not determined on independence. It was thought, 
the British would relinquish their claims. He 
returned to Boston in November, and soon wrote 
the papers, with the signature of Novanglus, in 
answer to those of his friend Sewall, with the 
signature of Massachusettensis. The latter are 
dated from Dec. 12, 1774, to April 3, 177o; the 
former from Jan. 23 to April 17, l"o. These 
papers were reprinted in 1819, with a preface by 
Mr. Adams, with the addition of letters to W. 

A short review of them may be interesting, as 
they relate to a period immediately preceding the 
commencement of hostilities. In this controversy 
Mr. Sewall said : " I saw the small seed of sedi 
tion, when it was implanted ; it was as a grain of 
mustard. I have watched the plant, until it has 
become a great tree ; the vilest reptiles, that 
crawl upon the earth, arc concealed at the root ; 
the foulest birds of the air rest on its branches. 
I now would induce you to go to work immedi 
ately with axes and hatchets, and cut it down, for 
a twofold reason because it is a pest to society, 
and lest it be felled suddenly by a stronger arm, 
and crush its thousands in the fall." In the first 
place, he maintained, that resistance to Great 
Britain would be unavailing. The militia he con 
sidered undisciplined and ungovernable, each man 
being a politician, puffed up with his own opinion. 
" An experienced British officer would rather take 
his chance with five thousand British troops, than 
fifty thousand such militia." The sea coast he 
regarded as totally unprotected. Our trade, 
fishery, navigation, and maritime towns were 
liable to be lost in a moment. The back settle- 
j ments would fall a prey to the Canadians and 



Indians. The British army would sweep all be 
fore it like a wliirlwind. Besides, New England 
would probably be alone, unsupported by the 
other. States, llebellion, therefore, would be the 
height of madness. In considering the reasons 
for resistance he maintained, that the parliament 
had a right to pass a stamp act, in order that the 
colonies should bear a part of the national burden. 
Similar acts had been before passed. We had 
paid postage agreeably to act of parliament, du 
ties imposed for regulating trade, and even for 
raising a revenue to the crown, without question 
ing the right. This right, he says, Avas first 
denied by the resolves of the house of burgesses 
in Virginia. " We read them with wonder ; they 
savored of independence." The three-penny duty 
on tea, he thought, should not be regarded as 
burdensome ; for the duty of a shilling, laid upon 
it for regulating trade, and therefore allowed to 
be constitutional, was taken ofl ; so that we were 
gainers ninepence in the pound by the new regu 
lation, which was designed to prevent smuggling, 
and not to raise a revenue. The act declaratory 
of the right to tax was of no consequence, so long 
as there was no grievous exercise of it, especially 
as we had protested against it, and our assemblies 
had ten times resolved, that no such right ex 
isted. But demagogues were interested in in 
flaming the minds of the people. The pulpit 
also was a powerful engine in promoting discon 
tent. Though the small duty of three pence 
was to be paid by the East India company, or 
their factors, on landing the tea, for the purpose 
of selling it at auction, and no one was obliged to 
purchase ; yet the mob of Boston, in disguise, 
forcibly entered the three ships of tea, split open 
the chests, and emptied the whole, 10,000 pounds 
sterling in value, into the dock, " and perfumed 
the town with its fragrance." Yet zealous rebel 
merchants were every day importing teas, subject 
to the same duty. The act interfered with their 
interest, not with the welfare of the people. The 
blockade act against Boston was a just retaliatory 
measure, because the body-meeting, contrived 
merely as a screen to the town, consisting of 
thousands, had resolved, that the tea should not pay 
the duty. Now sprung up from the brain of a 
partizan the " committee of correspondence " 
" the foulest, subtlest, and most venomous ser 
pent, that ever issued from the eggs of sedition." 
A new doctrine had been advanced, that, as the 
Americans are not represented in parliament, they 
are exempt from acts of parh ament. But, if the 
colonies are not subject to the authority of par 
liament, Great Britain and the colonies must be 
distinct States. Two independent authorities can 
not co-exist. The colonies have only power to 
regulate their internal police, but are necessarily 
subject to the control of the supreme power of 
the State. Had any person denied, fifteen years 

ago, that the colonies were subject to the authority 
of parh ament, he would have been deemed a 
fool or a madman. It was curious to trace the 
history of rebellion. When the stamp act was 
passed, the right of parliament to impose internal 
taxes was denied ; but the right to impose ex 
ternal ones, to lay duties on goods and mer 
chandize, was admitted. On the passage of the 
tea act a new distinction was set up ; duties could 
be laid for the regulation of trade, but not for 
raising a revenue ; parliament could lay the for 
mer duty of a shilling a pound, but not the 
present duty of three pence. There was but one 
more step to independence the denial of the 
right in parliament to make any laws whatever, 
which should bind the colonies ; and this step the 
pretended patriots had taken. Mr. Otis, the 
oracle of the whigs, in 1764 never thought of 
this. On the contrary, he maintained in respect 
to the colonies, that " the parliament has an un 
doubted power and lawful authority to make acts 
for the general good." Obedience, in his view, 
was a solemn duty. The original charter of the 
colony exempted it from taxes for a definite pe 
riod, implying the right to tax afterwards. The 
grant of all the liberties of natural subjects within 
the realm of England affords no immunity from 
taxes. If a person, born in England, should 
remove to Ireland, or to Jersey, or Guernsey, 
whence no member is sent to parliament, he 
would be in the same predicament with an emi 
grant to America, all having the rights of natural 
born subjects. In the charter by King William 
the powers of legislation were restricted, so that 
nothing should be done contrary to the laws of 
the realm of England. Even Dr. Eranklin in 
176o admitted, that the British had " a natural 
and equitable right to some toll or duty upon 
merchandizes," carried through the American 
seas. Mr. Otis also, in the same year, admitted 
the same equitable right of parliament " to im 
pose taxes on the colonies, internal and external, 
on lands as well as on trade." Indeed, for more 
than a century parliament had exercised the now 
controverted right of legislation and taxation. 

On the whole, Mr. Sewall was convinced, that 
the avarice and ambition of the leading whigs 
were the causes of the troubles of America : 
" they call themselves the people ; and, when 
their own measures are censured, cry out the 
people, the people are abused and insulted ! " 
He deplored the condition of the dupes of the 
republican party the men who, every morning, 
" swallowed a chimera for breakfast." By the in 
famous methods resorted to, " many of the an 
cient, trusty, and skilful pilots, who had steered 
the community safely in the most perilous times, 
were driven from the helm, and their places occu 
pied by different persons, some of whom, bank 
rupts in fortune, business, and fame, are now 



striving to run the ship on the rocks, that they 
may have an opportunity of plundering the 
Vi reck ! " 

To this Mr. Adams replied, that parliament 
had authority over America by no law : not by 
the law of nature and nations ; nor by common 
law, which never extended beyond the four seas ; 
nor by statute law, for none existed before the 
settlement of the colonies; and that we were 
under no religious, moral, or political obligations 
to submit to parliament as a supreme executive. 
He asked, " Is the three pence upon tea our only 
grievance ? Are we not deprived of the privilege 
of paying our governors, judges, etc. ? Are not 
trials by jury taken from us ? Are we not sent to 
England for trial ? Is not a military government 
put over us ? Is not our constitution demolished 
to the foundation ? " " Xip the shoots of ar 
bitrary power in the bud is the only maxim, 
winch can ever preserve the liberties of any 
people." He maintained, that the pretence to 
tax for revenue, and not merely for the regula 
tion of trade, had never been advanced till re 
cently; that, in 1754, Dr. Franklin denied such a 
right; that, more than a century before, both 
Massachusetts and Virginia had protested against 
the act of navigation, and refused obedience, be 
cause not represented in parliament. He denied, 
that there was a whig in the province, who wished 
to set up an independent republic. But resistance 
to lawless violence, he said, is not rebellion by 
the law of God or of the land. And, as to ina 
bility to cope with Great Britain, he maintained, 
that, " in a land war this continent might defend 
itself against all the world." As to old charters, 
that of Virginia in 1609 exempted the company 
forever from taxes on goods and merchandizes. 
The same exemption was given to Maryland in 
1 633. The Plymouth colony was settled without 
a charter, on the simple principle of nature, and 
thus continued an independent government sixty- 
eight years. The same was the case with the 
colonies in Connecticut. In Massachusetts, the 
general court in 1677 declared, that the laws of 
England were bounded within the four seas, and 
did not reach America. The only power of par 
liament, which he would allow, was that arising 
from our voluntary cession of regulating trade. 
The first charter erected a corporation within the 
realm of England ; there the governor and com 
pany were to reside, and their agents only were 
1 ) come to America. But they came themselves, 
and brought their charter with them, and thus, 
being out of the realm, were not subject to par 
liament. The king of England could by law 
grant nothing out of England, or the realm. 
The great seal had no authority out of the realm, 
except to mandatory or prcccptory writs; and 
such was not the charter. In case of the for 
feiture of a charter, the people born here could 


be under no allegiance to the king. Such 
briefly were the opposite views of these distin 
guished men. These writings of Mr. Adams, 
with those of Otis, Thachcr, and others,, con 
tributed much to the emancipation of America 
from British thraldom. 

Mr. Adams attended the next Congress in 

1775. On hearing of the battle of Lexington, 
war was determined on. At his suggestion, Gov. 
Johnstone nominated Washington as commander- 
in-chief, and he was unanimously chosen. "When 
he returned to Massachusetts, he declined the 
office of chief justice, to which he had been in 
vited. In Congress he was among the foremost, 
who were in favor of independence. He moved, 
May 6, 1776, to recommend to the colonies "to 
adopt such a government, as would, in the opinion 
of the representatives of the people, best con 
duce to the happiness and safety of their con 
stituents and of America." This passed, after 
earnest debate, on the 15th. H. II. Lee moved, 
on the 7th June, and the motion was seconded 
by Mr. Adams, " that these united colonies are, 
and of right ought to be, free and independent 
States." The debate continued to the 10th, and 
was then postponed to the 1st of July. A com 
mittee of five, consisting of Jefferson, Adams, 
Franklin, Sherman, and R. R. Livingston, was 
appointed to draw up a declaration of independ 
ence. The two first were the sub-committee. 
The instrument, at the request of Mr. Adams, 
was written by Jefferson. The resolution of Lee 
was debated again July 1st, and adopted on the 
2d. Then the Declaration was considered and 
passed, with a few omissions and changes, July 
4th ; but not without vigorous opposition, particu 
larly from John Dickinson, one of the ablest men 
and finest writers in Congress. The opposing 
arguments were met by Mr. Adams in a speech 
of unrivalled power. Of him Mr. Jefferson said, 
" the great pillar of support to the declaration of 
independence and its ablest advocate and cham 
pion on the floor of the house was John Ad 
ams." "He was the colossus of that Congress: 
not graceful, not eloquent, not always fluent in 
his public addresses, he yet came out with a 
power both of thought and expression, which 
moved his hearers from their seats." 

On the next day Mr. Adams wrote the follow 
ing letter to his wife, dated Philadelphia, July 5, 

" Yesterday the greatest question was decided, 
which was ever debated in America, and a 
greater, perhaps, never was, or will be, decided 
among men. A resolution has passed without 
one dissenting colony, That these colonies are, 
and of rigid ought to be, Free and Independent 

" The day is passed. The fourth day of July, 

1776, will be a memorable cpocli in the history 


of America. I am apt to believe, it will be cele 
brated by succeeding generations as the great 
anniversary festival. It ought to be commem 
orated, as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts 
of devotion to Almighty God. It ought to be 
solemnized with pomp, shows, games, sports, 
guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations from one 
end of the continent to the other, from this time 
forward, forever. You will think me transported 
with enthusiasm ; but I am not. I am well aware 
of the toil and blood and treasure, that it will 
cost us to maintain this declaration, and support 
and defend these States ; yet through all the 
gloom I can see the rays of light and glory. I 
can see, that the end is more than worth all the 
means, and that posterity will triumph, although 
you and I may rue, which I hope we shall not." 

Mr. Silas Deane, commissioner with Franklin 
and A. Lee at the French court, having been 
recalled, Mr. Adams was appointed in his place 
Nov. 28, 1777. lie was thus released from his 
duties as chairman of the board of war, in which 
he had been engaged since June 13, 1776. It is 
said, that he had been a member of ninety com 
mittees, and chairman of twenty-five. Embark 
ing in about two months in the Boston frigate, he 
arrived safely ; but the treaties of commerce and 
alliance had been signed before his arrival. 
Soon after his return he assisted, in the autumn 
of 1779, as a member of the convention, and as 
one of the sub-committee in preparing a form of 
government for the State of Massachusetts. He 
wrote the clause in regard to the patronage of 
literature. Sept. 29, 1779, he was appointed min 
ister plenipotentiary to negotiate a peace, and 
had authority to form a commercial treaty with 
Great Britain. He sailed in the French frigate 
Sensible, Nov. 17, landed at Ferrol, and after a 
toilsome journey arrived at Paris in Feb., 1780. 
He was accompanied by Francis Dana as secre 
tary of legation, and by John Thaxtcr as private 
secretary. Deeming a residence in Holland more 
favorable to his country than in Paris, he deter 
mined to proceed to Amsterdam as soon as per 
mission could be obtained from the French min 
ister, Count de Vergcnncs, who was displeased 
by the refusal of Mr. Adams to communicate to 
him his instructions in regard to the treaty of 
commerce. In August he repaired to Amster 
dam, having previously been instructed to procure 
loans in Holland, and soon afterwards receiving 
power to negotiate a treaty of amity and com 
merce. Amidst great difficulties, arising from 
the hostility of England and the intrigues of 
France herself, he toiled incessantly for the in 
terest of his country. In a series of twenty-six 
letters to Mr. Kalkoen, he gave an account of 
the controversy with Great Britain, and of the 
resources, determination, and prospects of America. 
These papers were reprinted in the Boston Patriot, 



and in a pamphlet form in 1809. They had 
much effect in enlightening the people of Hol 
land. Yet he could not persuade the States 
General to acknowledge him as ambassador of 
the United States until April, 1782. Associated 
with Franklin, Jay, and Laurens, he formed the 
definitive treaty of peace, which was ratified Jar. 
14, 1784. After assisting in other treaties, Mr. 
Adams was in 1785 appointed the first minister 
to London. In that city he published his " De 
fence of the American constitutions" in 1787. 
At this time the constitution of the United States 
had not been formed. The object of the work 
was to oppose the theories of Turgot, the Abbe 
de Mably, and Dr. Price in favor of a single 
legislative assembly and the consolidation into 
one tribunal of the powers of government. He 
maintained the necessity of keeping distinct the 
legislative, executive, and judicial departments ; 
and, to prevent encroachment by the legislative 
branch, he proposed a division of it into two 
chambers, each as a check upon the other. He 
carried his views into effect in drafting the con 
stitution of Massachusetts, which form has been 
copied in its chief features by most of the other 
States. After an absence of nine years, he re 
turned to America, and landed at Boston June 
17, 1788. Congress had passed a resolution of 
thanks for his able and faithful discharge of vari 
ous important commissions. His " Discourses on 
Davila" were written in 1790. 

After his return he was elected the first vice- 
president of the United States under the new 
constitution, wliich went into operation in March, 
1789. Having been re-elected to that office, he 
held it, and of course presided in the Senate 
during the whole of the administration of Wash 
ington, whose confidence he enjoyed in an emi 
nent degree. The Senate being nearly balanced 
between the two parties of the day, his casting 
vote decided some important questions ; in this 
way Clarke s resolution to prohibit all intercourse 
with Great Britain on account of the capture of 
several American vessels was rejected. On the 
resignation of Washington Mr. Adams became 
president of the United States March 4, 1797. 
He was succeeded by Mr. Jefferson in 1801, who 
was elected by a majority of one vote. 

After March, 1801, Mr. Adams lived in retire 
ment at Quincy, occupied in agricultural pursuits, 
though occasionally addressing various communi 
cations to the public. In a letter to the founder 
of the peace society of Massachusetts in 1816 he 
says : " I have read, almost all the days of my 
life, the solemn reasonings and pathetic declama 
tions of Erasmus, of Fenelon, of St. Pierre, and 
many others, against war and in favor of peace. 
My understanding and my heart accorded witli 
them at first blush. But, alas ! a longer and 
more extensive experience has convinced mo, that 



wars are necessary, and as inevitable in our sys 
tem as hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanoes. 
Universal and perpetual peace appears to me no 
more nor less than everlasting passive obedience 
and non-resistance. The human flock would soon 
be fleeced and butchered by one or a few. I 
cannot therefore, sir, be a subscriber or a member 
of your society. I do, sir, most humbly suppli 
cate the theologians, the philosophers, and the 
politicians to let me die in peace. I seek only 
repose." Mr. Jefferson expressed his opinions 
more calmly on the subject. 

In 1816 he was chosen a member of the elec 
toral college, which voted for Mr. Monroe as 
president. In 1818 he sustained his severest 
affliction in the loss, in October, of his wife, with 
whom he had lived more than half a century. 
His only daughter, Mrs. Smith, died in 1813. In 
1820, at the age of eighty-five, he was a member 
of the convention for revising the constitution of 
Massachusetts. In the last years of his life he 
had a friendly correspondence with Mr. Jefferson. 
He enjoyed the singular happiness in 182<3 of see 
ing his son, John Quincy Adams, elevated to the 
office of president of the United States. In this 
year he was the only survivor of the first Con 
gress, lie died July 4, 1826. 

On the morning of the jubilee he was roused 
by the ringing of bells and the firing of cannon, 
and, when asked by his servant if he knew what 
day it was, he replied, " O yes ! it is the glorious 
4th of July God bless it God bless you all." 
In the forenoon the orator of the day, his parish 
minister, called to see him, and found him seated 
in an arm-chair, and asked him for a sentiment, 
to be given at the public table. He replied, " I 
will give you Independence forever ! " In the 
course of the day he said, " It is a great and glo 
rious day;" and just before he expired, exclaimed, 
" Jefferson survives," shewing that his thoughts 
were dwelling on the scenes of 17~6. But 
Jefferson was then dead, having expired at one 
o clock. He liimself died at twenty minutes be 
fore six P. M. 

That two such men as Jefferson and Adams, 
both of whom had been presidents of the United 
States, the two last survivors of those, who had 
voted for the Declaration of Independence, the 
former having drawn it up, and the latter having 
been its most powerful advocate on the floor of 
Congress, should have died on the 4th of July, 
just fifty years after the "glorious day" of the 
Declaration of American Independence, presented 
such an extraordinary concurrence of events as to 
overwhelm the mind with astonishment. Some 
of the eulogists of these illustrious men seemed 
to regard the circumstances of their removal from 
the earth as a signal proof of the favor of God, 
and spoke of their spirits as beyond doubt thus 
wonderfully, on the day of their glory, translated 


to heaven. But surely these circumstances ought, 
not to be regarded as indications of the eternal 
destiny of these men of political eminence. Like 
others, they must appear at the bar of Jesus 
Christ, to be judged agreeably to the settled prin 
ciples of the Divine government, according to 
their works and characters. If they believed in 
the name of the Son of God and were his follow 
ers, they will doubtless, if the Scriptures are true, 
be saved ; otherwise they will be lost. It is not 
always easy to ascertain the design of Providence. 
If some imagine, that the extraordinary deaths 
of these men indicate the Divine approbation of 
their patriotism ; others may imagine, that their 
deaths on the day, in which a kind of idolatry had 
often been offered them, and in which the Ameri 
can people had been often elated with the emotions 
of vanity and pride, instead of rendering due 
thanksgivings to the Almighty, were designed to 
frown upon the erring people and to teach them, 
that their boasted patriots and statesmen, their 
incensed demi-gods, were but frail worms of the 
dust. A new and similar wonder occurred in 
the decease of another president, Monroe, on the 
4th day of July, 1830. 

Mr. Adams was somewhat irritable in his 
temper, and at times was frank in the utterance 
of his indignant feelings. In reply to a birth-day 
address in 1802, the year after the termination of 
his presidency, he said : " Under the continual 
provocations, breaking and pouring in upon me, 
from unexpected as well as expected quarters, 
during the last two years of my administration, he 
must have been more of a modern epicurian 
philosopher, than ever I was- or ever will be, to 
have borne them all without some incautious ex 
pressions, at times, of an unutterable indignation.. 
I have no other apology to make to individuals or 
the public." This confession may teach the am 
bitious, that the high station of president may be 
a bed of thorns. Mr. Adams added the senti 
ment, which is worthy of perpetual remembrance 
by our statesmen and citizens : "The union is our 
rock of safety, as well as our pledge of grandeur." 
Mr. Adams, it is believed, was a professor of 
religion in the church at Quincy. In his views he 
accorded with Dr. Bancroft, an Unitarian minister 
of Worcester, of whose printed sermons he ex 
pressed his high approbation. 

In his person, Mr. Adams was of middling 
stature. With passions somewhat impetuous, his 
manners were courteous. Industry carried him 
honorably through his immense public labors ; 
temperance procured him the blessing of a 
healthful old age. He lived to see but one name 
before his imstarrcd in the catalogue of Harvard 
College : excepting the venerable Dr. Holyoke, 
all before him were numbered with the dead. He 
was a scholar, versed in the ancient languages. 
In his writings he was perspicuous and energetic. 




To his native town he gave his whole library, and 
made bequests for the endowment of an academy 
and the building of a stone church. 

His chief writings are History of the dispute 
with America, 1774; twenty-six letters on the 
American llcvolution, written in Holland in 1780; 
memorial to the States general, 1782; essay on 
canon and feudal law, 1783; defence of the 
American Constitution, 3 vols., 1788; answers to 
patriotic addresses, 1798; letters on government, 
to Sam. Adams, 1802 ; discourses on Davila, 
1805; correspondence, 1809; Novanglus, re-pub 
lished, 1819; correspondence with W. Cunning 
ham, 1823; letters to Jefferson. Encyclopedia 
Amer. ; Amer. Ann. Reg. I. 225-240; Boston 
Weekly Messenger, vi. 306 ; /. Q. Adams letters 
in Boston Patriot, Sept. 3, 1831; Holmes, II. 

ADAMS, Jonx QONCY, president of the United 
States, died at Washington Feb. 23, 1848, aged 
80 years, being born, the son of John A., July 11, 
1767. At the age of ten he accompanied his 
father to France ; at the age of fifteen he was private 
secretary of Mr. Dana, minister to Russia. At 
Harvard college he was graduated in 1787, and 
then studied law with Mr. Parsons at Ncwbury- 
port. Living in Boston, he published in 1791 
the papers, signed Publicolu, remarking on 
Paine s Rights of Man, distrusting the issue of 
the French Revolution. From 1794 to 1801 he 
was minister in Holland, Fngland, and Prussia. 
From 1803 to 1808 he was a senator of the U. S. ; 
but resigned from disagreement with lu s own 
State Legislature. He was a professor of rhetoric 
at Harvard from 1806 to 1809. He assisted in 
negotiating the treaty of Ghent in Dec., 1814, 
and afterwards assisted in the convention of com 
merce with Great Britain. In 1817 he was sec 
retary of state in the cabinet of Monroe. In 1825 
he was chosen president of the U. S. The elec 
toral votes were 99 for Jackson, 84 for Adams, 
41 for Crawford, 37 for Clay. The votes of thir 
teen States, represented in the house, elected him 
president. He served for four years. In Decem 
ber, 1831, he became a member of Congress, 
and was continued in that post till his death. 
While in his seat in the House of Rep 
resentatives, Feb. 21st, he fell over on one side, 
and was removed to Mr. Speaker Winthrop s 
apartment, in which he died. He was only able 
to say: "This is the last of earth; I am con 
tent." His wife, Louisa, daughter of Joshua 
Johnson of Maryland, whom he married in 1797, 
survived him ; but died at Washington May 
15, 1852, aged 76. 

As a member of Congress he in his old age 
gained imperishable honor by watching the move 
ments and withstanding the progress of the slave- 
holding power, which threatened to gain the as 
cendency in our general government, over all the 

interests of justice and human freedom, and to 
render this land of liberty the scorn of the des 
potisms of Europe. At the present day the battle 
between slavery and freedom rages with increased 
vehemence; and, had "the old man eloquent" 
lived to see the border-ruffianism of Missouri 
tolerated by our rulers, and allowed to create a 
government and bear sway in the Territory of 
Kansas, and also to see a Southern ruffian striking 
down a Massachusetts senator in his seat, and 
supported in the act by the whole South, his voice 
would have rung like a clarion through the hall 
of Congress and through our land. 

He published letters on Silesia, 1804; lectures 
on rhetoric and oratory, 2 vols., 1810; Dermot 
MacMorrogh, a poetic historical tale, 1832 ; poems 
of religion and society, and various occasional 

ADAMS, HANNAH, died Dec. 15, 1831, aged 
74, and was the first tenant of the burying-ground 
at Mount Auburn. She was born in Medfield, 
Mass. ; her father kept a store ; her mother died 
when she was ten years old. She was perhaps 
the first American lady who devoted her life to 
literature ; but the profits of her labors were in 
considerable. She was under the middle stature, 
very deaf, a great rappee snuff-taker, and very 
fond of strong tea. A few noble-minded friends 
bestowed upon her the comforts of life. A jour 
ney to Chelmsford was the farthest she had been 
by land, and a trip from Boston to Nahant, only 
ten miles, her only voyage by water. She pub 
lished a history of New England, 1799; a view 
of religions, 1801; history of the Jews, 1812; 
controversy with Dr. Morse, 1814; letters on 
the Gospels, 2d ed., 1826. A memoir, written by 
herself, with additions by a friend, 1832. 

ADAMS, EBENEZER, professor of languages 
and of mathematics at Dartmouth college, died 
Aug. 15, 1841, aged 77. He was born at Xew 
Ipswich, and graduated in 1791 at Dartmouth. 
His daughter married Professor Young of the 
same college. 

ADAMS, BENJAMIN, died at Uxbridge March 
28, 1837, aged 72. A graduate of Brown univer 
sity in 1788, he was a lawyer, and a member of 
Congress from 1816 to 1821; a man of integrity 
and worth, and much respected. 

ADAMS, JOHN W., presbyterian minister, died 
at Syracuse March 4, 1850, aged 54. He was 
the son of Rev. Roger A., of Conn., and Avas 
settled over the first church Dec. 14, 1824. The 
church members were three hundred and sixty- 
five in number. 

ADAMS, NEWTON, M. D., missionary among 
the Zulus in S. Africa, died Sept. 16, 1851, aged 
47. Born in East Bloomfield, X. Y., he decided 
to become a missionary in 1834, and went out as 
a physician ; but was ordained in 1844. He was 
one of the six men, who with their wives sailed 



from Boston in Dec., 1834, to lay the foundation 
of the Zulu mission. 

ADAMS, CHARLES BAKER, died at St. Thomas 
of the fever Jan. 19, 1853, aged 38. He was 
professor at Amhcrst college of zoology and as 
tronomy from 1847, and had been professor of 
chemistry and natural history at Middlcbury. 
He published Ileports as State geologist of Ver 
mont, and a work with Prof. Gray on geology. 
Some of his writings on zoology are in the annals 
of the Lyceum of Natural History of Xew York. 

Boston Jan. 25, 185-5, aged 62. Born in Rox- 
bury, he graduated in 1813, and was a skilful and 
beloved physician. 

ADDLXGTOX, ISAAC, secretary of the proA-- 
incc of Massachusetts, died at Boston March 19, 
1715, aged 70 years. His father was Isaac ; his 
mother was Anne, daughter of elder Thomas 
Leverett, sister of Gov. L. ; his sister Rebecca 
married Capt. E. Davenport; his sister Sarah 
married Col. Penn Townscnd. He sustained a 
high character for talents and learning, and for 
integrity and diligence in his public services. He 
was secretary more than twenty years, and for 
many years a magistrate and member of the 
council, elected by the people ; and was also some 
times "useful in practicing physic and chirurgery." 
lie was singularly meek and humble and disinter 
ested. In his family he was a daily worshipper 
of God. The religion, which he professed, gave 
him peace, as he went down to the dead. 
Wadswortlis Funeral Serm. ; Hutchinson,!. 414; 
II. 212. 

ADDIS, ASA, chief justice of Vt., died at St. 
Albans Oct. 15, 1847, aged 77. He was a grad 
uate of Brown university. 

ADDISOX, ALEXANDER, a distinguished lawyer, 
died at Pittsburg, Pcnn., Nov. 24, 1807, aged 48. \ 
In the office of a judge for twelve years he was a 
luminous expounder of the law, prompt and im 
partial, and never was there an appeal from his j 
judgment. His various powerful talents and ex 
tensive learning were displayed in numerous writ 
ings, which evinced not only a cogency in reason 
ing, but a classic purity of style, and a uniform 
regard to the interests of virtue. He was dis 
interested, generous, beneficent. He published 
observations on Gallatin s speech, 1798; analysis 
of report of committee of Virginia Assembly, 
1800; reports in Pcnns. 1800. 

ADRAIX, ROBERT, LL. I)., died at Xew | 
Brunswick, X. J., Aug. 10, 1843, aged 68. A ! 
native of Ireland, he came to this country with j 
Emmet. He was professor of mathematics at j 
Rutgers college, also at Columbia college. 

AGATE, FREDERICK S., died at Xew York in 
May, 1844, aged 37; an historical painter of con 
siderable reputation among American artists. 

AHvEX, DANIEL, died at Wcxford, Canada 


West, in Jan., 1847, aged 120. He was seven 
times married : his grandchildren Avere 370 boys 
and 200 girls. 

AITKEX, ROBERT, a printer in Philadelphia, 
came to this country in 1769, and died July, 1802, 
aged 68. For his attachment to American liberty, 
he was thrown into prison by the British. Among 
his publications were a magazine, an edition of the 
Bible, and the transactions of the Amer. Phil. 
Soc. He was the author, it is believed, of an 
inquiry concerning the principles of a commercial 
system for the United States, 1787. Jane Aitken, 
his daughter, continued the business ; she printed 
Thompson s Septuagint. Thomas, II. 77. 

AKERLY, SAMUEL, M. D., died at Staten 
Island July 6, 1845, aged 60. He studied with his 
brother-in-law, Mitchell, and contributed largely 
to medical and scientific journals. He was one 
of the founders of the institutions for the deaf 
and dumb, and the blind. 

ALBERT, PIERRE ANTONIE, rector of the 
French Protestant Episcopal Church in Xew 
York, was the descendant of a highly respectable 
family in Lausanne, Switzerland. Being invited 
to take the charge of the church in the city 
of Xew York, which was founded by the perse 
cuted Huguenots after the revocation of the edict 
of Xantes, he commenced his labors July 26, 
1797, and died July 12, 1806, aged 40. He was 
an accomplished gentleman, an erudite scholar, a 
profound theologian, and a most eloquent preacher. 
A stranger, of unobtrusive manners and invincible 
modesty, he led a very retired life. His worth, 
however, could not be concealed. He was es 
teemed and beloved by all his acquaintance. 
Massachusetts Missionary Magazine, iv. 78. 

ALDEX, JOHN, a magistrate of Plymouth 
colony, was one of the first company which settled 
Xew England. He arrived in 16CO, and his life 
was prolonged till Sept. 12, 1687, when he died, 
aged about 89 years. When sent by his friend, 
Capt. Standish, to make for him proposals of 
marriage to Priscilla Mullins, the lady said to 
him, "Prithee, John, why do you not speak for 
yourself ? " This intimation of preference from 
the lips of one of the Pilgrim beauties was not 
to be overlooked. Priscilla became his wife. He 
was a very worthy and useful man, of great hu 
mility and eminent piety. He was an assistant 
in the administration of every governor for many 
years. A professed disciple of Jesus Christ, he 
lived in accordance with his profession. In his 
last illness he was patient and resigned, fully be 
lieving that God, who had imparted to him the 
love of excellence, would perfect the work, which 
he had begun, and would render him completely 
holy in heaven. 

ALDEX, JOHN, died at Middlcborough, in 
1821, aged 102; the great grandson of J. A., of 
the Mavflower. 




ALDEX, JUDAII, died at Duxbury March 2, 
1845, aged 94. He was a patriot and officer of 
the Revolution, and president of the Cincinnati. 

ALDEX, SETH, died at Titicut Feb. 22, 1855, 
aged 83 ; a descendant of John Alden, the young 
est of nineteen children. 

ALDEX, TIMOTHY, a descendant of John Al 
den, was graduated at Harvard college in 1762, 
and settled Dec. 13, 17G9, at Yarmouth, Mass., 
where he died Nov. 13, 1828, aged 91 years. 
For more than half a century he was a faithful 
laborer in the cause of religion. His people, in 
their affection to him, gave him a comfortable 
support for years after he had ceased to teach 
them. He published a dedication sermon, 1795. 

ALDEX, TIMOTHY, I). D., son of the pre 
ceding, died at Pittsburg July 5, 1839, aged G8. 
He was a graduate of Harvard in 1794, a minis 
ter in Portsmouth, and president of Allcghany 
college at Meadville. lie published a sermon on 
the death of Washington, 1800; account of socie 
ties in Portsmouth, 1808 ; a century sermon, 1811 ; 
Xcw Jersey Register, 1811 ; collection of epitaphs, 
5 vols., 1814; Alleghany Magazine, 1816. 

ALDEX, ICHABOD, colonel, was killed by the 
Indians at Cherry Valley in Xov., 1778. He 
commanded a Massachusetts regiment in the war. 
He was the descendant of John Alden ; and a son 
of Samuel, of Duxbury, who died in 1780, aged 93. 

ALDEX, ROGER, major, an officer of the Revo 
lution, died at West Point Xov. 5, 1836, aged 88. 

ALEXAXDER, an Indian, was the son and 
successor of Massassoit, and brother of King 
Philip. His Indian name was Wamsutta. He 
received his English name in 1656. Being sus 
pected of conspiring with the Xarragansetts 
against the English, he was captured by surprise, 
by Major Winslowin 1662, and carried to Marsh- 
field. The indignant sachem fell sick of a fever ,- 
and was allowed to return, under a pledge of ap 
pearing at the next court ; but he died on his 
way. Judge Davis gives a minute account of 
this affair. Dr. Holmes places the occurrence in 
1657. Davis Morton, 287; Holmes, I. 308. 

ALEXAXDER, JAMES, secretary of the prov 
ince of Xew York, and many years one of the 
council, arrived in the colony in 1715. He was a 
Scotch gentleman, who was bred to the law. 
Gov. Burnett was particularly attached to him. 
Though not distinguished for his talents as a 
public speaker, he was at the head of his pro 
fession for sagacity and penetration. Eminent 
for Iris knowledge, he was also communicative 
and easy of access. By honest practice and un 
wearied application to business, he acquired a 
great estate. He died in the beginning of 
1756. Smith s New York, 152. 

ALEXAXDER, WILLIAM, commonly called 
Lord Stirling, a major-general in the American 
army, was a native of the city of New York, the 

son of the secretary, James Alexander, but spent 
a considerable part of his life in Xew Jersey. 
He was considered by many as the rightful heir 
to the title and estate of an earldom in Scotland, 
of which country his father was a native ; and 
although, when he went to Xorth Britain in pur 
suit of this inheritance, he failed of obtaining an 
acknowledgment of his claim by government, yet 
among his friends and acquaintances he received 
by courtesy the title of Lord Stirling. He dis 
covered an early fondness for the study of mathe 
matics and astronomy, and attained great emi 
nence in these sciences. 

In the battle on Long Island Aug. 27, 1776, 
he was taken prisoner, after having secured to a 
large part of the detachment an opportunity to 
escape by a bold attack with four hundred men 
upon a corps under Lord Cornwallis. His at 
tachment to Washington was proved in the latter 
part of 1777, by transmitting to him an account 
of the disaffection of Gen. Conway to the com- 
mander-in-chief. In the letter he said : " Such 
wicked duplicity of conduct I shall always think 
it my duty to detect." He died at Albany Jan. 
15, 1783, aged 57 years. He was a brave, dis 
cerning, and intrepid officer. He married Sarah, 
daughter of Philip Livingston. His eldest daugh 
ter, Mary, married John Watts, of a wealthy 
family in Xew York. He published a pamphlet, 
"The conduct of Maj.-Gen. Shirley briefly stated." 
Miller, II. 390; Holmes, II. 247; Marshall, 
in. Note No v. 

Xorth Carolina, was graduated at Princeton in 

1776, and after studying medicine entered the 
army. At the close of the war he resided at the 
High Hills of Santee, pursuing his profession, 
and afterwards at Mecklenburg. While he held 
a seat in Congress, the Legislature elected him 
governor in 1806. He died at Salisbury March 
8, 1808, aged 52. In all his public stations he 
discharged his duty with ability and firmness. 
Charleston Courier, March 23. 

ALEXAXDER, CALEB, I). D., a native of 
Xorthfield, Mass., and a graduate of Yale in 

1777, was ordained at Xew Marlborough, Mass., 
in 1781, and dismissed in 1782. He was again 
settled at Mendon,and dismissed in 1803. After 
an ineffectual attempt to establish a college at 
Fairfield, State of Xew York, he took the charge 
of the academy at Onondaga Hollow, where he 
died in April, 1828. He published an essay on 
the deity of Jesus Christ, with strictures on Em- 
lyn, 1791; a Latin grammar, 1794; an English 
grammar, and grammar elements. History of 
Berkshire, 293. 

of theology at Princeton, was the descendant of a 
Scotch-Irish family, which came over about 1736 
and settled in the great valley of Virginia; and 



was the son of William A. lie died Oct. 22, 
1851, aged 79. About 1801 lie was president of 
Hampdcn Sidney college, and married Janetta, 
daughter of Rev." Dr. Waddel, of LotuVa county, 
Va. In 1806 he succeeded Dr. Milledoler in Tine 
street church in Phila. In 1812 he became the 
professor of theology in the new seminary at 
Princeton. Dr. Miller came in Dec., 1813. He 
remained with honor in this important station 
until his death. He left six sons and a daughter; 
three were ministers, two lawyers, one a physician. 
His brother, Maj. John A., who served in the war 
of 1812, died at Lexington in 1853. 

He published a sermon at Philadelphia, 1808; 
on the burning of the theatre, 1811; missionary, 
1813; inaugural; Christian evidences, 1825; canon 
of Bible; to young men, 1826; on Sunday schools, 
1829; growth in grace; before Amer. Board, 
1829; hymns, selected, 1831; on pastoral office; 
lives of patriarchs; history of Israel; house of 
God; the people of God led, 1842; at Washing 
ton college, 1843; sketches in regard to the log 
college, 1845; history of colonization ; outlines of 
moral science ; introd. to Henry, Bates, Jay, and 
Watcrbury; practical sermons; letters to the 
aged ; counsels to the young ; against Universal- 
ism; compend of Bible truth; on experience; 
life of Baxter ; of Melville ; of Knox ; way of 
salvation, with various other tracts, as on justifica 
tion by faith; the day of judgment; and the 
misery of the lost. His life by his son, Dr. J. 
W. A., was published in 1854 by C. Scribner, N. 

ALFORD, ABIGAIL, died at Northampton Aug. 
26, 1756, aged 102. 

ALICE, a slave, died in Bristol, Penn., in 1802, 
aged 116. She was born in Philadelphia, which 
place she remembered as chiefly a wilderness 
inhabited by Indians. For forty years she was 
employed in ferrying. She retained her hearing, 
but was blind at the age of one hundred ; though 
her sight was gradually restored. Her hair be 
came white. Unable to read, she loved to have 
the Bible read to her. A worthy member of the 
Episcopal church, she anticipated the happiness of 
dwelling in the presence of her Saviour. 

ALFORD, JOHN, founder of the professorship 
of natural religion, moral philosophy, and civil 
polity in Harvard college, died at Charlestown 
Sept. 29, 1761, aged 75. He had been a member 
of the council. His executors determined the 
particular objects, to which his bequest for charit 
able uses should be applied, and divided it 
equally between Harvard college, Princeton col 
lege, and the society for the propagation of the 
Gospel among the Indians. To the latter 10,6 
dollars were paid in 1787. Levi Frisbie was the 
first Alford professor. 

ALLEN, Jonx, first minister of Dcdham, 
Mass., was born in England in 1596, and was 


driven from his native land during the persecution 
of the Puritans. He had been for a number of 
years a faithful preacher of the Gospel. Soon 
after he arrived in New England, he was settled 
pastor of the church in Dedham April 24, 1639. 
Here he continued till his death Aug. 26, 1671, 
aged 74. He was a man of great meekness and 
humility, and of considerable distinction in his 
day. Mr. Cotton speaks of him with respect in 
his preface to Norton s answer to Apollonius. 
He published a defence of the nine positions, in 
which, with Mr. Shepard of Cambridge, he dis 
cusses the .points of church discipline ; and a 
defence of the Synod of 1662, against Mr. 
Chauncy, under the title of Animadversions upon 
the Antisynodalia, 4to, 1664. This work is pre 
served in the New England library. The last 
two sermons, which he preached, were printed 
after his death. Magnolia, in. 132; Prenliss 
Funeral Sermon on Haven. 

ALLEN, THOMAS, minister of Charlestown, was 
born at Norwich in England, in 1608, and was 
educated at Cambridge. He was afterwards min 
ister of St. Edmond s in Norwich, but was 
silenced by bishop Wren, about the year 1636, for 
refusing to read the book of sports and conform 
to other impositions. In 1638 he fled to New 
England, and was the same year installed in 
Charlestown, where he was a faithful preacher of 
the Gospel till about 1651, when he returned to 
Norwich, and continued the exercise of his minis 
try till 1662. He afterwards preached to his 
church on all occasions, that offered, till his death, 
Sept. 21, 1673, aged 65. He was a very pious 
man, greatly beloved, and an able, practical 

He published an imitation to thirsty sinners to 
come to their Saviour ; the way of the Spirit in 
bringing souls to Christ ; the glory of Christ set 
forth, with the necessity of faith, in several ser 
mons ; a chain of Scripture chronology from the 
creation to the death of Christ, in seven periods. 
This was printed in 1658, and was regarded as a 
very learned and useful work. It is preserved in 
the New England library, established by Mr. 
Prince, by whom the authors quoted in the book 
arc written in the beginning of it in his own 
hand. Mr. Allen wrote also, with Mr. Shepard, in 
1645, a preface to a treatise on liturgies, &c. com 
posed by the latter. He contends, that only 
visible saints and believers should be received to 
communion. Magnal. III. 215 ; Nonconformists 
Memorial,!. 254; in. 11, 12. 

ALLEN, MATTHEW, one of the first settlers of 
Connecticut, came to this country with Mr. Hooker 
in 1632, and become a landholder in Cambridge, 
in the records of which town his lands and houses 
are described. He accompanied Mr. Hooker to 
Hartford in 1636, and was a magistrate. In the 
charter of 1662 he is named as one of the com- 




pany. His public services were various. In 1664 
he is called Mr. Allen, senior. He might have 
been the father of John. There was, however, a 
Mr. Matthew Allen, a magistrate, in 1710 ; another 
of the same name in Windsor, in 1732. Trum- 
bell gives the name Allen; but Mather wrote 

ALLEN, JOIEV, secretary of the colony of 
Connecticut, was chosen a magistrate under the 
charter in 1662 and treasurer in 1663. He was 
on the committee, with Matthew Allen and John 
Talcott, respecting the union with New Haven in 
1663. He appears to have been secretary as 
early as Dec., 1664 ; Joseph Allen had been sec 
retary before him. He was also secretary in 1683 
and on the committee respecting the boundary of 
New York. The time of his death is not known. 
One of his name was magistrate as late as 1709. 
The history of the Pequot war, given by Increase 
Mather in his Relation in 1677, w 7 as not written 
by Mr. Allen, as Judge Davis erroneously sup 
poses, but merely communicated by him to Mr. 
Mather. Davis Morton, 196; Prince s Introd. 
to Mason s Hist. 

ALLEN, JAMES, minister in Boston, came to 
this country in 1662, recommended by Mr. Good 
win. He had been a fellow of New college, 
Oxford. He was at this time a young man, and 
possessed considerable talents. He was very 
pleasing to many of the church in Boston, and an 
attempt was made to settle him as assistant to 
Mr. Wilson and Mr. Norton. He was ordained 
teacher of the first church Dec. 9, 1668, as 
colleague with Mr. Davenport, who was at the 
same time ordained pastor. After the death of 
Mr. Davenport, he had for his colleague Mr. 
Oxcnbridge, and after his decease Mr. Wadsworth. 

In 1669 seventeen ministers published their 
testimony against the conduct of Mr. Allen and 
Mr. Davenport in relation to the settlement of 
the latter. They were charged with communica 
ting parts only of letters from the church of New 
Haven to the church of Boston, by which means, 
it was said, the church was deceived ; but they in 
defence asserted, that the letters retained did not 
represent things differently from what had been 
stated. The whole colony was interested in the 
controversy between the first and the new, or third 
church. At length the General Court, in 1670, 
declared the conduct of those churches and elders, 
who assisted in establishing the third church, to 
be illegal and disorderly. At the next session, 
however, as there was a change of the members 
of the General Court, the censure was taken off. 
It seems, the act of censure was expressed in lan 
guage very intemperate, and invasion of the rights 
of churches and assumption of prelatical power 
were declared in it to be among the prevailing 
evils of the day. The charge was so general, and 
it threatened to operate so unfavorably on religion, 

that a number of the very ministers, who had 
published their testimony against the elders of 
the first church, wrote an address to the court, 
representing the intemperate nature of the vote ; 
and it was in consequence revoked, and the new 
church was exculpated. Mr. Allen died Sept. 
22, 1710, aged 78 years. His sons were James, 
John, and Jeremiah, born in 1670, 1672, and 
1673. The last was chosen treasurer of the prov 
ince in 1715. 

He published healthful diet, a sermon ; New 
England s choicest blessings, an election sermon, 
1679 ; serious advice to delivered ones ; man s 
self-reflection a means to further his recovery 
from his apostasy from God ; and two practical 
discourses. Hutchinson s Hist, of Mass. I. 173, 
222, 225, 270 ; Collections of the Hist. Society, 
IX. 173 ; Calami/. 

ALLEN, SAMUEL, a merchant of London, pro 
prietor of a part of New Hampshire, made the 
purchase of the heirs of Mason in 1691. The 
territory included Portsmouth and Dover, and 
extended sixty miles from the sea. The settlers 
resisting his claims, a perplexing litigation fol 
lowed. In the midst of it Mr. Allen died at 
Newcastle May 5, 1705, aged 69. He sustained 
an excellent character. Though attached to the 
church of England, he attended the Congregational 
meeting. His son, Thomas Allen of London, 
continued the suit. The final verdict was against 
him, in 1707, in the case, Allen vs. Waldron; 
he appealed, yet his death in 1715, before the 
appeal was heard, put an end to the suit. The 
principal reliance of the defendant w as on the 
Indian deed to Wheelright of 1629. This Mr. 
Savage has satisfactorily show r n to be a forgery of 
a later date. If so, it would seem, that the 
Aliens were wrongfully dispossessed of a valuable 
province. Belknap s N. II. I. ; Savage s Win- 
tlirop, I. 405 ; N. H. Coll. II. 137. 

ALLEN, JAMES, first minister of Brookline, 
Mass., was a native of Roxbury, and was gradua 
ted at Harvard college in 1710. He was ordained 
Nov. 5, 1718, and after a ministry of twenty-eight 
years died of a lingering consumption Feb. 18, 
1747, aged 55 years, with the reputation of a 
pious and judicious divine. His successors were 
Cotton Brown from 1748 to 1751; Nathaniel 
Potter from 1755 to 1759; Joseph Jackson from 
1760 to 1796 ; and John Pierce from 1797 to 1849. 
In July, 1743, he gave his attestation to the revival 
of religion, which took place throughout the 
country, and made known the success, which had 
attended his own exertions in Brookline. Almost 
every person in his congregation was impressed 
in some degree with the important concerns of 
another world, and he could no more doubt, he 
said, that there was a remarkable work of God, 
than he could, that there was a sun in the 
heavens. Afterwards, from peculiar circumstances, 




perhaps from the apostasy of some, who had ap 
peared strong in the faith, he was led to speak 
of this revival " unadvisedly with his lips." This 
produced an alienation among some of his former 
friends. In his last hours he had a hope, which 
he would not part with, as he said, for a thousand 

He published a thanksgiving sermon, 1722 ; a 
discourse on Providence, 1727 ; the doctrine of 
merit exploded, and humility recommended, 1727 ; 
a fast sermon, on the earthquake, 1727 ; a sermon 
to young men, 1731 ; a sermon on the death of 
S. Aspinwall, 1733; an election sermon, 1744. 
Pierce s Cent. Discourse; Christian Hist. I. 

ALLEN, JAMES, member of the House of 
Representatives of Massachusetts a number of 
years, and a councillor, was graduated at Harvard 
college in 1717, and died Jan. 8, 1755, aged 57. 

In the beginning of 1749 he made a speech in 
the House, censuring the conduct of the governor, 
for which he was required to make an acknowl 
edgment. As he declined doing this, the House 
issued a precept for the choice of a new repre 
sentative. When re-elected, he was not permitted 
to take his seat ; but next year he took it, and 
retained it till his death. Minofs Hist. Mass. 
I. 104-107. 

ALL EX, WILLIAM, the first minister of Green 
land, N. II., died in 1760, aged 84. A graduate 
of Harvard in 1703, and settled in 1707, he had 
been a minister fifty-three years. Mr.JNIacClin- 
tock became his colleague in 17,36. Before his 
settlement the people of G., then a part of 
Portsmouth, were accustomed to walk six or 
eight miles to P. to meeting. 

ALLEN, "WILLIAM, chief justice of Pennsyl 
vania, was the son of William Allen, an eminent 
merchant of Philadelphia, who died in 1725. 
On the approach of the Revolution he retired to 
England, where he died Sept., 1780. His wife 
was a daughter of Andrew Hamilton, whom he 
succeeded as recorder of Philadelphia in 1741. 
He was much distinguished as a friend to litera 
ture. He patronized Sir Benjamin West, the 
painter. By his counsels and exertions Dr. 
Franklin was much assisted in establishing the 
college in Philadelphia. He published the 
American crisis, London, 1774, in which he sug 
gests a plan "for restoring the dependence of 
America to a state of perfection." His principles 
seem to have been not a little arbitrary. On his 
resignation of the office of chief justice, to which 
he had been appointed in 1750, he was succeeded, 
till the Revolution, by Mr. Chew, attorney-general, 
and Mr. Chew by his son, Andrew Allen. This 
son died in London March 7, 1825, aged 85. At 
the close of 177G he put himself under the 
protection of Gen. Howe at Trenton, with his 
brothers John and William. He had been a 

member of Congress and of the Committee of 
Safety; and William a lieutenant-colonel in the 
continental service, but in 1778 he attempted to 
raise a regiment of tories. Miller s Retrospect, 
n. 352; Proud s Hist. of-Pcnnsylvania,ll. 188; 
Amer. Remembrancer, 1777, p. 56. 

ALLEN, HEXRY, a preacher in Nova Scotia, 
was born at Newport, R. I., June 14, 1748, and 
began to propagate some very singular sentiments, 
about the year 1778. He was a man of good 
capacity, though his mind had not been much 
cultivated, and though he possessed a warm 
imagination. He believed, that the souls of all 
men arc emanations or parts of the one great 
Spirit, and that they were present Avith our first 
parents in Eden and participated in the first 
transgression ; that our first parents in innocency 
were pure spirits without material bodies ; that 
the body will not be raised from the grave ; and 
that the ordinances of the Gospel are matters of 
indifference. The Scriptures, he contended, have 
a spiritual meaning, and are not to be understood 
in a literal sense. He died at the house of Rev. 
I). M Clurc, Northampton, N. II., Eel). 2, 1784, 
aud since his death his party has much declined. 
He published a volume of hymns; and several 
treatises and sermons. Adams View of Re 
ligions , Benedict,!.. 282. 

ALLEN, ETHAN, brigadier-general, was born 
in 173.8, in Woodbury, Conn. His ancestor, 
Nehcmiah, was a brother of Samuel, of North 
ampton. His parents removed to Salisbury ; at 
an early age he himself emigrated to Vermont. 
At the commencement of the disturbances in this 
territory about the year 1770 he took a most 
active part in favor of the " Green Mountain Boys," 
as the settlers were then called, in opposition to 
the government of New York. An act of out 
lawry against him was passed by this State, and 
50 pounds were offered for his apprehension ; but 
his party was too numerous and faithful to permit 
him to be disturbed by any apprehensions for his 
safety ; in all the struggles of the day he was 
successful; and he not only proved a valuable 
friend to thore, whose cause he had espoused, but 
he was humane and generous towards those, with 
whom he had to contend. When called to take 
the field, he showed himself an able leader and 
an intrepid soldier. 

The news of the battle of Lexington deter 
mined Col. Allen to engage on the side of his 
country, and inspired him with the desire of 
demonstrating his attachment to liberty by some 
bold exploit. While his mind was in this state, a 
plan for taking Ticonderoga and Crown Point by 
surprise was formed by Capts. Edward Mott and 
Noah Phelps, of Hartford, Conn. They marched 
privately April 29th, with sixteen unarmed men. 
Arriving at Pittsfield, the residence of Col. James 
Easton and John Brown, Esq., they communicated 




the project to them and to Col. Ethan Allen, then 
at Pittsfield. These gentlemen immediately en 
gaged to co-operate and to raise men for the pur 
pose. Of the Berkshire men and the " Green Moun 
tain Boys " two hundred and thirty were collected, 
under the command of Allen, and proceeded to 
Castleton. Here he was unexpectedly joined 
by Col. Arnold, who had been commissioned by 
the Massachusetts committee to raise four hundred 
men and effect the same object, which was now 
about to be accomplished. As he had not raised 
the men, he was admitted to act as an assistant to 
Col. Allen. They reached the lake opposite 
Ticonderoga Tuesday evening, May 9, 1775. 
With the utmost difficulty boats were procured, 
and eighty-three men were landed near the gar 
rison. The approach of day rendering it danger 
ous to wait for the rear, it was determined imme 
diately to proceed. The commander-in-chief now 
addressed his men, representing, that they had 
been for a number of years a scourge to arbitrary 
power, and famed for their valor, and concluded 
with saying, " I now propose to advance before 
you, and in person conduct you through the 
wicket gate, and you, that will go with me volun 
tarily in this desperate attempt, poise your fire 
locks." At the head of the centre file he marched 
instantly to the gate, where a sentry snapped his 
gun at him and retreated through the covered 
way ; he pressed forward into the fort, and formed 
his men on the parade in such a manner as to 
face two opposite barracks. Three huzzas awoke 
the garrison. A sentry, who asked quarter, 
pointed oat the apartments of the commanding 
officer ; and Allen, with a drawn sword over the 
head of Capt. De la Place, who was undressed, 
demanded the surrender of the fort. " By what 
authority do you demand it?" inquired the 
astonished commander. " I demand it," said 
Allen, " in the name of the great Jehovah and of 
the Continental Congress." The summons could 
not be disobeyed, and the fort, with its very 
valuable stores and forty-nine prisoners, was im 
mediately surrendered on May 10th. There 
were from 112 to 120 iron cannon from 6 to 24 
pounders, 2 brass cannon, 50 swivels, 2 mortars, 
10 tons of musket balls, 3 cartloads of flints, 10 
casks of powder, 30 new carriages, 100 stand of 
small arms, 30 barrels of flour, and 18 barrels of 
pork. Crown Point was taken the same day, and 
the capture of a sloop of war soon afterwards 
made Allen and his brave party complete masters 
of Lake Champlain. May 18th, Arnold with 
thirty-five men surprised the fort of St. John s in 
Canada, taking fourteen prisoners, a sloop, and 
two brass cannon. Allen, arriving the same day 
with ninety men, resolved, against the advice of 
Arnold, to attempt to hold the place. But he was 
attacked the next day by a larger force from 
Montreal, and compelled to retreat. In the fall 

of 1775 lie was sent twice into Canada, to observe 
the dispositions of the people, and attach them, 
if possible, to the American cause. During tin s 
last tour Col. Brown met him, and proposed an 
attack on Montreal in concert. The proposal was 
eagerly embraced, and Col. Allen, with one hun 
dred and ten men, nearly eighty of whom were 
Canadians, crossed the river in the night of Sept. 
24. In the morning he waited with impatience 
for the signal from Col. Brown, who agreed to co 
operate with him ; but he waited in vain. He 
made a resolute defence against an attack of five- 
hundred men, and it was not till his own party 
was reduced by desertions to the number of 
thirty-one, and he had retreated near a mile, that 
he surrendered. A moment afterwards a furious 
savage rushed towards him, and presented his 
firelock with the intent of killing him. It was 
only by making use of the body of the officer, to 
whom he had given his sword, as a shield, that he 
escaped destruction. This rash attempt was made 
without authority from Gen. Schuyler. He was 
kept for some time in irons, and then sent to 
England as a prisoner, being assured that the 
halter would be the reward of his rebellion, when 
he arrived there. On his passage, handcuffed 
and fettered, he was shut up with his fellow 
prisoners in the cable tier, a space twelve feet by 
ten. After his arrival, about the middle of Decem 
ber, he was lodged for a short time in Pcndennis 
castle, near Falmouth. On the 8th of Jan., 1776, 
he was put on board a frigate and by a circuitous 
route carried to Halifax. Here he remained 
confined in the gaol from June to October, when 
he was removed to New York. During the pas 
sage to tin s place, Capt. Burke, a daring prisoner, 
proposed to kill the British captain and seize the 
frigate ; but Col. Allen refused to engage in the 
plot, and was probably the means of preserving 
the life of Capt. Smith, who had treated him 
very politely. He was kept at New York about a 
year and a half, sometimes imprisoned, and some 
times permitted to be on parole. While here, he 
had an opportunity to observe the inhuman man 
ner, in which the American prisoners were treated. 
In one of the churches, in which they were 
crowded, he saw seven lying dead at one time, and 
others biting pieces of chips from hunger. He 
calculated, that of the prisoners, taken at Long 
Island and Fort Washington, near two thousand 
perished by hunger and cold, or in consequence 
of diseases occasioned by the impurity of their 

Col. Allen was exchanged for Col. Campbell 
May 6, 1778, and after having repaired to head 
quarters and offered his services to Gen. Wash 
ington in case his health should be restored, he 
returned to Vermont. His arrival, on the evening 
of the last of May, gave his friends great joy, and 
it was announced by the discharge of cannon. 



As an expression of confidence in his patriotism 
and military talents, he was very soon appointed 
to the command of the State militia. It does not 
appear, however, that his intrepidity was ever 
again brought to the test, though his patriotism 
was tried by an unsuccessful attempt of the 
British to bribe him to effect a union of Vermont 
with Canada. Sir II. Clinton wrote to Lord 
Germaine, Feb., 1781, "There is every reason to 
suppose, that Ethan Allen has quitted the rebel 
cause." He died of apoplexy at his estate in 
Colchester Feb. 13, 1789, aged 51. His first wife 
was Mary Brownson of Itoxbury ; his second wife 
was Frances, daughter of Col. Brush of the 
British army, whom he met in Boston on his 
return from his captivity in England. Her 
mother was the daughter of James Calcraft, a 
soldier and a schoolmaster, whose name is now 
changed to Schoolcraft. After his death she 
married Dr. Pcnniman of Colchester. The 
names of the other children of Joseph, Ethan s 
father, were Ileman, Lydia, Hebcr, Levi, Lucy, 
Zimri, and Ira ; their mother s name was Remem 
brance Baker. His daughter Pamela married E. 
W. Keyes, Esq., in 1803. Another daughter 
entered a nunnery in Canada. He had lived for 
a time in Sunderland. It was his project to make 
a* city, Vergennes, a mile square. His son, Capt. 
Ethan A. Allen, formerly of the army, died at 
Norfolk Jan. 6, 1855 ; his grandson, Col. Hitch 
cock of the army, is said to resemble him. From 
this likeness Kinncy s statue of him was framed. 

Gen. Allen possessed strong powers of mind, 
but they never felt the influence of education. 
Though he was brave, humane, and generous, yet 
his conduct does not seem to have been much 
influenced by considerations respecting that holy 
and merciful Being, whose character and whose 
commands arc disclosed to us in the Scriptures. 
His notions with regard to religion Avere such, as 
to prove that they, who rather confide m their 
own wisdom than seek instruction from heaven, 
may embrace absurdities, which would disgrace the 
understanding of a child. He believed, with 
Pythagoras, that men after death would trans 
migrate into beasts, birds, fishes, reptiles, etc., and 
often informed his friends, that he himself ex 
pected to live again in the form of a large white 

Besides a number of pamphlets in the contro 
versy with New York, he published in 1779 a 
narrative of his observations during his captivity, 
which was afterwards reprinted ; a vindication of 
the opposition of the inhabitants of Vermont to 
the government of New York, and their right to 
form an independent State, 1779; and Allen s 
theology, or the oracles of reason, 1786. Tin s 
last work was intended to ridicule the doctrine of 
Moses and the prophets. It would be unjust to 
bring against it the charge of having effected 


great mischief in the Avorld, for few have had the 
patience to read it. Allen s Narrative; Boston 
Weekly Magazine, II. ; Holmes Annals, n. 207; 
Williams Vermont; Chronicle, March 5, 1789; 
Marshall s Wash., II. 203-; III. 24; Gordon, II. 
13, 160; Graham s Vermont; Encyc. Amer. ; 
Du ight s Travels, II. 409, 421 ; Amer. Eemenib., 
1778, p. 50. 

ALLEN, IRA, first secretary of Vermont, the 
brother of Ethan, was born at Cornwall, Conn, 
about 1752, and in early life co-operated with his 
brother in the controversy between Vermont and 
New York, being a lieutenant under him. He 
also took an active part on the lakes in the war 
of 1775. Being a member of the Legislature in 
1776 and 1777, he was zealous in asserting the 
independence of Vermont. In Dec., 1777, he 
assisted in forming the constitution of Vermont; 
and soon afterwards was nominated surveyor- 
general and treasurer. He and Bradley and Fay 
were commissioners to Congress for Vermont in 
1780 and 1781. In the politic negotiations with 
Canada in 1781, designed to protect the people 
of the " New Hampshire grants " from invasion, 
Mr. Allen and Jonas Fay were the principal 
agents. In 1789 he drew up a memorial in favor 
of the establishment of a college at Burlington. 
Having risen to the rank of eldest major-general 
of the militia, he proceeded to Europe in 
Dec., 1795, to purchase arms, by the advice of the 
governor, for the supply of the State, but as a 
private speculation by the sale of his lands, of 
which he asserted, that he and the heirs of Ethan 
held nearly three hundred thousand acres. He 
went to France and purchased of the French re 
public twenty-four brass cannon and twenty 
thousand muskets at twenty-five livres, expecting 
to sell them at fifty, a part of which he shipped 
at Ostend in the Olive Branch ; but he was cap 
tured Nov. 9, 1796, and carried into England. A 
litigation of eight years in the court of admiralty 
followed. He Avas charged Avith the purpose of 
supplying the Irish rebels Avith arms. In 1798 
he Avas imprisoned in France. He returned to 
America in 1801. At length he procured a 
decision in his favor. His residence, when in 
Vermont, was at Colchester; but he died at 
Philadelphia Jan. 7, 1814, aged 62, leaving seA eral 
children. He published the natural and political 
history of Vermont, 1798, and statements appli 
cable to the Olive Branch, Phila. 1807. Pub. 
Char., 1802, p. 234-248; Holmes, II. 472; Amer. 
Eememb., 1782, p. 351, Part II. 74. 

ALLEN, TIMOTHY, died at Chesterfield Jan. 
12, 1806, aged 91. He Avas a minister of note in 
his day. A graduate of Yale in 1736, he Avas 
ordained at West IlaA en in 1738, and dismissed 
in 1742. In the time of Mr. "Whitfield he was a 
zealous preacher, as mentioned by Trumbull. 
His second settlement was at Ashford ; his last at 


Chesterfield. He published a sermon at his in 
stallation, Ashford, 1761; answer to Pilate s ques 
tion; the main point, 1166. 

ALLEN, MOSES, minister of Midway, Ga., and 
a distinguished friend of his country, was born in 
Northampton, Mass., Sept. 14, 1748. He was 
educated at the college in New Jersey, where he 
was graduated in 1772 ; and was licensed by the 
Presbytery of New Brunswick Feb. 1, 1774, and 
recommended by them as an ingenious, prudent, 
pious man. In his journal of this year he speaks 
of passing a few days in December, at his earnest 
request, with his friend, James Madison, in Vir 
ginia, at the house of his father, Col. Madison, 
and of preaching repeatedly at the court house, 
and of being solicited to pass the winter there. 
In March following he preached first at Christ s 
church parish, about twenty miles from Charleston, 
in South Carolina. Here he was ordained 
March 16, 1775, by Mr. Zubly, Mr. Edmonds, and 
William Tcnnent. He preached his farewell ser 
mon in this place June 8, 1777, and was soon 
afterwards established at Midway, to which place 
he had been earnestly solicited to remove. 

The British army from Florida under Gen. 
Prevost dispersed his society in 1778, and burned 
the meeting house, almost every dwelling house, 
and the crops of rice then in stacks. In Decem 
ber, when Savannah was reduced by the British 
troops, he was taken prisoner. The continental 
officers were sent to Sunbury on parole, but Mr. 
Allen, who was chaplain to the Georgia brigade, 
was denied that privilege. His warm exhorta 
tions from the pulpit and his animated exertions 
in the field exposed him to the particular resent 
ment of the British. They sent him on board the 
prison ships. Wearied with a confinement of a 
number of weeks in a loathsome place, and seeing 
no prospect of relief, he determined to attempt 
the recovery of his liberty by throwing himself 
into the river and swimming to an adjacent 
point ; but he was drowned in the attempt on the 
evening of Feb. 8, 1779, aged 30. His body was 
washed on a neighboring island, and was found 
by some of his friends. They requested of the 
captain of a British vessel some boards to make 
a coffin, but could not procure them. 

Mr. Allen, notwithstanding his clerical function, 
appeared among the foremost in the day of battle, 
and on all occasions sought the post of danger as 
the post of honor. The friends of independence 
admired him for his popular talents, his courage, 
and his many virtues. The enemies of indepen 
dence could accuse him of nothing more, than a 
vigorous exertion of all his powers in defending 
the rights of his injured country. He Avas 
eminently a pious man. Ramsay, II. 6; Hist. 
Coll. IX. 157 ; Allen s Ser. on M. Allen ; Hart. 

ALLEN, THOMAS, brother of the preceding 
and first minister of Pittsfield, Mass., was born 



Jan. 17, 1743, at Northampton, of which town 
his great-grandfather, Samuel, was one of the first 
settlers, receiving a grant of land from the town 
Dec. 17, 1657. In the records of the town the 
name is written variously, Allen, Allin, Allyn, and 
Alyn. His grandfather, Samuel, who died in 
1739, was a deacon of the church, of which 
Jonathan Edwards was pastor. His father, 
Joseph, who died Dec. 30, 1779, and his mother, 
Elizabeth Parsons,, who died Jan. 10, 1800, both 
eminent for piety, were the steady friends of Mr. 
Edwards during the popular commotion, which 
caused the removal of that excellent minister. 
The church records commend her character, and 
say, she assisted at the birth of three thousand 

Through the bequest of an uncle of his father, 
Mr. Thomas Allen, who died in 1754, Mr. 
Allen was educated at Harvard college, where he 
was graduated in 1762, being ranked among the 
best classical scholars of the day. 

After studying theology under the direction of 
Mr. Hooker of Northampton, Mr. Allen was 
ordained April 18, 17G4, the first minister of Pitts- 
field, so named in honor of William Pitt, then 
a frontier town, in which a garrison had been 
kept during the French war. The Indian name 
of the place was Pontoosuc. At the time of his 
settlement there were in Pittsfield but half a 
dozen houses not made of logs. He lived to see 
it a rich and beautiful town, containing nearly 
three thousand inhabitants. During a ministry 
of forty-six years he was unwearied in dispensing 
the glorious Gospel. Besides his stated labors on 
the Sabbath, he frequently delivered lectures, and 
in the course of his life preached six or seven 
hundred funeral sermons. In the early part of 
his ministry he also occasionally preached in the 
neighboring towns, not then supplied with settled 

The same benevolence, which awakened his 
zeal in guiding men in the way to heaven, made 
him desirous of rendering them happy also in 
this world. His charities to the poor excited 
their gratitude and rendered his religious instruc 
tions the more effectual. His house was the seat 
of hospitality. Towards other denominations of 
Christians, though strict in his own principles, he 
was yet exemplarily candid, neither believing that 
true piety was confined to his own sect, nor that 
gentleness and forbearance were useless in the 
attempt to reclaim men from error. At the com 
mencement of the American Revolution, like 
most of his brethren, he engaged warmly in the 
support of the rights and independence of his 
country, for he believed, that the security and per 
manence of the best of earthly enjoyments, as 
well as the progress of genuine religion, were in 
timately connected with public liberty. Twice he 
went out as a volunteer chaplain for a short 



time; from Oct. 3 to Nov. 23, 1776, ho was 
absent from home, with the army at White 
Plains, near New York, and in June and July, 
1777, he was at Ticonderoga. On the retreat of 
St. Clair before Burgoyne he returned home. 
But the next month, when a detachment from 
Burgoyne s troops under the command of Col. 
Baum had penetrated to the neighborhood of 
Bennington, and threatened to desolate the coun 
try, he accompanied the volunteer militia of 
rittsficld, who marched to repel the invasion. 
Previously to the assault of a particular intrench- 
ment, which was filled with refugees, he deemed 
it his duty to advance towards the enemy and 
exhort them to surrender, assuring them of good 
treatment, in a voice distinctly heard by them ; 
but being fired upon, he rejoined the militia, and 
was among the foremost, who entered the breast 
work. His exertions and example contributed 
somewhat to the triumph of that day, August 
16th, which checked the progress of the British 
and led to the capture of Burgoyne. After the 
battle he found a Hessian surgeon s horse, loaded 
with panniers of bottles of wine. The wine he 
administered to the wounded and the weary ; but 
two large square white glass bottles he carried 
home with him, as trophies of his campaign of 
three or four days. During the rebellion of 
Shays, which extended to the county of Berk 
shire, Mr. Allen supported the authority of the 
established government of Massachusetts. The 
insurgents at one period threatened to seize him 
and carry him as a hostage into the State of New 
York. But in his intrepidity he was not to be 
shaken from his purpose and his duty. He slept 
with arms in his bedroom, ready to defend him 
self against the violence of lawless men. In the 
new political controversy, which sprung up after 
the adoption of the federal constitution, Mr. Al 
len s principles attached him to what was called 
the Democratic or Republican party. Among his 
parishioners were some, who were tories in the 
revolutionary war and who remembered with no 
good will the zeal of their whig minister ; others 
were furious politicians, partaking fully of the 
malevolent spirit of the times, intent on accom 
plishing their object, though with the weapons 
of obloquy and outrage. " During the presidency 
of Mr. Jefferson," says the history of Berkshire, 
" that spirit of political rancor, that infected every 
class of citizens in this country, arraying fathers, 
brothers, sons, and neighbors against each other, 
entered even the sanctuary of the church. A 
number of Mr. Allen s church and congregation 
withdrew, and were incorporated by the legisla 
ture into a separate parish in 1808 ; thus present 
ing to the world the ridiculous spectacle of a church 
divided on party politics and known by the party 
names of the day." This division was, however, 
healed in a few years ; though not until after the 


death of him, whose last days were thus em 
bittered, as well as by domestic afflictions in the 
loss of his eldest son and daughter. 

In Mr. Allen the strength of those affections, 
which constitute the charm of domestic and social 
life, was remarkable ; giving indeed peculiar 
poignancy to the arrows of affliction, but also 
swelling in a high degree the amount of good, 
found in the pilgrimage of the earth. 

After the death of his brother Moses Allen in 
1779, he took a journey on horseback to Savan 
nah, out of regard to the welfare of the widow and 
her infant son, whom, while the war was raging at 
the south, he placed for a time in a happy refuge 
at his house. Mr. Allen s first-born daughter, 
who married William P. White of Boston, died 
in London, leaving an infant, unprotected by any 
relatives, her husband being then in the East 
Indies. Though the child was left under the care 
of a very respectable gentleman, who was con 
nected with its father in large mercantile busi 
ness, yet such was his solicitude for its welfare, 
that in the year 1799 he encountered the dangers 
of a voyage across the Atlantic and brought his 
grandchild home to his own family. 

He sailed in the ship Argo, Capt. Rich. On 
the voyage many fears were awakened by a vessel 
of force, which pursued the Argo, and was sup 
posed to be a French ship. The idea of a prison 
in France was by no means welcome. In the 
expectation of a fight Mr. Allen obtained the 
captain s consent to offer a prayer with the men 
and to make an encouraging speech to them 
before the action. The frigate proved to be 
British ; and the deliverance was acknowledged in 
a thanksgiving prayer. On his arrival at London 
he was received with great kindness by his 
friends, Mr. liobert Cowic and Mr. llobert Steel, 
and was made acquainted with several of the dis 
tinguished evangelical ministers of England ; 
with Newton, and Ilawcis, and Rowland Hill, and 
Bogue, and others, from whom he caught a pious 
zeal for the promotion of foreign missions, which 
on his return he diffused around him. He 
regarded the London missionary society as the 
most wonderful work of Divine Providence in 
modern times. It appears from his journal, that 
he was absent from Pittsfiekl from July 3d to 
Dec. 30, 1799. His return passage was boisterous 
and extended to the great length of eighty-five 
days. Among other objects of curiosity, which 
attracted his attention in London, he went to .see 
the king, as he passed from St. James to the 
parliament house in a coach, drawn by six cream- 
colored horses. On this sight he recorded the 
following reflections : " This is he, who desolated 
my country ; who ravaged the American coasts ; 
annihilated our trade ; burned our towns ; plun 
dered our cities ; sent forth his Indian allies to 
scalp our wives and children ; starved our youth 


in his prison ships ; and caused the expenditure 
of a hundred millions of money and a hundred 
thousand of precious lives. Instead of being the 
father of his people, he has been their destroyer. 
May God forgive him so great guilt ! And yet he 
is the idol of the people, who think, they cannot 
live without him." In this journal he also re 
corded with much confidence the following pre 
diction : " This country will work the subversion 
and ruin of the freedom and government of my 
country, or my country will work the melioration 
if not the renovation of this country." Late 
events seem to prove, that the example of Ameri 
can liberty has not been without a beneficial effect 
in Great Britain. 

His health had been declining for several years 
before his death, and more than once he was 
brought to the brink of the grave. For several 
months he was unable to preach. He was fully 
aware of his approaching dissolution, and the 
prospects of eternity brightened, as he drew near 
the close of life. Those precious promises, which 
with peculiar tenderness he had often announced 
to the sick and dying, were now his support. The 
all-sufficient Saviour was his only hope ; and he 
rested on him with perfect confidence. He was 
desirous of departing, and was chiefly anxious, 
lest he should be impatient, 

KnoAving his dependence upon God, he contin 
ually besought those, who were around his bed, 
to pray for him. He took an affecting leave of 
lu s family, repeating his pious counsels and be 
stowing upon each one his valedictory blessing. 
"When he was. reminded by a friend of his great 
labors in the ministry, he disclaimed all merit for 
what he had done, though he expressed his 
belief, that he had plainly and faithfully preached 
the Gospel. He forgave and prayed for his 
enemies. When one of his children, a day or 
two before his death, pressed him to take some 
nourishment, or it would be impossible for him to 
live, he replied, "Live? I am going to live 
forever ! " He frequently exclaimed, " Come, 
Lord Jesus ; come quickly." In the morning of 
the Lord s day, Feb. 11, 1810, he fell asleep in 
Jesus, in the GSth year of his age and the 46th 
of his ministry. Among his children, who have 
deceased since his departure, was one son, who 
was a captain in service during the Avar of 1812. 
Another, ])r. Elisha Lee Allen, officiated as sur 
geon in the same Avar on the Niagara frontier, and 
was retained on the peace establishment May, 
1815. His account of the battle of ChippeAva 
was published in the Boston Centinel Aug. 10, 
1814. He died of the yclloAV fever at Pas 
Christian, near New Orleans, Sept. 5, 1817. 
Another son, Prof. Solomon M. Allen, died a feAv 
days afterwards, Sept, 23, 1817. And Mrs. 
Piiplcy, the wife of Maj.-Gcn. llipley, died at the 
Bay of St. Louis of the yellow fever Sept. 11, 



1820. Mr. Allen s Avidow, Elizabeth, died March 
31, 1830, aged 82 years. She Avas the daughter 
of RCA-. J. Lee of Salisbury, and a descendant 
from GOA T . Bradford. 

He published a sermon on the death of his 
daughter, Elizabeth White, 1798; on the death 
of Moses Allen, son of Hcv. Moses Allen, 1801 ; 
on the death of Anna Collins, 1803 ; on the death 
of his son Thomas Allen, Jr., 180G ; election ser 
mon, 1808. Several of his letters on the sickness 
and death of his daughter Avere published in the" 
Edinburgh Missionary Magazine for Oct. Nov. and 
Dec., 1199. Panoplist,- March, 1810; Hist, of 
Berkshire, 377; Pittsfidd Sun, Feb. 21. 

ALLEN, SOLOMON, a useful minister of the 
Gospel, brother of the preceding, Avas born at 
Northampton Feb. 23, 1701. He and four of his 
brothers entered the army in the ReA - olutionary 
Avar. Of these, tAvo, Moses and Thomas, Avhose 
lives are here recorded, Avcrc chaplains. Another, 
Maj. Jonathan Allen, after escaping the perils of 
the sendee, Avas shot by his companion, Mr. Seth 
Lyman, Avhile hunting deer in a deep snoAv in the 
neighborhood of Northampton, in January, 1780, 
aged 42 years. To such families of daring, self- 
denying, zealous patriots and soldiers America is 
indebted, through the blessing of God on their 
sacrifices and toils, for her freedom and inde 

Mr. Solomon Allen, in the course of the war, 
rose to the rank of major. At the time of the 
capture of Andre he Avas a lieutenant and adju 
tant, on serA ice near the lines not far from NCAV 
York. His account of the removal of Andre to 
West Point, received from his OAATI lips, will cor 
rect the errors of the other accounts, Avliich have 
been given to the world. When the British spy 
was brought to the American post, Col. Jameson 
ordered Lieut. Allen to select a guard of nine 
men out of three hundred, who were detached 
from West Point as a covering party to Col. Weld s 
(or Sheldon s) light horse on the hues sixty miles 
from West Point, and to carry the prisoner to Gen. 
Arnold, the commanding officer at West Point, 
with a letter from Jameson to Arnold. Just at 
night, Sept, 23, 1780, he set out Avith his prisoner, 
Avho wore an old, torn crimson coat, nankeen A est, 
and small clothes, old boots and flapped hat. 
Andre s arms being bound behind him, one of the 
soldiers held the strap, which was around his 
arm, and the guard on each side as well as before 
and behind Avcre ordered to run him through, if 
he attempted to escape. Lieut, Allen, riding 
behind, assured Andre of good treatment, and 
offered, if he should be tired, to dismount and 
give him his horse. HaA ing thus proceeded 
seven miles, AAith much cheerfulness on the part 
of the prisoner, an express overtook them Avith a 
letter from Jameson of this import, that as the 
enemy might have parties landed between them 



and West Point, Lieut. Allen was ordered to leave 
the river road and take the prisoner immediately 
over east to lower Salem and deliver him to Capt. 
Hoogland, commanding there a company of light 
horse ; then to take one of the guard and proceed 
with Jameson s letter to Arnold at West Point, 
sending the eight men back under the command 
of the sergeant. The guard were unwilling to 
comply, for they wished to get back to West 
Point. They said, there was no danger, and it 
would be best to proceed ; and Andre seconded 
the proposal. lie thought, the fear of a rescue 
was very idle. But Lieut. Allen replied, like a 
soldier, I must obey orders. From this moment 
Andre appeared downcast. The same night 
Allen delivered him to Hoogland, having travelled 
twenty miles. In the morning of Sept. 24th he 
proceeded with one of the guard to West Point, 
it being arranged, that Andre should soon follow 
him ; but the man being on foot, and the distance 
forty or fifty miles, they did not arrive till the 
forenoon of the 25th, at llobinson s house, the 
east side of the river, opposite West Point, the 
residence of Arnold and the quarters of the 
general officers. Arnold was in the buttery 
eating, it being 10 or 11 o clock ; on receiving the 
letter from Jameson he was thrown into great 
confusion; he, however, in a short time asked 
Lieut. Allen up stairs to sit with Mrs. Arnold, 
probably to keep him from an interview with the 
other officers, and precipitately left the house and 
fled. Such was Mr. Allen s statement. Wash 
ington soon arrived, at 12 o clock on the same 
day, from Hartford, and in the afternoon the 
treason was discovered by the arrival of the 
packet from Jameson for Washington ; Andre 
was brought to head-quarters the next day. On 
the same day Adj. Allen was invited to dine at 
head-quarters ; and at dinner he heard Gen. 
Knox remark, "What a \eryfoTtunatc discovery 
this was! Without it we should all have been 
cut up." To which Gen. Washington very 
gravely and emphatically replied, " I do not call 
this a fortunate occurrence; but a remarkable 
Providence! " 

After the war Maj. Allen was a conspicuous 
officer in quelling the insurrection of Shays. At 
the age of forty his soul was conquered by the 
power of the Gospel, which till then he had 
resisted ; in a few years afterwards he was chosen 
a deacon of the church of Northampton. As his 
personal piety increased, he became solicitous to 
preach the Gospel to his perishing brethren. 
But, at the age of fifty, with no advantages of 
education, there were formidable obstacles in his 
way. The ministers around him suggested dis 
couragements, as he could hardly acquire the 
necessary qualifications. But his pious zeal was 
irrepressible. There were various branches of 
learning, which he could not hope to gain ; but 


" one thing he could do ; he could bend all the 
force of a naturally robust intellect to the work 
of searching the Scriptures. This he did, and 
while in this way he enriched his understanding 
from their abundant treasures, his faith was 
strengthened, his hope brightened, and all the 
Christian graces were refreshed from that fountain 
of living waters." He read also HOAVC S and 
Baxter s works. The former was in his view the 
greatest of uninspired writers. From these 
sources he drew his theology. He wrote out a 
few sermons, and thus commenced the labor of 
preaching, at first in a few small towns in 
Hampshire county, but for the last years of his 
life in the western part of the State of New York, 
in Middletown at the head of Canandaigua Lake, 
in Puga, Pittsford, Brighton, and other towns near 
the Genesee lliver. Without property himself, 
he preached the Gospel to the poor, and was per 
fectly content with food and clothing, demanding 
and receiving no other compensation for his ser 
vices. He rejoiced in fatigues and privations in 
the service of his blessed Master. Sometimes in 
his journeys he reposed himself with nothing but 
a blanket to protect him from the inclemency of 
the weather. But, though poor, he was the means 
of enriching many with the inestimable riches of 
religion. Four churches were established by 
him, and he numbered about two hundred souls, 
as by his preaching reclaimed from perdition. 
Though poor himself, there were those connected 
with him, who were rich, and by Avhose liberality 
he was enabled to accomplish his benevolent pur 
poses. When one of his sons presented him 
with a hundred dollars, he begged him to receive 
again the money, as he had no unsupplicd wants 
and knew not what to do with it ; but, as he was 
not allowed to return it, he purchased with it 
books for the children of his flock, and gave every 
child a book. From such sources he expended 
about a thousand dollars in books and clothing 
for the people in the wilderness, while at the 
same time he toiled incessantly in teaching them 
the w r ay to heaven. Such an example of dis 
interestedness drew forth from an enemy of the 
Gospel the following remark : " This is a thing I 
cannot get along with : this old gentleman, who 
can be as rich as he pleases, comes here and does 
all these things for nothing ; there must be some 
thing in his religion." 

In the autumn of 1820, after having been nearly 
twenty years a preacher in the new settlements 
of the west, his- declining health induced him to 
bid adieu to his people, in order to visit once 
more, before his death, his children and friends 
in Massachusetts and in the cities of New York 
and Philadelphia. His parting with his church at 
Brighton was like the parting of Paul with the 
elders of the church of Ephesus. Many of the 
members of the church accompanied him to the 




boat, and tears were shed and prayers offered on 
the shore of Lake Ontario, as on the seacoast of 
Asia Minor. Even the passengers in the boat 
could not refrain from weeping at the solemnity 
and tenderness of the scene. It was, as it was 
apprehended to be, the last interview between the 
beloved pastor and his people, until they meet 
again in the morning of the resurrection of the 
just. The attachment of children to Mr. Allen 
was indeed remarkable. Wherever he went, 
children, while they venerated his white locks, 
would cling around his knees to listen to the 
interesting anecdotes, which he would relate, and 
to his warnings and instructions. 

Mr. Allen revisited his friends, with a presenti 
ment, that it was his last visit. lie had come, he 
said, " to set his house in order," alluding to his 
numerous children and grandchildren, living in 
different places. It was his custom to address 
them first individually, then collectively, and while 
a heavenly serenity beamed upon his countenance, 
he pressed upon them the concerns of another 
world with plainness and simplicity, with pathos 
and energy. He had the happiness to be per 
suaded, that all his children, excepting one, were 
truly pious ; and concerning that one he had the 
strongest faith, that God would have mercy upon 
him. After ten years that son espoused a cause, 
which he never before loved, and manifested 
much pious zeal. 

At Pittsfield, where some of his relatives lived 
and where his brother had been the minister, Mr. 
Allen went through the streets, and, entering each 
house, read a chapter in the Bible, exhorting all 
the members of the family to serve God, and 
praying fervently for their salvation. In like 
manner he visited other towns. He felt, that the 
time was short, and he was constrained to do all 
the good in his power. With his white locks and 
the strong impressive tones of his voice, and 
having a known character of sanctity, all were 
awed at the presence of the man of God. He 
went about with the holy zeal and authority of an 
apostle. In prayer Mr. Allen displayed a sub 
limity and pathos, which good judges have 
considered as unequalled by any ministers, whom 
they have known. It was the energy of true 
faith and strong feeling. In November he arrived 
at New York, and there, after a few weeks, he 
expired in the arms of his children Jan. 20, 1821, 
aged 70 years. At his funeral his pall was borne 
by eight clergymen of the city. 

As he went down to the grave he enjoyed an 
unbroken serenity of soul, and rejoiced and 
exulted in the assured hope of eternal life in the 
presence of his Redeemer in heaven. Some of 
his last memorable sayings have been preserved 
by Rev. Mr. Danforth in his sketch of his last 
hours. If there are any worldly-minded ministers, 
who neglect the sheep and lambs of the flock, 

any, who repose themselves in learned indolence, 

any, who are not bold to reprove and diligent 
to instruct, any, who are not burning with holy 
zeal, nor strong in faith, nor fervent and mighty 
in prayer ; to them the history of the ministry 
and faithfulness of Mr. Allen might show to what 
a height of excellence and honor they might 
reach, did they but possess his spirit. 

Mr. Allen published no writings to keep alive 
his name on earth. He did not, like some learned 
men, spend his life in laboriously doing nothing. 
But he has a record on high ; and his benevolent, 
pious, zealous toils have doubtless gained for him 
that honor, which cometh from God, and which 
will be green and flourishing, when the honors of 
science and of heroic exploits and all the honors 
of earth shall wither away. In his life there is 
presented to the world a memorable example of 
the power in doing good, which may be wielded 
by one mind, even under the most unfavorable 
circumstances, \vhen its energies are wholly 
controlled by a spirit of piety. Though found in 
deep poverty, such a pious zeal may mould the 
characters of those, who by their industry and 
enterprise acquire great wealth ; and thus may be 
the remote cause of all their extensive charities. 
One lesson especially should come home to the 
hearts of parents ; teaching them to hope that by 
their faithfulness and the constancy and impor 
tunity of prayer all their offspring and a multitude 
of their descendants will be rendered through the 
faithfulness and mercy of God rich in faith, and be 
made wise unto salvation. Sketch of his last 
hours, by J. N. Danfortli ; Sparks Letters of 
Washington, VII. 

ALLEN, JONATHAN, minister of Bradford, died 
in 1827, aged 77. He published a sermon at the 
ordination of B. Thurston, 1786. 

ALLEN, J:IES, a poet, was born at Boston 
July 24, 1739. It was his misfortune to be the 
son of a merchant of considerable wealth. 
From youth he was averse to study. He early 
adopted free notions on religion. After remaining 
three years at college, he afterwards lived at his 
ease in Boston, without business and without a 
family, displaying much eccentricity, till his death 
, Oct., 1808, aged G9 years. Had he been without 
property, he might have been impelled to some 
useful exertion of his powers. He wrote a few 
pieces of poetry lines on the Boston massacre, 
at the request of Dr. Warren, the Retrospect, &c. 

Spec, of Amer. Poetry, I. 160. 

ALLEN, WILLIAM HENRY, a naval officer, was 
born at Providence, R. I., Oct. 21, 1784. His 
father, William Allen, was a major in the Revolu 
tionary army, and in 1799 appointed brigadier- 
general of the militia of the State. His mother 
was the sister of Gov. Jones. Notwithstanding 
the remonstrances of his father, who wished him 
! to cultivate the arts of peace, he entered the navy 



as a midshipman in 1800 and sailed under Bain- 
bridge to Algiers. After his return he again 
sailed for the Mediterranean under Barren in the 
Philadelphia; the third time, in 1802, under 
Rodgers in the frigate John Adams; and the 
fourth time, in 1804, as sailing master of the Con 
gress. In his voyage, while the ship was lying to 
in a gale, he fell from the fore yard into the sea, 
and must have been lost, had he not risen close 
by the mizzen chains, on which he caught hold. 
Thus was he by a kind Providence preserved. 
As lieutenant he repaired on board the Constitu 
tion, commanded by Ilodgers, in Oct., 1805. 
During the cruise he visited the mountains ^Etna 
and Vesuvius and the cities Herculaneum and 
Pompeii. Returning in 1806, he was the next 
year on board the Chesapeake, when, without 
fighting, she struck her colors to the British 
frigate Leopard, an event, which filled him with 
indignation. He, in consequence, drew up the 
letter of the officers to the secretary of the navy, 
urging the arrest and trial of Com. Barron for 
neglect of duty. During the embargo of 1808 
he cruised off Block Island for the enforcement 
of the law, but in his delicacy got excused from 
boarding in person any vessel from his native 
State. In 1809 he joined the frigate United States 
as first lieutenant under Decatur. Soon after the 
declaration of Avar in 1812 he was distinguished 
in the action, Oct. 25th, which issued in the capture 
of the Macedonian. The superior skill of the 
United States in gunnery was ascribed to the 
diligent training and discipline of Lieut. Allen. 
lie carried the prize safely into the harbor of 
New York amidst the gratulations of thousands. 
Promoted to be master commandant, in 1813 he 
conveyed Mr. Crawford, the minister, to France 
in the brig Argus, and afterwards proceeded to 
the Irish Channel, agreeably to orders, for the 
purpose of destroying the English commerce. 
His success was so great, that the injury inflicted 
by him upon the enemy in the capture of twenty 
vessels was estimated at 2,000,000 dollars. In 
his generosity he never allowed the baggage of 
passengers to be molested. On the 14th of Aug. 
he fell in with the British brig Pelican, cruising 
in the channel for the purpose of capturing the 
Argus. Soon after the action commenced, Capt. 
Allen was mortally wounded, and carried below ; 
Lieut. Watson being also wounded, the command 
for a time devolved on Lieut. W. H. Allen, Jr. 
After a vigorous resistance of nearly an hour, the 
Argus was captured, with the loss of six killed 
and seventeen wounded. Capt. Allen was carried 
into Plymouth the next day, his leg having been 
amputated at sea. He died Aug. 15, 1813, aged 
28 years, and was buried with military honors. 
Capt. Allen was highly respected and esteemed in 
private life, exhibiting a uniform courtesy and 
amenity of manners. With great care he 


abstained from all irritating and insulting language. 
ile united the milder graces with the stern and 
masculine character of tLe sailor. The eager 
desire of fame, called " the last infirmity of noble 
minds," seemed to reign in his heart. Against 
the wishes of all his friends he entered the naval 
service, thirsting for honor and distinction, of 
which he had his share ; but in early manhood he 
died a prisoner in a foreign land. If there must 
be victims to war, we could wish the defenders of 
their country s rights a higher reward than fame. 
Bailey s Naval Biography, 205-226. 

ALLEN, SOLOMON METCALF, professor of lan 
guages in Micldlebury college, Vermont, was the 
son of Rev. T. Allen of Pittsfield, and was born 
Feb. 18, 1789. lie received his second name on 
account of his being a descendant on his mother s 
side of Rev. Joseph Metcalf, first minister of 
Falmouth. His father destined him to be a 
farmer, as he was athletic and fond of active life ; 
but, after he became pious, his friends being 
desirous that he should receive a collegial edu 
cation, he commenced the study of Latin at the 
age of twenty. In 1813 he graduated at Middle- 
bury with high reputation as a scholar. During 
a year spent at Andover, besides attending to the 
customary studies, he read a part of the New 
Testament in the Syriac language. After officiat 
ing for two years as a tutor, he was chosen in 
1816 professor of the ancient languages, having 
risen to this honor in seven years after commencing 
the study of Latin. He lived to accomplish but 
little, but long enough to show what the energy 
of pious zeal is capable of accomplishing. 
Respected and beloved by all his associates and 
acquaintance, his sudden and awful death over 
whelmed them with sorrow. Being induced, on 
account of a defect in the chimney, to go 
imprudently upon the roof of the college building, 
he fell from it Sept. 23, 1817, and in consequence 
died the same evening, aged 28 years. In his 
last hours his numerous friends crowded around 
him, " watching with trembling anxiety the flight 
of his immortal soul to the kindred spirits of a 
better world." Under the extreme anguish of his 
dying moments, resigning the loveliness, which he 
had hoped would be shortly his own, and all the 
fair prospects of this world, he exclaimed : " The 
Lord reigneth, let the earth rejoice ! O Father, 
thy will be done! So seemcth it good in thy 
sight, O Lord." Professor Frederic Hall has 
described his frank and noble character and his 
many virtues, the tenderness of his heart and his 
energy of mind. Another writer speaks of his 
unwearied perseverance and unconquerable reso 
lution, and says : " His march to eminence was 
steady, rapid, and sure. Whether he turned his 
attention to the abstruse and profound branches 
of mathematical science or to the stores of ancient 
classical learning, he solved every problem and 


overcame every obstacle with equal facility and 
triumph." Mr. Allen was at Andover one of 
" the group of stars," the friends of Carlos Wilcox, 
alluded to by him in the following lines. The 
others were Sylvester Lamed, Alexander M. 
Fisher, Levi Parsons, Pliny Fisk, and Joseph R. 
Andrus ; all recorded in this volume. These, 
with Mr. Allen and Mr. Wilcox, all young men, 
no longer shine on the earth ; but, it is believed, 
they make a constellation of seven stars, like the 
Pleiades, resplendent in heaven. May there be 
in future many such groups in our theological 

" Ye were a group of stars collected here, 
Some mildly glowing, others sparkling bright ; 
Here, rising in a region calm and clear, 
Ye shone awhile with intermingled light ; 
Then, parting, each pursuing his own flight 
O er the wide hemisphere, ye singly shone; 
But, ere ye climbed to half your promised height, 
Ye sunk again with brightening glory round you thrown, 
Each left a brilliant track, as each expired alone." 

HalVs Eulogy; Wilcox s Remains, 90; Na 
tional Standard, Oct. 1, 1817. 

ALLEN, PAUL, a poet, was born at Providence, 
R. I., Feb. 15, 1775 ; his father, Paul Allen, being 
a representative in the legislature, and his mother 
the daughter of Gov. Cook. He was graduated 
at Brown university in 1796 and afterwards 
studied, but never practised, law. Devoted to 
literature, he removed to Philadelphia and was 
engaged as a writer in the Port-Folio and in the 
United States Gazette, and was also employed to 
prepare for the press the travels of Lewis and 
Clark. After this he was for some time one of the 
editors of the Federal Republican at Baltimore ; 
but on quitting this employment he found him 
self in impaired health and extreme indigence, 
with a widowed mother dependent on him for 
support. In his mental disorder, he believed 
that he was to be waylaid and murdered. To 
the disgrace of our laws he was thrown into jail 
for a debt of 30 dollars. About this time he 
wrote for the Portico, a magazine, associated with 
Pierpont and Neal. His friends procured for 
him the establishment of the Journal of the 
Times, and afterwards of the Morning Chronicle, 
which was widely circulated. Having long and 
frequently advertised a history of the American 
Revolution, of which he had written nothing, it 
was now determined to publish it, an unequalled 
subscription having been obtained. The work 
appeared in two vols. in his name, but was written 
by Mr. John Neal and Mr. Watkins ; Neal writing 
the first vol., beginning with the Declaration of 
Independence. His principal poem, called Noah 
which has simplicity and feeling, was also sub 
mitted to Mr. Neal, and reduced to one-fifth of 
its original size, lie died at Baltimore in Aug. 
1826, aged 51 years. He published origina 
poems, serious and enter taining, 1801. A long 



extract from Noah is in Specimens of American 
Poetry. Spec. American Poetry, II. 185. 

ALLEN, RICHARD, first bishop of the Afri- 
an Methodist Episcopal church, died at Philadel 
phia March 26, 1831, aged 71. 

ALLEN, BEXJAMIX, Rector of St. Paul s church, 
Philadelphia, died at sea in the brig Edward on 
his return from Europe Jan. 27, 1829. He had 
been the editor of the Christian Magazine, and 
was a disinterested, zealous servant of God. 

ALLEN, JEXXIXGS, died in Fail-field district, 
S. C., Jan., 1835, aged 114; a soldier of the rev 
olutionary army. 

ALLEN, EPHRAEVI, died in Salem, N. Y., in 
1816; a graduate of Harvard in 1789, and re 
spected as a physician. His wife was a daughter 
of Gen. Newhall. 

ALLEN, HARRISOX, missionary among the 
Choctaws, died at Eliot Aug. 19, 1831, aged 39. 
Born in Chilmark, he graduated at Bowdoin in 
1824, at Andover seminary in 1828. He arrived 
at Eliot Jan., 1830. 

ALLEN, BEXJAMIX, LL. D., died at Hyde 
Park, N. Y., July 22, 1836, aged 65 ; once pro 
fessor of mathematics at Union College, and long 
the eminent head of a classical school at Hyde 

ALLEN, MYRA, wife of D. O. Allen, mission 
ary at Bombay, died suddenly, Feb. 5, 1831, aged 
30. She was the daughter of Col. Abel Wood 
of Westminster, Mass. ; a devoted and useful mis 
sionary for the short period of three years. Her 
character is described in the Miss. Herald for 
1831 and 1832. 

ALLEN, ORPAH, missionary, wife of 1). O. 
Allen, died at Bombay June 5, 1842. Her name 
was Graves, of Rupert, Vt. She went to Bombay 
in 1834 and was married in 1838. 

ALLEN, AZUBA, wife of D. O. Allen, mission 
ary at Bombay, died June 11, 1843. Her name 
was Condit. She left New York with her sister, 
Mrs. Nevins, in 1836, and lived some time in 
Batavia and Borneo before her marriage in Dec., 
1842. She died in peace and triumph. 

ALLEN, SARAH Jonxsox, wife of William 
Allen, died at Northampton Feb. 25, 1848, aged 
57 ; a daughter of John M. Breed, a merchant 
of Norwich, Conn. While unmarried, she and 
Sarah L. Iluntington, afterwards married to Dr. 
Eli Smith, established and conducted a Sabbath 
school among the Mohegan Indians near Nor 
wich. In the result a church was built at their 
residence in Montville, at which Gen. William 
Williams was accustomed, last year, to visit them 
every Sabbath as their teacher. 

ALLEN, JOSEPH, died at Worcester Sept. 2, 
1827, aged 78. Born in Boston, his mother was 
a sister of Samuel Adams. He was a merchant 
in Leicester, a benefactor and treasurer of the 
academy. In 1776 he removed to Worcester, and 




sustained various public offices, was clerk of the 
courts, a councillor, a member of congress, twice 
one of the electors of president. His sons were 
Charles and George Allen. 

ALLEN, HEMAN, died in Burlington, Vt, Dec. 
11, 1844, a brother of Ethan A., and a member 
of congress. He was also minister to Chili. 

ALLEN, JONATHAN, died at Pittsfield, May 26, 
1845, aged 72. He was the son of Ilev. T. Allen, 
and had been a senator of Massachusetts. He 
greatly promoted the interests of agriculture by 
introducing into Berkshire an excellent flock of 
Spanish merino sheep, for which sole object he 
crossed the ocean. 

ALLEN, SAMUEL C., died at Northfield Feb. 
8, 1845. A graduate of Dartmouth in 1794, he 
was the minister of N. in 1795; but withdrew 
from the pulpit and studied law. For twelve 
years he was a member of congress. He pub 
lished an oration July 4, 180G ; eulogy on 
President John Whcelock, delivered at Hanover 
Aug. 17, 1817. 

ALLERTON, ISAAC, one of the first settlers 
of Plymouth, came over in the first ship, the May 
flower. His name appears the fifth in the agree 
ment of the company, signed at Cape Cod, Nov. 
11, 1620. There were six persons in his family. 
Mary, his wife, died Feb. 25, 1621. His daugh 
ter, Mary, married Elder T. Cushman, son of 
Robert C., and died in 1699, aged about 90, 
the last survivor of those, who came over in the 
Mayflower. Sarah married Moses Maverick of 
Marblehead. In the summer or autumn of 1626 
he went to England as agent for the colony ; and 
he returned in the spring of 1627, having condi 
tionally purchased for his associates the rights of 
the adventurers for 1800 pounds, the agreement 
being signed Nov. 15, 1626, and also hired for 
them 200 pounds, at 30 per cent, interest, and ex 
pended it in goods. He took a second voyage as 
agent in 1627 and concluded the bargain with the 
company at London Nov. 6, accomplishing also 
other objects, particularly obtaining a patent for 
a trading place in the Kennebec. Judge Davis 
erroneously represents, that Mr. Prince dates the 
departure of Mr. Allerton in the autumn ; but Mr. 
Prince speaks only of his going " with the return 
of the ships," probably June or July. The voyage 
of the preceding year he regards as made " in the 
fall ; " also the third voyage in 1628, for the pur 
pose of enlarging the Kennebec patent. After 
his return in August, 1629, he proceeded again 
to England and with great difficulty obtained the 
patent Jan. 29, 1630. A fifth voyage was made 
in 1630, and he returned the following year in 
the ship White Angel. He was an enterprising 
trader at Penobscot and elsewhere. In 1633 he 
was engaged in " a trading wigwam," which was 
lost at Machias. A bark of his was lost on Cape 
Ann in 1635, and twenty-one persons perished, 

among whom were John Avery, a minister, his 
wife, and six children. The rock is called " Avery s 
fall." From 1643 to 1659 he lived at New Haven, 
and probably traded with the Dutch at New York. 
In 1653 he received mackerel from Boston to sell 
for half profits, and is called J. Allerton, senior. 
Point Alderton in Boston harbor is supposed to 
be named from him. His second wife, whom he 
married before 1627, and who died of " the pest 
ilent fever " in 1634, was Fear Brcwster, daughter 
of Elder Brewster, who had another daughter, 
Love, and a son, Wrestling. It seems, that he 
was married again ; for coming from New Haven 
in 1644, he was cast away with his wife Johanna 
at Scituate, but was saved. He died in 1659 ; his 
widow in 1684. His son Isaac was graduated in 
1650 : Elizabeth, his daughter, married B. Starr 
and S. Eyre. Davis 1 Morton, 38, 221, 389, 391 ; 
Mass. His. Coll. III. 46 ; Prince, 242 ; Savage s 
Winthr. I. 25; II. 210; /. Mathers Rem. Prov. 

ALLISON, FRANCIS, D. D., assistant minister 
of the first Presbyterian church in Philadelphia, 
was born in Ireland in 1705. After an early 
classical education at an academy he completed 
his studies at the university of Glasgow. He 
came to this country in 1735, and was soon ap 
pointed pastor of a Presbyterian church at New 
London in Chester county, Penn. Here, about 
the year 1741, his solicitude for the interests of 
the Redeemer s kingdom and his desire of en 
gaging young men in the work of the ministry 
and of promoting public happiness by the diffu 
sion of religious liberty and learning induced him 
to open a public school. There was at this time 
scarcely a particle of learning in the middle 
States, and he generally instructed all, that came 
to him, without fee or reward. About the year 
1747 he was invited to take the charge of an 
academy in Philadelphia; in 1755 he was elected 
vice provost of the college, which had just been 
established, and professor of moral philosophy. 
He was also minister in the first Presbyterian 
church. In the discharge of the laborious duties, 
which devolved upon him, he continued till his 
death Nov. 28, 1777, aged 72. 

Besides an unusually accurate and profound 
acquaintance with the Latin and Greek classics, 
he was well informed in moral philosophy, history, 
and general literature. To his zeal for the diffu 
sion of knowledge Pennsylvania owes much of 
that taste for solid learning and classical literature, 
for which many of her principal characters have 
been so distinguished. The private virtues of Dr. 
Allison conciliated the esteem of all that knew 
him, and his public usefulness has erected a last 
ing monument to his praise. For more than 
forty years he supported the ministerial character 
with dignity and reputation. In his public ser 
vices he was plain, practical, and argumentative ; 
warm, animated, and pathetic. He was greatly 


honored by the gracious Redeemer in being 
made instrumental, as it is believed, in the salva 
tion of many, who heard him. lie was frank and 
ingenuous in his natural temper ; warm and zeal 
ous in his friendships ; catholic in his sentiments ; 
a friend to civil and religious liberty. His benev 
olence led him to spare no pains nor trouble in 
assisting the poor and distressed by his advice 
and influence, or by his own private liberality. It 
was he, who planned and was the means of estab 
lishing the widows fund, which was remarkably 
useful. He often expressed his hopes in the 
mercy of God unto eternal life, and but a few 
days before his death said to Dr. Ewing, that he 
had no doubt, but that according to the gospel 
covenant he should obtain the pardon of his sins 
through the great Redeemer of mankind, and 
enjoy an eternity of rest and glory in the presence 
of God. He published a sermon delivered be 
fore the synods of New York and Pennsylvania 
May 24, 1758, entitled, peace and unity recom 
mended. Assembly s Miss. Mag. 1. 457 361; 
Miller s Retrospect, II. 342; Holmes Life of 
Stiles, 98, 99. 

ALLISON, PATRICK, D. D., first minister of the 
Presbyterian church in Baltimore, was born in 
Lancaster county in 1740, educated at the college 
of Philadelphia, and installed in 17G2 at Balti 
more, where he remained in eminent usefulness 
till his death Aug. 21, 1802, aged 61. His few 
publications were in favor of civil and religious 

ALLSTON, JOSEPH, general, was elected gov 
ernor of South Carolina in 1812. He died at 
Charleston Sept. 10, 1816, aged 38. His wife, 
the daughter of Col. Aaron Burr, was lost at sea 
on her passage from Charleston to New York in 

ALLSTON, WILLIAM, colonel, senator in the 
first congress, died at Charleston June 26, 1839, 
aged 82. One of the largest owners of his fellow 
men in the State, his slaves cultivated his paternal 
estate near Georgetown. He was an officer 
under Marion ; and the father of Gov. A. 

ALLSTON, WASHINGTON, a very distinguished 
painter, died at Cambridge July 9, 1843, aged 63. 
He was born of a respected family in Charleston, 
S. C., Nov. 5, 1779. After being in the school 
of R. Rogers, Newport, he graduated at Harvard 
in 1800. He was early fond of music, painting, 
and poetry. In order to cultivate his taste for 
painting he sold his patrimonial estate, and 
entered in 1801 the Royal Academy in London, 
of which Benjamin West, an American, was the 
president. In 1804 he passed over to Paris and 
thence to Italy. Thus he was eight years in 
Europe, studying the works of the great masters, 
and enjoying the friendship of poets and painters 
in England and Italy. Among his friends were 
the poets Wordsworth, Southey, and Coleridge ; 



and among the painters Reynolds, West, and 

In 1809 he returned to America, and the next 
year delivered a poem at Cambridge at the annual 
meeting of the Phi Beta Kappa society, when the 
writer of this had the honor of being his literary 
associate, and of delivering the prose address on 
that occasion; and after the lapse of forty-six 
years I remember well his ample locks, and fine, 
interesting, animated, spiritual countenance. At 
this period he married the sister of Dr. Channing. 
The years from 1811 to 1818 he also spent in 
England, where he published in 1813 the sylphs 
of the seasons and other poems. God afflicted 
him by bereaving him of his wife ; but led him to 
seek earnestly the permanent consolations of re 
ligion. His faith was strong in the incarnation 
of the Son of God ; and he had recourse to the 
sacraments of the church. 

On his return in 1818 he made Boston his 
home ; but soon built him a house and studio in 
Cambridge, where he married a daughter of Judge 
Dana in 1830. His principal works as a painter 
were, " the dead man restored to life by Elijah," 
" the angel liberating Peter from prison," " Jacob s 
dream," " Elijah in the desert," " the angel Uriel 
in the sun," " Saul and the witch of Endor," 
" Spalatro s vision of the bloody hand," " Gabriel 
setting the guard of the heavenly host," " Anna 
Page and Slender," " Beatrice," and " Belshazzar s 
Feast," his last work. He died suddenly. He 
possessed a powerful and brilliant imagination ; 
and as a colorist he was called the American 
Titian. His brother, William Moore A., died at 
New r port in 1844, aged 62. Receiving by the will 
of his father a young slave, named Diana, he 
emancipated her, and she became the mother of 
freemen in Charleston. His faith in the atone 
ment and his Christian character were commended 
in a sermon by Mr. Albro of Cambridge. Besides 
his poems, he also published Monaldi, a prose 
tale ; lectures on art and poems, with a preface 
by Mr. Dana, N. Y., 1850. 

ALLYN, MATTHEW, judge, died at Windsor, 
Conn., in 1758, aged 97. He was a colonel, a 
councillor, a judge of the supreme court. 

ALLYN, JOHN, D. D., the minister of Duxbury, 
died July 19, 1833, aged 66. He was born in 
Barnstable, and was a graduate of 1785 ; ordained 
in 1788. Benj. Kent was his colleague in 1826. 
A memoir by C. Francis, his son-in-law, is in 
Hist. Coll. III., vol. 5. 

He published a sermon at the ordination of 
A. Bradford, 1793; at thanksgiving, 1798; at 
Hanover, 1799; at Plymouth, 1801; at election, 
1805 ; at New Year s, 1806 ; Christian Monitor, 
1806, being prayers, &c. ; at Sandwich, 1808 ; also 
two charges, and obituary notices of Drs. West 
and Barnes. 

ALSOP, GEORGE, published "a character of 



the province of Maryland," describing the laws, 
customs, commodities, usage of slaves, &c. ; also 
" a small treatise of the wild and native Indians, 
&c." London, 1GG6, pp. 118. 

ALSOP, RICHARD, a poet, the son of Richard 
A. and Mary Wright, was born in Middletown, 
Conn., in 1759, and was a merchant, as was his 
father. He died at Flatbush, L. I., Aug. 20, 
1815, aged 56 years, with a character of correct 
morality. Several of his poetical compositions 
are preserved in the volume entitled " American 
Poetry." In 1800 he published a monody, in 
heroic verse, on the death of Washington, and 
in 1808 a translation from the Italian of a part 
of Berni s Orlando Inamorato, under the title of 
the Fairy of the Enchanted Lake. He published 
also several prose translations from the French 
and Italian, among which is Molini s history of 
Chili, with notes, 4 vols. 8 vo., 1808. This was 
republished in London without acknowledgment 
of its being an American translation. In 1815 he 
published the narrative of the captivity of J. R. 
Jewitt at Nootka Sound. The Universal Receipt 
Book was compiled also by him. Among numer 
ous unpublished works, left by him, is the poem 
called The Charms of Fancy. He wrote for 
amusement, and made but little effort for literary 
distinction ; yet his powers were above the com 
mon level. With a luxuriant fancy he had a 
facility of expression. In 1791 the Echo was 
commenced at Hartford, being a series of bur 
lesque, poetic pieces, designed at first to ridicule 
the inflated style of Boston editors. The plan 
was soon extended, so as to include politics. The 
writers were Alsop, Theodore Dwight, Hopkins, 
Trumbull, and others, called the "Hartford wits." 
This was republished with other poems in 1807. 
Alsop wrote more of the Echo than any other 
contributor ; also the Political Greenhouse in the 
same volume. His mother, who had been a 
widow about fifty years, died in Oct., 1829, aged 
90. Mr. A. s widow married Samuel W. Dana, 
a member of Congress ; one sister married 
Theodore Dwight, and another married Mr. 
Ililey of New York. Spec. Amcr.Poet. n. 

AMERICUS VESPUCIUS, or more properly 
Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine gentleman, from 
whom America derives its name, was born March 
9, 1451, of an ancient family. His father, who 
was an Italian merchant, brought him up in this 
business, and his profession led him to visit Spain 
and other countries. Being eminently skilful in 
all the sciences subservient to navigation, and 
possessing an enterprising spirit, he became 
desirous of seeing the new world, which Columbus 
had discovered in 1492. He accordingly entered 
as a merchant on board the small fleet of four 
ships, equipped by the merchants of Seville and 
sent out under the command of Ojeda. The 
enterprise was sanctioned by a royal license. 


According to Amerigo s own account he sailed 
from Cadiz May 20, 1497, and returned to the 
same port October 15, 1498, having discovered 
the coast of Paria and ,passed as far as the Gulf 
of Mexico. If this statement is correct, he saw 
the continent before Columbus ; but its correct 
ness has been disproved ; and the voyage of 
Ojeda was not made until 1499, which Amerigo 
calls his second voyage, falsely representing that 
he himself had the command of six vessels. He 
sailed May 20, 1499, under the command of 
Ojeda, and proceeded to the Antilla Islands, and 
thence to the coast of Guiana and Venezuela, and 
returned to Cadiz in Nov., 1500. After his 
return Emanuel, king of Portugal, who was 
jealous of the success and glory of Spain, invited 
him to his kingdom, and gave him the command 
of three ships to make a third voyage of discovery. 
He sailed from Lisbon May 10, 1501, and ran 
down the coasts of Africa as far as Sierra Leone 
and the coast of Angola, and then passed over to 
Brazil in South America, and continued his dis 
coveries to the south as far as Patagonia. He 
then returned to Sierra Leone and the coast of 
Guinea, and entered again the port of Lisbon 
Sept, 7, 1502. 

King Emanuel, highly gratified by his success, 
equipped for him six ships, with which he sailed 
on his fourth and last voyage May 10, 1503. It 
was his object to discover a western passage to 
the Molucca Islands. He passed the coasts of 
Africa, and entered the Bay of All Saints in 
Brazil. Having provision for only twenty months, 
and being detained on the coast of Brazil by bad 
weather and contrary winds five months, he 
formed the resolution of returning to Portugal, 
where he arrived June 14, 1504. As he carried 
home with him considerable quantities of the 
Brazil wood, and other articles of value, he was 
received with joy. It was soon after this period, 
that he wrote an account of his four voyages. 
The work was dedicated to Rene II., duke of Lor 
raine, who took the title of king of Sicily, and 
Avho died Dec. 10, 1508. It was probably pub 
lished about the year 1507, for in that year he 
went from Lisbon to Seville, and King Ferdinand 
appointed him to draw sea charts, with the title 
of chief pilot. He died at the island of Tercera 
in 1514, aged about 63 years, or, agreeably to 
another account, at Seville, in 1512. 

As he published the first book and chart 
describing the new world, and as he claimed the 
honor of first discovering the continent, the new 
world has received from him the name of 
America. His pretensions, however, to this first 
discovery do not seem to be well supported against 
the claims of Columbus, to whom the honor is 
uniformly ascribed by the Spanish historians, and 
who first saw the continent in 1498. Ilerrera, 
who compiled his general history of America 




from the most authentic records, says, that 
Amerigo never made but two voyages, and those 
were with Ojeda in 1499 and 1501, and that his 
relation of his other voyages was proved to be a 
mere imposition. This charge needs to be con 
firmed by strong proof, for Amerigo s book was 
published within ten years of the period assigned 
for his first voyage, when the facts must have been 
fresh in the memories of thousands. Besides the 
improbability of his being guilty of falsifying 
dates, as he was accused, which arises from this 
circumstance, it is very possible, that the Spanish 
writers might have felt a national resentment 
against him for having deserted the service of 
Spain. But the evidence against the honesty of 
Amerigo is very convincing. Neither Martyr nor 
Bcnzoni, who were Italians, natives of the same 
country, and the former of whom was a contem 
porary, attribute to him the first discovery of the 
continent. Martyr published the first general 
history of the new world, and his epistles contain 
an account of all the remarkable events of his 
time. All the Spanish historians are against 
Amerigo. Herrera brings against him the testi 
mony of Ojeda as given in a judicial inquiry. 
Fonseca, who gave Ojeda the license for his 
voyage, was not reinstated in the direction of 
Indian affairs until after the time, which Amerigo 
assigns for the commencement of his first voyage. 
Other circumstances might be mentioned; and 
the whole mass of evidence it is difficult to resist. 
The book of Amerigo was probably published 
about a year after the death of Columbus, when 
his pretensions could be advanced without the 
fear of refutation from that illustrious navigator. 
But however this controversy may be decided, it 
is well known, that the honor of first discovering 
the continent belongs neither to Columbus nor 
to Vespucci, even admitting the relation of the 
latter; but to the Cabots, who sailed from 
England. A life of Vespucci was published at 
Florence by Bandini, 174,3, in which an attempt 
is made to support his pretensions. 

The relation of his four voyages, which was 
first published about the year 1507, was re- 
published in the Novus Orbis, fol. 1555. His 
letters were published after his death at Florence. 
Moreri, Did. Historique; New and Gen. 
Biog. Diet. ; Robertson s 8. America I. Note 22 ; 
Holmes Annals, I. 16; Herrera, I. 221; Prince, 
Introd. 80-82 ; Irving s Columbus, III. App. 9. 

AMES, NATHANIEL, a physician, died at Ded- 
ham, Mass., in 1765, aged 57. He had published 
for about forty years an almanac, which was in 
high repute. His taste for astronomy he acquired 
from his father, Nathaniel Ames, of Bridgewater, 
who died in 1736, and who was not, as Dr. Eliot 
supposed, a descendant of the famous William 
Ames, lie married two wives, each of the name 
of Fisher. His most distinguished sou bore that 

1 name. His son, Dr. Nathaniel Ames, a graduate 
of 1761, died at Dedham in 1822, aged 82 ; an 
other son, Dr. Seth Ames, a graduate of 1764, 
settled at Amherst, N. II., but removed to Ded 
ham, where he died in 1776. His widow, who 
married Mr. Woodward, died in 1818, aged 95. 
Mass. Hist. Coll. N. S. vn. 154; Hist. Coll. N. 
H. n. 79. 

AMES, FISHER, LL. D., a distinguished states 
man and eloquent orator, was the son of the pre 
ceding, and Avas born at Dedham April 9, 1758. 
He was graduated at Harvard college in 1774, 
I and after a few years commenced the study of the 
I law in Boston. lie began the practice of his pro 
fession in his native village ; but his expansive mind 
could not be confined to the investigation of the 
law. Rising into life about the period of the 
American Revolution, and taking a most affection 
ate interest in the concerns of his country, he felt 
himself strongly attracted to politics. His re 
searches into the sciences of government were 
extensive and profound, and he began to be known 
by political discussions, published in the newspa 
pers. A theatre soon presented for the display 
of his extraordinary talents. He was elected a 
member of the convention of his native state, 
which considered and ratified the federal consti 
tution ; and his speeches in this convention were 
indications of his future eminence. The splendor 
of his talents burst forth at once upon his coun 

When the general government of the United 
States commenced its operations in 1789, he ap 
peared in the national legislature as the first rep 
resentative of his district, and for eight successive 
years he took a distinguished part in the national 
councils. He was a principal speaker in the de 
bates on every important question. Towards the 
close of this period his health began to fail, but 
his indisposition could not prevent him from en 
gaging in the discussion relating to the appropri 
ations necessary for carrying into effect the British 
treaty. Such was the effect of his speech of 
April 28, 1796, that one of the members of the 
legislature, who was opposed to Mr. Ames, rose 
and objected to taking a vote at that time, as they 
had been carried away by the impulse of oratory. 
After his return to his family, frail in health and 
fond of retirement, he remained a private citizen. 
For a few years however he was persuaded to be 
come a member of the council. But, though he 
continued chiefly in retirement, he operated far 
around him by his writings in the public papers. 
A few years before his death he was chosen pres 
ident of Harvard college, but the infirm state of 
his health induced him to decline the appoint 
ment. He died on the morning of July 4, 1808. 
His wife, Frances Worthington, was the daughter 
of John Worthington, of Springfield. He left 
seven children ; his only daughter died in 1829. 



Mr. Ames possessed a mind of a great and ex 
traordinary character. He reasoned, but he did 
not reason in the form of logic. By striking allu 
sions, more than by regular deductions, he com 
pelled assent. The richness of his fancy, the 
fertility of his invention, and the abundance of 
his thoughts were as remarkable as the justness 
and strength of his understanding. His political 
character may be known from his writings, and 
speeches, and measures. He was not only a man 
of distinguished talents, whose public career was 
splendid, but he was amiable in private life and 
endeared to his acquaintance. To a few friends 
he unveiled himself without reserve. They found 
him modest and unassuming, untainted with am 
bition, simple in manners, correct in morals, and 
a model of every social and personal virtue. The 
charms of his conversation were unequalled. 

He entertained a firm belief in Christianity, and 
his belief was founded upon a thorough investi 
gation of the subject. He read most of the best 
writings in defence of the Christian religion, but 
he was satisfied by a view rather of its internal 
than its external evidences. He thought it im 
possible, that any man of a fair mind could read 
the Old Testament and meditate on its contents 
without a conviction of its truth and inspiration. 
The sublime and correct ideas, which the Jewish 
scriptures convey of God, connected with the fact 
that all other nations, many of whom were supe 
rior to the Jews in civilization and general im 
provement, remained in darkness and error on 
this great subject, formed in his new a conclusive 
argument. After reading the book of Deuter 
onomy he expressed his astonishment, that any 
man versed in antiquities could have the hardi 
hood to say, that it was the production of human 
ingenuity. Marks of Divinity, he said, were 
stamped upon it. His views of the doctrines of 
religion were generally Calvinistic. An enemy 
to the metaphysical and controversial theology, 
he disliked the use of technical and sectarian 
phrases. The term trinity however he frequently 
used with reverence, and in a manner, which im 
plied his belief of the doctrine. His persuasion 
of the divinity of Christ he often declared, and 
his belief of this truth seems to have resulted 
from a particular investigation of the subject, for 
he remarked to a friend, that he once read the 
evangelists with the sole purpose of learning what 
Christ had said of himself. 

He was an admirer of the common translation 
of the Bible. He said it was a specimen of pure 
English; and though he acknowledged, that a 
few phrases had grown obsolete, and that a few 
passages might be obscurely translated, yet he 
should consider the adoption of any new translation 
as an incalculable evil. He lamented the prevail 
ing disuse of the Bible in our schools. lie thought, 
that children should early be made acquainted 


with the important truths, which it contains, and 
he considered it as a principal instrument of mak 
ing them acquainted with their own language in 
its purity. He said, " I will hazard the assertion, 
that no man ever did or ever will become truly 
eloquent, without being a constant reader of the 
Bible, and an admirer of the purity and sublim 
ity of its language." He recommended the teach 
ing of the Assembly s Catechism ; not perhaps 
because he was perfectly satisfied with every ex 
pression, but because, as he remarked, it was a 
good thing on the whole, because it had become 
venerable by age, because our pious ancestors 
taught it to their children with happy effect, and 
because he was opposed to innovation, unwilling 
to leave an old, experienced path for one new 
and uncertain. On the same ground he approved 
the use of Watts version of the Psalms and 
Hymns. No uninspired man, in his judgment, 
had succeeded so well as Watts in uniting with the 
sentiments of piety the embellishments of poetry. 

Mr. Ames made a public profession of religion 
in the first congregational church in Dedham. 
With this church he regularly communed, till pre 
cluded by indisposition from attending public 
worship. His practice corresponded with his 
profession. His life was regular and irreproacha 
ble. Pew, who have been placed in similar cir 
cumstances, have been less contaminated by inter 
course with the world. It is doubted, whether 
any one ever heard him utter an expression cal 
culated to excite an impious or impure idea. The 
most scrutinizing eye discovered in him no dis 
guise or hypocrisy. His views of himself however 
were humble and abased. He was often observed 
to shed tears, while speaking of his closet devo 
tions and experiences. He lamented the cold 
ness of his heart and the wanderings of his 
thoughts while addressing his Maker, or medi 
tating on the precious truths, which he had re 
vealed. In his last sickness, when near his end, 
and when he had just expressed his belief of his 
approaching dissolution, he exhibited submission 
to the Divine will and the hope of the Divine fa 
vor. " I have peace of mind," said he. " It may 
arise from stupidity ; but I think it is founded on 
a belief of the Gospel." At the same time he 
disclaimed every idea of meriting salvation. " My 
hope," said he, " is in the mercy of God, through 
Jesus Christ." 

Mr. Ames speech in relation to the British 
treaty, which was delivered April 28, 179G, is a 
fine specimen of eloquence. He published an 
oration on the death of Washington in 1800, and 
he wrote much for the newspapers. His political 
writings Avere published in 1809, in one volume, 
8vo., with a notice of his life and character by- 
President Kirkland. Panoplist, July, 1800; 
Dexter s Funeral Eulogy; Marshall s Washing 
ton, v. 203 ; Ames 1 Works. 




AMES, NATHANIEL, son of Fisher Ames, died 
Jan. 18, 1835; author of mariner s sketches; 
nautical reminiscences ; and old sailors yarns. 

AMES, N. P., died at Cabotville April 23, 
1847, aged 44 ; a large manufacturer of firearms, 
and a man of sound judgment and practical skill. 

AMHERST, JEFFREY, lord, commander-in- 
chief of the British army at the conquest of Canada 
in 1760, was born in Kent, England, Jan. 29, 
1717. Having early discovered a predilection for 
the military life, he received his first commission 
in the army in 1731, and was aid-de-camp to 
Gen. Ligonier in 1741, in which character he was 
present at the battles of Dettingen, Fontenoy, 
and Rocoux. He was afterward aid-de-camp to 
his royal highness, the duke of Cumberland, at 
the battle of Laffeldt. In 1758 he received orders 
to return to England, being appointed for the 
American service. He sailed from Portsmouth 
March 16th as major-general, having the command 
of the troops destined for the siege of Louisbourg, 
On the 26th of July following he captured that 
place, and without farther difficulty took entire 
possession of the island of Cape Breton. After 
this event he succeeded Abercrombie in the com 
mand of the army in North America. In 1759 
the vast design of the entire conquest of Canada 
was formed. Three armies were to attack at 
nearly the same time all the strongholds of the 
French in that country. They were commanded 
by Wolfe, Amherst, and Prideaux. Gen. Am- 
herst in the spring transferred his head-quarters 
from New York to Albany ; but it was not till 
the 22d of July, that h<5 reached Ticonderoga, 
against which place he was to act. On the 27th 
this place fell into his hands, the enemy having 
deserted it. He next took Crown Point, and put 
his troops in winter quarters about the last of Oc 
tober. In the year 1760 he advanced against 
Canada, embarking on lake Ontario and proceed 
ing down the St. Lawrence. On the 8th of Sep 
tember M. de Vaudreuil capitulated, surrendering 
Montreal and all other places within the govern 
ment of Canada. 

He continued in the command in America till 
the latter end of 1763, when he returned to Eng 
land. The author of the letters of Junius was 
his friend, and in Sept., 1768, wrote in his favor. 
In 1771 he was made governor of Guernsey, and 
in 1776 he was created Baron Amherst of Holms- 
dale in the county of Kent. In 1778 he com 
manded the army in England. At this period 
Lord Sackville, to whom the letters of Junius 
have been ascribed, was one of the king s minis 
ters ; and he had been intimate with Amherst 
from early life. In 1782 he received the gold 
stick from the king ; but on the change of the 
administration the command of the army and the 
lieutenant-generalship of the ordnance were put 
into other hands. In 1787 he received another 

patent of peerage, as Baron Amherst of Mont 
real. In January, 1793, he was again appointed 
to the command of the army in Great Britain ; 
but in 1795 this veteran and very deserving offi 
cer was superseded by his royal highness, the 
Duke of York, the second son of the king, who 
was only in the thirty-first year of his age, and 
had never seen any actual service. The govern 
ment upon this occasion, with a view to soothe the 
feelings of the old general, offered him an earldom 
and the rank of field marshal, both of which he 
at that time rejected. The office of field marshal 
however he accepted in July, 1796. He died 
without children at his seat in Kent August 3, 
1797, aged eighty years. Watkins; Holmes 
Annals, II. 226-246, 498; Marshall, I. 442-470; 
Minot, II. 36. 

AMY, a slave, died at Charleston in 1826, said 
to be aged 140, and that she came to C. when 
there were but six small buildings there. 

ANDERSON, RUFUS, minister of Wenhnm, 
Mass., was born in Londonderry Mai ch 5, 1765, 
and graduated at Dartmouth college in 1791. In 
consequence of a religious education his mind was 
early imbued with the truths of the gospel. He 
was ordained pastor of the second church in 
North Yarmouth Oct. 22, 1794. After a ministry 
of ten years he was dismissed, and installed July 
10, 1805, at Wenham, where he died Feb., 1814. 
Dr. Worcester has described his excellent charac 
ter, and spoken of his useful labors and peaceful 
death. He published two discourses on the fast, 
1802; and seven letters against the close com 
munion of the Baptists, 1805. Worcester s Fu 
neral Sermon ; Panoplist, x. 307. 

ANDERSON, JAMES, the first Presbyterian 
minister in the city of New York, began his 
labors in Oct., 1717. He was born in Scotland in 
1678; came to Philadelphia in 1710, and became 
the pastor of Newcastle. His high notions of 
church authority occasioned a division of his 
church in N. Y. To the seceders Jonathan 
Edwards was the preacher for some months. Mr. 
A. accepted in 1727 a call to Donegal, in Penn., 
and was succeeded in N. Y. by Mr. Pemberton. 

ANDERSON, JAMKS, M. D.", an eminent phy 
sician of Maryland, died at his seat near Chestcr- 
town Dec. 8, 1820, in the 69th year of his age. 
He studied at Philadelphia and at Edinburgh. 
His father was a physician from Scotland. Dr. 
Anderson was learned and skilful, and highly 
respected in all the relations of life. As a Chris 
tian he was distinguished, in his peculiar views 
being a disciple of AVcsley. With exemplary 
patience and meekness he submitted to painful 
illness, and died in peace. T/tacher s Msd. 

ANDERSON, RICHARD, minister of the United 
States to Colombia, was a native of Kentucky, and 
for some years a member of Congress. Being 



appointed envoy extraordinary to the assembly 
of American nations at Panama, while on his way 
to that place he died at Carthagena July 24, 1826. 
On his former visit to Colombia he lost his excel 
lent -wife. His father, Richard C. Anderson, died 
Nov. 6. Mr. Anderson was a very amiable man, 
of a discriminating mind, and very discreet and 
conciliatory as a politician. 

cian to the colony in Liberia, was the son of Col. 
Richard Anderson, and born in Ilagerstown, Mary 
land, in 1802. His medical education was at 
Philadelphia, where he took his degree in 1828, 
and afterwards settled as a physician at Hagers- 
town. Here, at his home, amidst all the happi 
ness of the family circle and of religious institu 
tions, he formed the purpose of devoting his life 
to the colonists of Liberia. He hoped to benefit 
them by his medical skill, and was particularly 
anxious to promote the cause of temperance in 
Africa. He sailed Jan. 17, 1830, and arrived at 
the colony Feb. 17. Dr. Mechlin, the agent, now 
returning, the affairs of the colony were commit 
ted to Dr. Anderson ; but he died of the African 
fever April 12, aged 27 years. In his illness he 
was resigned and joyful in the hope of salvation. 
He requested, that the following sentence might 
be inscribed on his tombstone : " Jesus, for thee 
I live, for thee I die ! " Afric. Repos. vi. 189 

ANDRE, JOHN, aid-dc-camp to Sir Henry 
Clinton, and adjutant-general of the British army 
in the Revolutionary war, was born in England in 
1749. His father was a native of Geneva, and a 
considerable merchantman the Levant trade ; he 
died in 1769. Young Andre was destined to 
mercantile business, and attended his father s 
counting-house, after having spent some years 
for his education at Geneva. He first entered 
the army in Jan., 1771. At this time he had a 
strong attachment to Honoria Sneyd, who after 
wards married Mr. Edgcworth. In 1772 he vis 
ited the courts of Germany, and returned to 
England in 1773. He landed at Philadelphia in 
Sept., 1774, as lieutenant of the Royal English 
Fusileers ; and soon proceeded, by way of Boston, 
to Canada, to join his regiment. In 1775 he was 
taken prisoner by Montgomery at St. John s ; 
but was afterwards exchanged, and appointed 
captain. In the summer of 1777 he was ap 
pointed aid to Gen. Grey and was present at the 
engagements in New Jersey and Pennsylvania in 
1777 and 1778. On the return of Gen. Grey, he 
was appointed aid to Gen. Clinton. In 1780 he 
was promoted to the rank of major, and made 
adjutant-general of the British army. 

After Arnold had intimated to the British in 
1780 his intention of delivering up West Point to 
them, Maj. Andre was selected as the person, to 
whom the maturing of Arnold s treason and the 


arrangements for its execution should be commit 
ted. A correspondence was for some time car 
ried on betAvecn them under a mercantile disguise 
and the feigned names of Gustavus and Ander 
son ; and at length to facilitate their communica 
tions the Vulture sloop-of-war moved up the North 
river and took a station convenient for the pur 
pose, but not so near as to excite suspicion. An 
interview was agreed on, and in the night of Sep 
tember 21, 1780, he was taken in a boat, which 
was dispatched for the purpose, and carried to 
the beach, without the posts of both armies, under 
a pass for John Anderson. He met Gen. Arnold 
at the house of a Mr. Smith. While the confer 
ence was yet unfinished, daylight approached ; 
and to avoid the danger of discovery it was pro 
posed, that he should remain concealed till the 
succeeding night. He is understood to have re 
fused to be carried within the American posts, but 
the promise made him by Arnold to respect this 
objection was not observed. He was carried 
I within them contrary to his wishes and against 
| his knowledge. He continued with Arnold the 
1 succeeding day, and when on the following night 
he proposed to return to the Vulture, the boat 
man refused to carry him, because she had dur 
ing the day shifted her station, in consequence of 
a gun having been moved to the shore and 
brought to bear upon her. This embarrassing 
circumstance reduced him to the necessity of en 
deavoring to reach New York by land. Yielding 
with reluctance to the urgent representations of 
Arnold, he laid aside his regimentals, Avhich he 
had hitherto worn under a surtout, and put on a 
plain suit of clothes ; and receiving a pass from 
the American general, authorizing him, under the 
feigned name of John Anderson, to proceed on 
the public service to the White Plains, or lower if 
he thought proper, he set out on his return in the 
evening of the 22d, accompanied by Joshua 
Smith, and passed the night at Crompond. The 
next morning he crossed the Hudson to King s 
ferry on the east side. A little beyond the Cro- 
ton, Smith, deeming him safe, bid him adieu. He 
had passed all the guards and posts on the road 
without suspicion, and was proceeding to New 
York in perfect security, when, September 23d, 
one of the three militia-men, who were employed 
with others in scouting parties between the lines 
of the two armies, springing suddenly from his 
covert into the road, seized the reins of his bridle 
and stopped his horse. Instead of producing his 
pass, Andre, with a want of self-possession, which 
can be attributed only to a kind Providence, 
asked the man hastily where he belonged, and 
being answered, " to below," replied immediately, 
" and so do I." He then declared himself to be 
a British officer, on urgent business, and begged 
that he might not be detained. The other two 
militia men coming up at this moment, he discov- 




ered his mistake ; but it was too late to repair it. 
He offered them his purse and a valuable watch, 
to winch he added the most tempting promises 
of ample reward and permanent provision from 
the government, if they would permit him to 
escape ; but his offers were rejected without hesi 

The militia-men, whose names were John Paul- 
ding, ] )avid Williams, and Isaac Van Wart, pro 
ceeded to search him. They found concealed in 
his boots exact returns, in Arnold s handwriting, 
of the state of the forces, ordnance, and defences 
at West Point and its dependencies, critical re 
marks on the works, and an estimate of the men 
ordinarily employed in them, with other interest 
ing papers. Andre was carried before Lieut.-Col. 
Jameson, the officer commanding the scouting 
parties on the lines, and regardless of himself and 
only anxious for the safety of Arnold, he still 
maintained the character, which he had assumed, 
and requested Jameson to inform his commanding 
officer, that Anderson was taken. A letter was 
accordingly sent to Arnold, and the traitor, thus 
becoming acquainted with his danger, escaped. 
The narrative of the bearer of this letter, Salomon 
Allen, is given in the sketch of his life : it differs 
in several respects from the account of the affair 
in the Encyclopaedia Americana, and throws light 
upon circumstances, which have been heretofore 

A board of general officers, of which Maj. 
Gen. Greene was president, and the two foreign 
generals, Lafayette and Steuben, were members, 
was called to report a precise state of the case of 
Andre, who had acknowledged himself Adjutant- 
General of the British army, and to determine in 
what character he was to be considered, and to 
what punishment he was liable. He received 
from the board every mark of indulgent atten 
tion ; and from a sense of justice, as well as of 
delicacy, he was informed on the first opening of 
the examination, that he was at perfect liberty 
not to answer any interrogatory, which might em 
barrass his own feelings. But he disdained every 
evasion, and frankly acknowledged every thing, 
which was material to his condemnation. The 
board, which met Sept. 29th, did not examine a 
single witness, but, founding their report entirely 
upon his own confession, reported that he came 
within the description of a spy and ought to suf 
fer death. The execution of this sentence was 
ordered on the day succeeding that on which it 
was rendered. 

The greatest exertions were made by Sir Henry 
Clinton, to whom Andre was particularly dear, to 
rescue him from his fate. It was first represented, 
that he came on shore under the sanction of a 
flag; but Washington returned an answer to 
Clinton, in which he stated, that Andre had him 
self disclaimed the pretext. An interview was 

next proposed between Lieut.-Gen. Robertson 
and Gen. Greene ; but no facts, which had not 
before been considered, Avere made known. When 
every other exertion failed, a letter from Arnold, 
filled with threats, was presented. 

Andre was deeply affected by the mode of 
dying, which the laws of war had decreed to per 
sons in his situation. He wished to die as a sol 
dier, and not as a criminal. To obtain a mitigation 
of his sentence in this respect he addressed a let 
ter to Gen. Washington, replete with all the feel 
ings of a man of sentiment and honor. The 
commander-in-chief consulted his officers on the 
subject ; but as Andre unquestionably came under 
the description of a spy, it was thought, that the 
public good required his punishment to be in the 
usual way. The decision, however, from tender 
ness to Andre, was not divulged. He encoun 
tered his fate, Oct. 2d, at Tappan, with a compo 
sure and fortitude, which excited the admiration 
and interested the feelings of all who were pres 
ent. He exhibited some emotion, when he first 
beheld the preparations at the fatal spot, and in 
quired, " must I die in this manner ? " He soon 
afterwards added, " it will be but a momentary 
pang ; " and being asked, if he had any request 
to make before he left the world, he answered, 
" none but that you will witness to the world, that 
I die like a brave man." While one weeps at the 
ignominious death of a man so much esteemed 
and beloved, it would have given some relief to 
the pained mind, if he had died more like a 
Christian and less like a soldier. The sympathy, 
excited among the American officers by his fate, 
was as universal, as it is unusual on such occa 
sions ; and proclaims the merit of him, who suf 
fered, and the humanity of those, who inflicted 
the punishment. In 1821 the bones of Andre 
were dug up and carried to his native land by 
royal mandate. Major Andre wrote the Cow 
Chase, in three cantos, 1781. This poem was 
originally published in Rivington s Royal Gazette, 
New York, in the morning of the day, on which 
Andre was taken prisoner. The last stanza, in 
tended to ridicule Gen. Wayne for his failure in 
an attempt to collect cattle for the army, is this : 

" And now I ve closed my epic strain, 
I tremble, as I show it, 
Lest this same Warrior-Drover, Wayne, 
Should ever catch the Poet . " 

He wrote also letters to Miss Seward, New 
York, 1772. Miss Seward wrote a monody on 
Andre, in which she predicted, that Washington 
would die miserably for executing the spy. 
Annual Register for 1781, 39-46 ; Marshall, iv. 
277-286; Gordon, m. 481-490; Stedman, n. 
249-2,33 ; Ramsay, II. 196-201 ; Political May. 
II. 171 ; Amer. fiememb. 1781, 1., p. 101 ; Smit/Vs 
Narrative ; Thacher s Military Journal. 




ANDREW, SAMUEL, the second rector of 
Yale college, was the son of Samuel Andrew, of 
Cambridge, Mass., born 1656, graduated 1675, 
and ordained the minister of Milford, Conn., 
Nov. 18, 1685. Being appointed, after the death 
of Mr. Pierson, temporary rector of the college in 
1707, he officiated till 1719, occasionally repair 
ing to the college at Saybrook and New Haven, 
but residing at Milford. He died Jan. 24, 1738, 
aged 82, leaving an excellent reputation. His 
predecessors in the ministry were Prudden and 
Newton ; Whittlesey succeeded him. 

ANDREWS, ROBERT, professor of mathematics 
in William and Mary college, Virginia, died in 
Jan., 1804, at Williamsburg. In 1779 he was a 
commissioner with Dr. Madison to settle the 
boundary line with Pennsylvania, Bryan, Ewing, 
and Rittenhouse being the commissioners of Penn. 
The talents of Mr. Andrews were actively em 
ployed and regulated by reason and religion. 
His wife and children were taught by him those 
divine principles, which bear the afflicted above 
the evils of life. 

ANDREWS, JOHN, D. ])., provost of the 
university of Penn., was born in Cecil county, 
Md., April 4, 1746, and educated at Philadelphia. 
After receiving Episcopal ordination in London 
Feb., 1767, he was three years a missionary at 
Lewiston, Md., and then a missionary at York- 
town, and a rector in Queen Ann s county, Md. 
Not partaking of the patriotic spirit of the times, 
he was induced to quit Maryland for many years. 
In 1785 he was placed at the head of the Episco 
pal academy in Philadelphia, and in 1789 ap 
pointed professor of moral philosophy in the 
college. In 1810 he succeeded Dr. M Dowell as 
provost. He died March 29, 1813, aged 67. As 
a scholar he was very distinguished. He published 
a sermon on the parable of the unjust steward, 
1789; and elements of logic. 

ANDREWS, LORING, a distinguished editor, 
died at Charleston Oct. 19, 1805. He was the 
brother of Rev. John Andrews, of Newburyport. 
He first published, in Boston, the Herald of 
Freedom ; then, at Stockbridge, the Western Star ; 
and in 1803 he established the Charleston Courier, 
a political paper of high reputation. 

ANDREWS, JOIIN, D. D., died in Newbury 
port in Aug., 1845, aged 81. A graduate of 1786, 
he was settled as a colleague with Mr. Cary in 
1788. He published a thanksgiving sermon, 
1795; at a dedication, 1801 ; on the death of T. 
Cary, 1808; before a humane society, 1812. 

ANDREWS, PARNELLY, wife of Dr. S. L. 
Andrews, missionary at the Sandwich Islands, 
died at Kailua Sept. 29, 1846, aged 39. Her 
name was Pierce, of Woodbury, Conn. She em 
barked in 1836. 

ANDREWS, JOANNA, Mrs., died at Gloucester 
Jan. 20, 1847, aged 102. 

ANDREWS, EBENEZER T., an extensive printer, 
died in Boston Oct. 9, 1851, aged 84. He was 
of the firm of Thomas & Andrews. 

ANDREWS, ASA, the survivor of all the pre 
ceding graduates of Harvard, died at Ipswich 
Jan. 13, 1856, aged 93. He was born in Boylston ; 
his mother, whose name was Bradstreet, was a 
descendant of Gov. B. He graduated in 1783, 
and studied law with C. Strong, Northampton. 
From 1796 to 1829 he was collector of the port 
of Ipswich. He was a man of ability, highly 

ANDROS, EDMUND, governor of New England, 
had some command in New York in 1672, and in 
1674 was appointed governor of that province. 
He continued in this office till 1682, exhibiting in 
this government but little of that tyrannical dis 
position, which he afterwards displayed. He 
arrived at Boston Dec. 20, 1686, with a commis 
sion from King James for the government of 
New England. He made high professions of 
regard to the public good, directed the judges to 
administer justice according to the custom of the 
place, ordered the established rules with respect 
to rates and taxes to be observed, and declared, 
that all the colony laws, not inconsistent with his 
commission, should remain in full force. By 
these professions he calmed the apprehensions, 
which had agitated the minds of many; but it 
was not long before the monster stood forth in 
his proper shape. 

His administration was most oppressive and 
tyrannical. The press was restrained, exorbitant 
taxes were levied, and the Congregational minis 
ters were threatened to be deprived of their sup 
port for nonconformity. Sir Edmund, knowing 
that his royal master was making great progress 
towards despotism in England, was very 
willing to keep equal pace in his less important 
government. It was pretended, that all titles to 
land were destroyed; and the farmers were 
obliged to take new patents, for which they paid 
large fees. He prohibited marriage, unless the 
parties entered into bonds with sureties to be 
forfeited in case there should afterwards appear 
to have been any lawful impediment. There was 
at this time but one Episcopal clergyman in the 
country ; but Andros wrote to the bishop of Lon 
don, intimating, for the encouragement of those 
who might be persuaded to come to this country, 
that in future no marriage should be deemed 
lawful, unless celebrated by ministers of the 
church of England. With four or five of his 
council he laid what taxes he thought proper. 
The fees of office were raised to a most exorbitant 
height. In Oct., 1687, he went with troops to 
Hartford, and demanded the surrender of the 
charter of Connecticut, which was placed in the 
evening upon the table of the Assembly, but 
instantly the lights were extinguished, and the 




charter disappeared, having been carried off by 
Capt. Wadsworth and secreted in a hollow oak, 
near the house of Samuel "\Vyllys. 

In the spring of 1688 Andros proceeded in the 
Rose frigate to Penobscot and plundered the 
house and fort of Castine, and thus by his base 
rapacity excited an Indian war. In November he 
marched against the eastern Indians at the head 
of seven or eight hundred men ; but not an 
Indian was seen. They had retired to the woods 
for hunting. He built two forts, one at Sheepscot, 
the other at Pegypscot Falls or Brunswick, and 
left garrisons in them. If the old name of 
Amarascoggin, on which river he built Pegypscot 
Fort, received at this time, in honor of him, the 
name of Androscoggin, he was not worthy of 
such remembrance. The ancient name is to be 

At length the capricious and arbitrary proceed 
ings of Andros roused the determined spirit of 
the people. 

Having sought in the wilds of America the 
secure enjoyment of that civil and religious 
liberty, of which they had been unjustly deprived 
in England, they were not disposed to see their 
dearest rights wrested from them without a 
struggle to retain them. Animated with the love 
of liberty, they v/ere also resolute and courageous 
in its defence. They had for several years 
suffered the impositions of a tyrannical adminis 
tration, and the dissatisfaction and indignation, 
which had been gathering during this period, 
were blown into a flame by the report of an 
intended massacre by the governor s guards. On 
the morning of April 18, 1689, the inhabitants of 
Boston took up arms, the people poured in from 
the country, and the governor, with such of the 
council as had been most active, and other 
obnoxious persons, about fifty in number, were 
seized and confined. The old magistrates were 
restored, and the next month the joyful news of 
the Revolution in England reached this country, 
and quieted all apprehension of the consequences 
of what had been done. After having been kept 
at the castle till February following, Andros was 
sent to England for trial. The General Court 
about the same time despatched a committee of 
several gentlemen to substantiate the charges 
against him. 

The government was reduced to a most per 
plexing dilemma. If they condemned Andros 
administration, the sentence might be drawn into 
a precedent, and they might seem to encourage 
insurrection and rebellion in future periods, when 
circumstances did not render so desperate an ex 
pedient necessary. On the other hand, if they 
should approve of the administration of Andros 
and censure the proceedings of the colonists, it 
would imply a reprobation of the very measure, 
which had been pursued in bringing about the 

Revolution in England. It was therefore deemed 
prudent to dismiss the business without coming to 
a final decision. The people were accordingly 
left to the full enjoyment of their freedom ; and 
Andros, in public estimation guilty, escaped with 
out censure. 

In 1692 he was appointed the governor of 
Virginia, in which office his conduct was for the 
most part prudent and unimpeached. He was 
succeeded by Nicholson in 1698. He died in 
London Feb. 24, 1714, at a very advanced age. 
His narrative of his proceedings in New England 
was published in 1691, and republished in 1773. 
HutcUnson, Douglass, II. 247, 272, 369; 
Holmes, I. 421, 425; Bdknap, I. 244; Eliot; 

ANDROS, THOMAS, minister of Berkley, was 
born in Norwich, Conn., May 1, 1759, the son of 
a merchant. His widowed mother removed to 
Plainfield, where her friends resided. At the age 
of sixteen he joined the army as a soldier at 
Cambridge in 1775. Afterwards he was in the 
battles of Long Island and White Plains, and 
served elsewhere. In 1781 he enlisted in a private 
armed vessel at New London ; but, captured in a 
prize vessel, he was thrown into prison in the old 
Jersey prison-ship at New York, in which, it is 
said, eleven thousand died. In a few months he, 
by a remarkable Providence, escaped ; and his 
lost health was restored. Having studied theology 
with Dr. Benedict of Plainfield, he was ordained 
at Berkley March 19, 1788, on a salary of 80 
pounds. He was dismissed at his request June 
15, 1834, having labored with his people forty- 
six years. His last sermon he preached October 
5, 1845, walking two miles to church, and speaking 
with animation and force. He died of apo 
plexy Dec. 30, 1845, aged 86. His first wife 
Avas Abigail Cutter, of Killingly ; his second, 
Sophia Sanford, of Berkley, in 1799. His son, 
R. S. S. Andros, wrote an account of him for 
Emery s Ministry of Taunton. 

He published a sermon on the death of J. 
Crane, 1795; of Mrs. Andros, 1798; at thanks 
giving, 1808 and 1812; on restraining prayer; 
Bible news, &c., against N. "Worcester s book, 
1813; on human creeds, 1814; at the ordination 
of B. Whittcmore, 1815; against philosophical 
mixtures, 1819; an essay against a positive 
efficiency in the production of sin, 1820 ; six dis 
courses ; on the death of S. Tobey, 1823; a ser 
mon vindicating the temperance society, 1830; a 
narrative of his imprisonment and escape from 
the Jersey prison-ship. 

ANDRUS, JOSEHI R., agent of the colonization 
society, was graduated at Middlebury college in 
1812, and after studying theology at New Haven 
and Andover, and also under Bishop Gri.swold at 
Bristol, R. L, received Episcopal ordination. It 
had been for years his purpose to devote himself 



to promote the welfare of the degraded and 
oppressed race of Africans. Being appointed the 
agent of the colonization society, he sailed early 
in 1821, and proceeded, with his associate, 
Ephraim Bacon, in April from Sierra Leone to 
the Bassa country to negotiate with King Ben for 
a place of settlement. It was well for the pro 
posed colony, that the attempt was unsuccessful, 
for a more healthful and eligible territory was 
afterwards purchased by Dr. Apes at Montserado. 
Mr. Andrus died at Sierra Leone, and \vas 
buried July 29, 1821. He was the friend of 
Carlos Wilcox, and by him honored in his lines, 
"The Group of Stars"." Panoplist, XVIII. ; 25, 
400 ; Remains of Wilcox, 90. 

ANGE, FRANCIS, a planter of Pennsylvania, 
died in 1767, aged 134 years. He remembered 
the death of Charles I. ; at the age of 130 was in 
good health ; and at the time of his death his 
memory was strong, his faculties perfect. He 
had lived on simple food. His residence was 
between Broad creek and the head of Wicomoco 
river. Mem. of Historical Society, Philad., I. 

ANGIER, SAMUEL, minister of Rehoboth, died 
in 1719, aged about 66. He was a graduate of 
1673, in a class of four, of whom one was John 
"Wise. He was ordained in May, 1679, and dis 
missed in 1693 ; after which he was the pastor of 
Watertown, yet living at Cambridge, where his 
house was burnt, with the records of Rehoboth. 
His mother was the daughter of the famous Win. 
Ames : his wife was the only child of President 
Oakes, and he had by her fifteen children. 

AXGLIX, HENRY, a soldier of the Revolution 
ary army in North Carolina, died at Athens in 
Georgia in 1853, aged 105. 

ANTES, JOHN, a Moravian missionary, was 
born March 4, 1740, and sent from America to 
Herrnhut in Germany in 1764. In 1769 he pro 
ceeded to Cairo on a proposed mission to Abys 
sinia ; but meeting Mr. Bruce, he was induced to 
abandon the undertaking. He returned to Ger 
many in 1781 ; and in 1808 risked England, and 
died at Bristol Dec. 17, 1811. He published a 
reply to Lord Valencia, vindicating Bruce s ve 
racity ; observations on the manners of the Egyp 
tians ; and wrote a memoir of his own life. 

ANTHONY, SUSANNA, an eminently pious 
woman of Rhode Island, was born in 1726, and 
died at Newport June 23, 1791, aged 64 years. 
Her parents were Quakers. Dr. Hopkins pub 
lished the memoirs of her life, consisting chiefly 
of extracts from her writings, of which there was 
a second edition in 1810. She devoted herself 
chiefly to prayer. 

AP PLETON, NATHANIEL, D. D., minister of 
Cambridge, was born at Ipswich Dec. 9, 1693. 
His father was John Appleton, one of the king s 
council and for twenty years judge of probate 


! in the county of Essex, and his mother was 
the eldest daughter of President Rogers. He 
was graduated at Harvard college in 1712. 
After completing his education, an opportunity 
! presented of entering into commercial business 
| on very advantageous terms with an uncle in 
Boston, who was an opulent merchant ; but 
I he resolved to forego every worldly advantage, 
| that he might promote the interest of the 
i Redeemer s kingdom. Soon after he began to 
! preach, he was invited to succeed Mr. Brattle in 
the ministry at Cambridge, and was ordained 
Oct. 9, 1717. On this occasion Dr. Increase 
Mather preached the sermon and gave the charge, 
and Dr. Cotton Mather gave the right hand of 
fellowship. He was the same year elected a 
fellow of Harvard college, which office he sus 
tained above sixty years, faithfully consulting and 
essentially promoting the interests of the insti 
tution. In 1771 the university conferred on him 
the degree of doctor of divinity, an honor, which 
had been conferred upon but one person, In 
crease Mather, about eighty years before. De 
grees have since become more frequent and less 
honorable. The usefulness of Dr. Appleton was 
diminished for a few of his last years through the 
infirmities of age, but did not entirely cease ex 
cept with his life. He received Mr. Hilliard as 
his colleague in 1783. After a ministry of more 
than sixty-six years, he died Feb. 9, 1784, in the 
91st year of his age. This country can furnish 
few instances of more useful talents, and more 
exemplary piety, exhibited for so long a time and 
with such great success. During his ministry two 
thousand one hundred and thirty-eight persons 
were baptized, and seven hundred and eighty-four 
admitted members of the church. 

Dr. Appleton was as venerable for his piety as 
for his years. His whole character was patri 
archal. In his dress, in his manners, in his con- 
| versation, in his ministry he resembled the Pu 
ritan ministers, who first settled New England. 
! He lived from the close of one century to near 
j the close of another, and he brought down with 
j him the habits of former times. His natural 
temper was cheerful, but his habitual deportment 
was grave. Early consecrated to God, and hav 
ing a fixed predilection for the ministry, by the 
union of good sense with deep seriousness, of 
enlightened zeal with consummate prudence, he 
was happily fitted for the pastoral office. 

He preached with great plainness and with 
primitive simplicity. In order to accommodate 
his discourses to the meanest capacity, he fre 
quently borrowed similitudes from familiar, some 
times from vulgar objects ; but his application of 
them was so pertinent and his utterance so sol 
emn, as to suppress levity and silence criticism. 
Deeply sensible of the fallen state of man, he ad 
mired the wisdom, holiness, and mercy, which are 




displayed in the plan of redemption through a 
glorious Saviour. From the abundance of his 
heart, filled with the love of God, he spake with 
such fervor, as was fitted to inspire his hearers 
with pious sentiments and affections. 

He possessed the learning of his time. The 
scriptures he read in the originals. His exposi 
tion, preached in course on the Sabbath, com- 1 
prchended the whole Xew Testament, the pro 
phecy of Isaiah, and some of the other prophets, j 
It was chiefly designed to promote practical 
piety ; but on the prophetical parts he discovered 
a continued attention, extent of reading, and a 
depth of research, which come to the share of j 
but very few. In his preaching he carefully 
availed himself of special occurrences, and his i 
discourses on such occasions were peculiarly sol- j 
emn and impressive. With the fidelity and j 
plainness of a Christian minister he administered 
reproofs and admonitions, and maintained with 
parental tenderness and pastoral authority the 
discipline of the church. By his desire a com 
mittee was appointed, and "continued for many 
years, for inspecting the manners of professing 
Christians. So great was the ascendency, which 
he gained over his people by his discretion and j 
moderation, by his condescension and benevo- j 
lence, by his fidelity and piety, that they regarded 
his counsels as oracular. 

In controversial and difficult cases he was often 
applied to for advice at ecclesiastical councils. 
Impartial yet pacific, firm yet conciliatory, he was 
peculiarly qualified for a counsellor, and in that 
character he materially contributed to the unity, 
flic peace, an-1 order of the churches. With the 
wisdom of the serpent he happily united the 
innocence of the dove. In his religious princi 
ples he was a Calvinist, as were all his predeces 
sors in the ministry, Hooker, Stone, Shqjard, 
Mitchel, Oakes, Gookin, and Brattle. But towards 
those of different principles he was candid and 

His own example enforced the duties, which he 
enjoined upon others. He was humble, meek, 
and benevolent. He was ready at all times to 
relieve the distressed, and through life he de 
voted a tenth part of lu s whole income to pious 
and charitable uses. He was ever a firm friend 
to the civil and religious liberties of mankind, 
and was happy in living to see the establishment 
of peace and independence in his native land, 
lie deserves honorable remembrance for his ex 
ertions to send the gospel to the Indians. Under 
his many heavy trials he was submissive and pa 
tient. When his infirmities had in a great 
measure terminated his usefulness, he expressed 
his desire to depart and be with Christ. He at 
length calmly resigned his spirit into the hands 
of its Redeemer. His son, Xathaniel, a mer 
chant in Boston, who died in 1798, wrote, with 

James Swan and others, against the slave trade 
and slavery from 1766 to 1770. 

His publications are the following : the wisdom 
of God in the redemption of man, 1728 ; a ser 
mon at the artillery election, 1733 ; on evan 
gelical repentance, 1741 ; discourses on llomans 
VIII. 14, 1743; funeral sermons on the death of 
President Leverett, 1724; of Francis Foxcroft, 
1728; of President Wadsworth, 1737; of Han 
cock, 1752; of Spencer Phips, 1757; of Henry 
Flynt, 1760; of Dr. Wigglesworth, 1765; of 
President Holyoke, 1769; sermons at the or 
dination of Josiah Cotton, 1728 ; of John Ser 
geant, 1735 ; of John Sparhawk, 1736 ; of 
Matthew Bridge, 1746; of O. Peabody, Jr., 
1750 ; of Stephen Badger, 1753 ; a sermon at the 
general election, 1742; at the convention, 1743; 
two discourses on a fast, 1 748 ; on the difference 
between a legal and evangelical righteousness, 
1749; Dudleian lecture, 1758; at the Boston lec 
ture, 1763; against profane swearing, 1765; a 
thanksgiving sermon for the conquest of Can 
ada, 1760; for the repeal of the stamp act, 1766; 
two discourses on a fast, 1770. Holmes History 
of Cambridge ; Collections of Historical Society, 
vii. 37,9-63; x. 158; American Herald, Feb. 
23, 1784. 

APPLETOX, JESSE, D. D., the second president 
of Bowdoin college, was born at Xew Ipswich 
Xov. 17, 1772. He descended from John Apple- 
ton of Great Waldingfield, Suffolk, England, who 
died in 1436. Samuel, a descendant of John, 
came to this country in 1635, and settled at 
Ipswich, Mass. Francis, his father, a man of 
piety and vigorous intellect, died in 1816, aged 83. 

President Appleton was graduated at Dart 
mouth college in 1792. It was during his resi 
dence at that seminary, that he experienced deep 
religious impressions ; yet of any precise period, 
when his heart was regenerated by the Spirit of 
God, he was not accustomed to speak. The only 
safe evidence of piety, he believed, was " the 
perception in himself of those qualities, which the 
Gospel requires." Having spent two years in the 
instruction of youth at Dover and Aniherst, he 
studied theology under Dr. Lathrop of West 
Springfield. In Feb., 1797, he was ordained as 
the pastor of a church at Hampton. His 
religious sentiments at this period were Arminian. 
Much of his time during his ten years residence 
in that town was devoted to systematic, earnest 
study, in consequence of which liis sentiments 
assumed a new form. By his faithful, affectionate 
services he was very much endeared to his people. 
At his suggestion the Piscataqua Evangelical 
Magazine was published, to which he contributed 
valuable essays, with the signature of Lc ^hton. 
Such was his public estimation, that in 1803 he 
was one of the two principal candidates for the 
professorsliip of theology at Harvard college ; but 



Dr. Ware was elected. In 1807 he was chosen 
president of Bowdoin college, into which office 
he was inducted Dec. 23. After the toils of ten 
years in this station, his health hecame much im 
paired in consequence of a severe cold, in October, 
1817. In May, 1819, his illness became more 
alarming, his complaints being a cough, hoarse 
ness, and debility. A journey proved of no 
essential benefit. A profuse hemorrhage in 
October extinguished all hope of recovery. As 
the day of his dissolution approached, he re 
marked, " Of this I am sure, that salvation is all 
of grace. I would make no mention of any 
thing, which I have ever thought, or said, or done ; 
but only of this, that God so loved the world, as 
to give his only begotten Son, that whosoever be- 
licvefh on Him should not perish, but have ever 
lasting life. The atonement is the only ground 
of hope." In health he was sometimes anxious, 
in a high degree, in regard to the college ; but in 
his sickness he said in cheerful confidence, " God 
has taken care of the college, and God will take 
care of it." Among his last expressions were 
heard the words, " Glory to God in the highest : 
the whole earth shall be filled with his glory." 
lie died Xov. 12, 1,819, at the age of 47, having 
been president nearly twelve years. A discourse 
was published, which was delivered at his funeral 
by Benjamin Tappan of Augusta, describing the 
excellences of his character and his peculiar 
qualifications for the station, which he occupied. 
His widow, Elizabeth, died in Boston in 1844. 

He published a dedication sermon at Hampton, 
1797 ; sermons at the ordination of Asa Rand 
of Gorham, 1809, and Jonathan Cogswell of Saco, 
and Reuben Xason of Freeport, 1810; of Ben 
jamin Tappan of Augusta, 1811; discourse on 
the death of Frederic Southgate, 1813 ; Massa 
chusetts election sermon, 1814 ; a sermon on the 
perpetuity of the Sabbath, 1814 ; thanksgiving 
sermon, 1815 ; sermon at the ordination of Enos 
Merrill, of Freeport; sermon before the Bath 
society for the suppression of public vices ; address 
before the Mass, society for the suppression of in 
temperance, 1816 ; sermon before the American 
commissioners for foreign missions, 1817; sermon 
at the formation of the Maine education society, 
1818 ; also a sermon on the death of Mrs. Buck- 
minster ; a sermon before the Portsmouth female 
asylum ; and a sermon relating to Dr. Emmons on 

In 1820 a volume of his addresses was pub 
lished, containing his inaugural address and 
eleven annual addresses, with a sketch of his 
character by Dr. Xichols of Portland. In 1822 
his lectures and occasional sermons were published 
in one volume, witli a memoir of his life by 
Benjamin Tappan of Augusta. The subjects of 
those lectures, twenty-seven in number, are the ne 
cessity of revelation, human depravity, the atone- 


ment, regeneration, the eternity of future punish 
ment, the resurrection of the body, and the 
demoniacs of the Xew Testament. 

The sermons are on the immortality of the soul, 
the influence of religion on the condition of 
man, the evils of war and the probability of 
universal peace, the truth of Christianity from its 
moral effects, conscience, and consequences of 
neglecting the great salvation. His works, with 
a memoir, were published in two vols., 1837. 

APPLETOX, SAMUEL, a distinguished mer 
chant, died July 12, 1853, aged 87. He was born 
in Xew Ipswich, X. H., June 22, 1766, one of a 
family of twelve brothers and sisters. He early 
became a country merchant; in 1794 he 1 es 
tablished himself in business in Boston, in which 
his career was one of great honor, success, and 
usefulness. His brother, Xathan, became his 
partner. He married in 1819 Mrs. Mary Gore. 
As early as 1823 he determined to spend 
annually the amount of his income. Having no 
children, much of his beneficence had respect to 
the children of his brothers and sisters ; and 
much of his charity went to the poor. He was 
accustomed to give away 25,000 dollars a year. 
To all great objects of charity he Avas a large con 
tributor. He deemed the day lost, in which he 
had not done some good. To Dartmouth college 
he gave 10,000 dollars. A print of him is in the 
Historical Register. His life by E. Peabody may 
be found in the lives of American merchants. 

APPLETOX, LYDIA, sister of X. Dane, died 
in Beverly Aug. 23, 1845, aged 103 years and 8 
months. She was married at thirty and was a 
widow at ninety. 

APTHORP, EAST, an Episcopal minister, was 
the son of Charles Apthorp, a merchant of 
Boston, Avho died in 1758, aged 61. He was born 
in 1733, and studied at Jesus college, Cambridge, 
England. Having taken orders, he was appointed 
in 1761 by the society for propagating the Gospel 
in foreign parts a missionary at Cambridge, in 
which place he continued four or five years. He 
engaged in a warm controversy with Dr. Mayhcw 
concerning the design and conduct of the society, 
of which he was a missionary. The political 
feelings of the people were mingled with their 
religious attachments ; the cause, which Mr. Ap 
thorp espoused, was unpopular, and he returned 
to England. He was made vicar of Croydon in 
1765, and in 1778 rector of Bow church, London, 
to which he was presented by his friend and 
fellow collegian, bishop Porteus. In 1790, having 
lost his sight, he exchanged these livings for the 
prebend of Finsbury, and having an adequate 
income, he retired to spend the evening of his 
days among the scenes and friends of his youth, 
at the university, in a house provided for him by 
his patron, Bishop Watson. He died at Cam 
bridge, England, April 16, 1816, aged 83 years. 


His wife was the daughter of Foster Hutchinson, 
a brother of the governor. His only son was a 
clergyman ; of three daughters, one was married 
to Dr. Cary and one to Dr. Butler, both heads of 
colleges ; the third married a son of Dr. Palcy. 
Dr. Thomas Bulfinch of Boston married one of 
his sisters, and Robert Bayard of New York 
another. He was eminent as a writer. He 
published a sermon at the opening of the church 
at Cambridge, 17G1; on the peace, 1763; con 
siderations respecting the society for the propaga 
tion, etc., 1763 ; on the death of Ann Wheelwright, 
1764 ; review of Mayhew s remarks on the answer 
to his observations, etc., 1765; discourses on 
prophecy, at the Warburton lecture, Lincoln s 
Inn chapel, 2 vols; and an answer to Gibbon s 
statement of the causes of the spread of Christ 
ianity. Jcnnison, MS. ; Holmes, n. 120,481. 

APTHORP, GEORGE H., missionary to Ceylon, 
died June 8, 1844, aged 46. Born in Quincy, he 
graduated at Yale in 1829, and studied theology 
at Princeton. He sailed from Boston in 1833. 
He lived chiefly at Varany. He said in his sick 
ness, " My faith rests firmly on the rock." 
Among his last words were, " Precious Saviour, 
come, come quickly." His last prayers, both in 
English and Tamul, for all descriptions of men, 
were most earnest. His wife, Mary Robertson, 
of Albemarle county, Va., died in peace Sept. 3, 
1849, aged 41, and was buried by the side of her 

ARBUCKLE, MATTHEW, brigadier-general, 
died at Fort Smith, Ark., June 11, 1851, aged 75. 
He commanded at New Orleans, Fort Gibson, and 
Fort Smith. Thoroughly acquainted with the 
Indians, he always preserved their confidence. 

ARCH, JOHN, a Cherokee Indian and an 
interpreter, died at Brainerd June 8, 1825, aged 
27. When taken sick, he was engaged in trans 
lating John s Gospel into Cherokee, using the 
ingenious alphabet invented by Mr. Guess. He 
had been a Christian convert several years ; and 
he died in peace, saying, " God is good, and will 
do right!" He was buried by the side of Dr. 

ARCHDALE, JOHN, governor of Carolina, was 
appointed to this office by the proprietors, after 
Lord Ashley had declined accepting it. He was 
a Quaker and a proprietor, and arrived in the 
summer of 1695. The settlers received him with 
universal joy. The colony had been in much con 
fusion, but order was now restored. The As 
sembly was called, and the governor by the 
discreet use of his extensive powers settled almost 
every public concern to the satisfaction of the 
people. The price of lands and the form of con 
veyances were settled by law. Magistrates were 
appointed for hearing all causes, and determining 
all differences between the settlers and the 
Indians. Public roads were ordered to be made 



and water passages cut. The planting of rice, 
which has since become the great source of the 
opulence of Carolina, was introduced. A captain 
of a vessel from Madagascar on his way to Great 
Britain anchored off Sullivan s Island and made a 
present to the governor of a bag of seed rice, 
which he had brought from the east. This rice 
the governor divided among some of his friends, 
who agreed to make an experiment. The success 
equalled their expectation, and from this small 
beginning arose the staple commodity of Carolina. 

He continued one year in his government. 
After his return to London, he published a work 
entitled, a new description of that fertile and 
pleasant province of Carolina, with a brief ac 
count of its discovery, settling, and the govern 
ment thereof to this time, with several remark 
able passages during my time, 1707. Holmes; 
Ilewatt, I. 119, 129-131 ; Ramsay, I. 47-50. 

ARCHER, STEVENSON, chief judge of the court 
of appeals in Maryland, died Jan. 25, 1848. 

ARGALL, SAMUEL, deputy governor of Vir 
ginia, came to that colony in 1609 to trade and 
to fish for sturgeon. The trade v\ - as in violation 
of the laws; but as the wine and provisions, 
which he brought, were much wanted, his con 
duct was connived at, and he continued to make 
voyages for Ins OAvn advantage and in the service 
of the colony. In 1612 he carried off Pocahon- 
tas to James Town. In 1613 he arrived at the 
Island, now called Mount Desert, in Maine, for 
the purpose of fishing, and having discovered a 
settlement of the French, which was made two 
years before, he immediately attacked it, and 
took most of the settlers prisoners. Gilbert de 
Thet, a Jesuit father, was killed in the engage 
ment. This was the commencement of hostili 
ties between the French and English colonists in 
America. Capt. Argall soon afterwards sailed 
from Virginia to Acadie and destroyed the French 
settlements of St. Croix and Port Royal. The 
pretext for this hostile expedition in time of 
peace was the encroachment of -the French on 
the rights of the English, which were founded on 
the prior discovery of the Cabots. Argall on his 
return subdued the Dutch settlement at Hudson s 
river. In 1614 he went to England, and returned 
in 1617 as deputy governor. On his arrival he 
found the public buildings at James Town fallen 
to decay, the market place and streets planted 
with tobacco, and the people of the colony dis 
persed in places, which they thought best adapted 
for cultivating that pernicious weed. To restore 
prosperity to the colony Capt. Argall introduced 
some severe regulations. He prohibited all trade 
or familiarity with the Indians. Teaching them 
the use of arms Was a crime to be punished by 
death. He ordered, that all goods should be 
sold at an advance of twenty-five per cent., and 
fixed the price of tobacco at three shillings per 



pound. None could sell or buy at a different 
price under the penalty of three years imprison 
ment. No man was permitted to fire a gun, be 
fore a new supply of ammunition, except in self- 
defence, on pain of a year s slavery. Absence 
from church on Sundays or holidays was punished 
by confinement for the night, and one week s 
slavery to the colony, and on a repetition of the 
offence the punishment was increased. 

The rigorous execution of these laws rendered 
him odious in the colony, and the report of his 
tyranny and his depredations upon the revenues 
of the company reaching England, it was deter 
mined to recall him. Lord Delaware was di 
rected to send him home to answer the charges 
brought against him ; but as his lordship did not 
reach Virginia, being summoned away from life 
while on his passage, the letter to him fell into 
the hands of Argall. Perceiving from it that 
the fine harvest, which now occupied him, would 
be soon ended, he redoubled his industry. He 
multiplied his acts of injustice, and before the 
arrival of a new governor in 1619 set sail in a 
vessel, loaded with his effects. He was the 
partner in trade of the Earl of Warwick, and by 
this connection was enabled to defraud the com 
pany of the restitution, which they had a right to 
expect. In 1620 he commanded a ship of war 
in an expedition against the Algerines ; in 1623 
he was knighted by King James ; in 1625 he 
was engaged in the expedition against the Span 
ish under Cecil. 

His character, like that of most, who were con 
cerned in the government of Virginia, is differ 
ently drawn ; by some he is represented as a 
good mariner, a man of public spirit, active, in 
dustrious, careful to provide for the people, and 
to keep them constantly employed ; and by others 
he is described as negligent of the public busi 
ness, selfish, rapacious, passionate, arbitrary, and 
cruel, pushing his unrighteous gains in every way 
of extortion and oppression. He was, without 
question, a man of talents and art, for he so 
foiled and perplexed the company, that they were 
never able to bring him to any account or pun 
ishment. An account of his voyage from James 
Town, beginning June 19, 1610, in which, missing 
Bermuda, he " put over towards Sagadahoc and 
Cape Cod," and his letter respecting his voyage 
to Virginia in 1613, are preserved in Purchas. 
Belknap s Biography, II. 51-63; Holmes, 144, 
155 ; I. Smith : Stith ; Marshall, I. 56, 107 ; 

AllMISTEAD, Gen. W. K., died at Upper- 
ville, Va., Oct. 13, 1845, aged about 60. He 
was in the army forty years, of correct moral 
deportment : for many years he was chief of the 
corps of engineers. He commanded in 1840 in 
the war against the Florida Indians. 

ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM J., D. D., secretary 


of the American Board of Missions, died in the 
wreck of the steamer Atlantic Nov. 27, 1846, 
aged 50. He was born in 1796 at Mendham, 
N. J., where his father, Dr. A. Armstrong, was 
the minister. He graduated at Princeton in 
1816. When he first began to preach, he sought 
an untried field of labor at Charlottesville, in 
central Virginia, where there was no church, but 
where he gathered one. In 1821 he returned to 
New Jersey, and became for three years the 
pastor of the church in Trenton. He then was 
for ten years pastor of a church in Richmond, 
Va., as the successor of Dr. Rice; and here he 
faithfully toiled with remarkable success. In 
1834 he was chosen a secretary of the American 
Board of Missions as successor of Dr. Wisncr, 
and removed to Boston ; but in 1838 it was 
thought best, that he should reside in New York, 
retaining his connection with the Board. Almost 
every Sabbath he preached, far and wide, on the 
claims of the heathen. 

He made his monthly visit to Boston on 
Monday Nov. 23, 1846, to attend the meeting of 
the Prudential Committee of the Board. A 
storm set in on Wednesday, when he proposed 
to return to New York : in vain did his associates 
advise him not to venture upon the water in such 
a tempest ; but he was desirous to reach home, 
as the next day was thanksgiving. At five o clock 
he left Boston by railroad for Norwich, and pro 
ceeded from Allyn s Point in the steamer Atlantic 
to New London ; but when about nine miles out 
of the harbor the steam-pipe burst, leaving the 
vessel to the north-west wind. The anchors 
dragged, and during the whole day and night 
of Thursday the vessel was at the mercy of the 
storm. As a minister of Christ Dr. A. was busily 
employed in teaching, in exhortation, and prayer, 
that he might aid others in preparing to die. 
About fifty met in the cabin in the afternoon to 
read the Bible and to pray. He was calm and 
resigned. After four o clock in the morning of 
Friday the 27th the vessel went to pieces, as it 
struck the reef, and he and many others died. 
His body was recovered, and his funeral was at 
tended at New York. N. Y. Observer, Dec. 5. 

ARMSTRONG, ROBERT, general, died at Wash 
ington in Feb., 1854, aged about 65. Born in 
East Tennessee, he was a general in the Florida 
war of 1836; afterwards consul at Liverpool. 
Gen. Jackson bequeathed to him his sword. 

ARMSTRONG, JOHN, general, died at Red 
Hook, N. Y., April 1, 1855, aged 84. He served 
as an officer with much credit during the Revolu 
tionary war, at the close of which he published 
the celebrated Newburgh Letters, written with 
great vigor and eloquence. The prudence of 
AVashington gave triumph to milder counsels. 
After the war he was adjutant-general of Penn 
sylvania : he conducted the vigorous movement 




against the settlers at Wyoming. From New 
York he was sent to the Senate of the United 
States : he was also minister in France, after 
Chancellor Livingston. Mr. Madison placed him 
at the head of the war department. After the 
capture of Washington by the British in 1814 he 
was dismissed from office and afterwards lived in 
retirement. He published a brief history of the 
war with England. 

ARMSTRONG, SAMUEL T., died in Boston 
March 26, 1850, aged 66. He was a bookseller, 
in which profession he made a fortune ; mayor 
of the city ; and lieutenant-governor. Among 
the books he published was a stereotype edition 
of Scott s family Bible, which was widely circu 
lated. He was a member of the Prudential 
Committee of the American Board. It is said, 
that it was his purpose, as he had a fortune of 
100 or 150,000 dollars and no children, to 
leave a liberal charitable bequest; but he died 
suddenly in his chair. His wife, a descendant 
of Edward Johnson, survived him. 

ARMSTRONG, JOHN, general, resided in 
Pennsylvania and was distinguished in the Indian 
wars. In 1 7 76, being appointed brigadier-general, 
he assisted in the defence of Fort Moultrie and 
in the battle of Germantown. He left the army 
in 1777 through dissatisfaction as to rank, and 
was afterwards .a member of Congress. He died 
at Carlisle March 9, 1795. He was a professor 
of religion. Lempriere. 

ARNOLD, BENEDICT, governor of Rhode 
Island, succeeded Roger Williams in that office 
in 1657 and continued till 1660 ; he was also 
governor from 1662 to 1666, from 1669 to 1672, 
and from 1677 to 1678, in which last year 
he died. lie had lived in Providence as early 
as 1639. Winthrop speaks of him, " as a great 
friend of Massachusetts, especially in negotiations 
with the Indians." In 1657 he and Coddington 
purchased of the Indian sachems the island of 
Quononoquot, afterwards called James Town. 
Massachusetts Historical Collections, \. 217; 
Savage s V/inthrop ; Farmer. 

ARNOLD, BENEDICT, a major-general in the 
American army, and infamous for deserting the 
cause of his country, died in England June 14, 
1801. He was bred an apothecary with a Dr. 
Lathrop, who was so pleased with him, as to give 
him 500 pounds sterling. From 1763 to 1767 
he combined the business of a druggist with that 
of a bookseller, at New Haven, Conn. Being 
captain of a volunteer company, after hearing of 
the battle of Lexington he immediately marched 
with his company 1 or the American head-quar 
ters, and reached Cambridge April 29, 1775. He 
waited on the Massachusetts committee of safety 
and informed them of the defenceless state of 
Ticondcroga. The committee appointed him a 
colonel, and commissioned him to raise four hun 

dred men, and to take that fortress. He pro 
ceeded directly to Vermont, and when he arrived 
at Castleton was attended by one servant only. 
Here he joined Col. Allen, and on May 10th the 
fortress was taken. 

In the fall of 1775 he was sent by the com- 
mander-in-chief to penetrate through the wilder 
ness of the District of Maine into Canada. He 
commenced his march Sept. 16, with about one 
thousand men, consisting of New England in 
fantry, some volunteers, a company of artillerv, 
and three companies of riflemen. One division, 
that of Col. Enos, was obliged to return from 
Dead river from the want of provisions ; had it 
proceeded, the whole army might have perished. 
The greatest hardships were endured and the 
most appalling difficulties surmounted in this ex 
pedition, of which Ma j. Mcigs kept a journal, and 
Mr. Henry also published an account. The army 
was in the wilderness, between Fort W estern at 
Augusta and the first settlements on the Chaudiere 
in Canada, about five weeks. In the want of 
provisions Capt. Dearborn s dog was killed, and 
eaten, even the feet and skin, with good appe 
tite. As the army arrived at the first settle 
ments Nov. 4th, the intelligence necessarily 
reached Quebec in one or two days ; but a week 
or fortnight before this Gov. Cramahe had been 
apprized of the approach of this army. Arnold 
had imprudently sent a letter to Schuyler, en 
closed to a friend in Quebec, by an Indian, dated 
Oct. 13, and he was himself convinced, from the 
preparations made for his reception, that the In 
dian had betrayed him. Nov. 5th the troops 
arrived at St. Mary s, ten or twelve miles from 
Quebec, and remained there three or four davs. 
Nov. 9th or 10th they advanced to Point Levi, 
opposite Quebec. Forty birch canoes having 
been collected, it was still found necessary to 
delay crossing the river for three nights on ac 
count of a high wind. On the 14th the wind 
moderated ; but this delay was very favorable to 
the city, for on the 13th Col. M Lean, an active 
officer, arrived with eighty men to strengthen the 
garrison, which already consisted of more than a 
thousand men, so as to render an assault hope 
less. Indeed Arnold himself placed his chief 
dependence on the co-operation of Montgomery. 

On the 14th of Nov. he crossed the St. Law 
rence in the night ; and, ascending the precipice, 
which Wolfe had climbed before him, formed his 
small corps on the height near the plains of 
Abraham. With only about seven hundred men, 
one third of whose muskets had been rendered 
useless in the march through the wilderness, 
success could not be expected. It is surprising, 
that the garrison, consisting Nov. 14th of one 
thousand one hundred and twenty-six men, did 
not march out and destroy the small force of 
Arnold. After parading some days on the 



heights near the town, and sending two flags to 
summon the inhabitants, he retired to Point aux 
Trembles, twenty miles above Quebec, and there 
awaited the arrival of Montgomery, who joined 
him on the first of December. The city was im 
mediately besieged, but the best measures had 
been taken for its defence. The able Gen. Carle- 
ton had entered the city with sixty men Nov. 
20th. On the morning of the last day of the 
year an assault was made on the one side of the 
lower town by Montgomery, who was killed. At 
the same time Col. Arnold, at the head of about 
three hundred and fifty men, made a desperate 
attack on the opposite side. Advancing with the 
utmost intrepidity along the St. Charles through 
a narrow path, exposed to an incessant fire of 
grape-shot and musketry, as he approached the 
first barrier he received a musket ball in the left 
leg, which shattered the bone. He was com 
pelled to retire, on foot, dragging " one leg after 
him" near a mile to the hospital, having lost 
sixty men killed and wounded, and three hun 
dred prisoners. Although the attack was unsuc 
cessful, the blockade of Quebec was continued 
till Mav, 1776, when the army, which was in no 
condition to risk an assault, was removed to a 
more defensible position. Arnold was compelled 
to relinquish one post after another, till the 18th 
of June, when he quitted Canada. After this 
period he exhibited great bravery in the com 
mand of the American fleet on Lake Champlain. 
In August, 1777, he relieved Fort Schuyler 
under the command of Col. Gansevoort, which 
was invested by Col. St. Leger with an army of 
from fifteen to eighteen hundred men. In the 
battle near Stillwater, Sept. 19th, he was engaged 
incessantly for four hours. In the action of Oct. 
7th, after the British had been driven into the 
lines, Arnold pressed forward and under a tre 
mendous fire assaulted the works throughout 
their whole extent from right to left. The in- 
trenchments were at length forced, and with a 
few men he actually entered the works ; but his 
horse being killed, and he himself badly wounded 
in the leg, he found it necessary to withdraw, 
and, as it was now almost dark, to desist from the 
attack. Being rendered unfit for active service 
in consequence of his wound, after the recovery 
of Philadelphia he was appointed to the com 
mand of the American garrison. When he en 
tered the city, he made the house of Gov. Penn, 
the best house in the city, his head-quarters. 
This he furnished in a very costly manner, and 
lived far beyond his income. He had wasted the 
plunder, which he had seized at Montreal in his 
retreat from Canada ; and at Philadelphia he was 
determined to make new acquisitions. He laid 
his hands on every thing in the city, which could 
be considered as the property of those, who were 
unfriendly to the cause of his country. He was 

charged with oppression, extortion, and enormous 
charges upon the public in his accounts, and with 
I applying the public money and property to his 
I own private use. Such was his conduct, that he 
drew upon himself the odium of the inhabitants, 
not only of the city, but of the province in gen 
eral. He was engaged in trading speculations, 
and had shares in several privateers, but was un 
successful. From the judgment of the commis 
sioners appointed to inspect his accounts, who 
had rejected above half the amount of his de 
mands, he appealed to Congress ; and they ap 
pointed a committee of their own body to settle 
the business. The committee confirmed the re 
port of the commissioners, and thought they had 
allowed him more than he had any right to ex 
pect. By these disappointments he became irri 
tated, and he gave full scope to his resentment. 
His invectives against Congress were not less 
violent, than those, which he had before thrown 
out against the commissioners. He was, however, 
soon obliged to abide the judgment of a court 
martial upon the charges exhibited against him 
by the executive of Pennsylvania; and he was 
subjected to the mortification of receiving a repri 
mand from Washington. His trial commenced 
in June, 1778, but such were the delays occa 
sioned by the movements of the army, that it was 
not concluded until Jan. 26, 1779. The sentence 
of a reprimand was approved by Congress, and 
was soon afterwards carried into execution. 

Such was the humiliation, to which Gen. Ar 
nold was reduced in consequence of yielding to 
the temptations of pride and vanity, and indulging 
himself in the pleasures of a sumptuous table 
and expensive equipage. From this time his 
proud spirit revolted from the cause of America. 
He turned his eyes to West Point as an acquisi 
tion, which would give value to treason, while its 
loss would inflict a mortal wound on his former 
friends. He addressed himself to the delegation 
of New York, in which state his reputation was 
peculiarly high, and a member of Congress from 
this state recommended him to Washington for 
the service, which he desired. The same appli 
cation to the commander-in-chief was made not 
long afterwards through Gen. Schuyler. Wash 
ington observed, that as there was a prospect of 
an active campaign he should be gratified with 
the aid of Arnold in the field ; but intimated at 
the same time, that he should receive the ap 
pointment requested, if it should be more pleas 
ing to him. Arnold, without discovering much 
solicitude, repaired to camp in the beginning of 
August, and renewed in person the solicitations, 
which had been before indirectly made. He was 
now offered the command of the left wing of the 
army, which was advancing against New York ; 
but he declined it under the pretext, that in con 
sequence of his wounds, he was unable to perform 




the active duties of the field. Without a sus 
picion of his patriotism he was invested with the 
command of \Ycst Point. Previously to his so 
liciting this station, he had in a letter to Col. 
Beverlcy Robinson signified his change of prin 
ciples and his wish to restore himself to the favor 
of his prince by some signal proof of his repent 
ance. This letter opened to him a correspond 
ence with Sir Henry Clinton, the object of which 
was to concert the means of putting the im 
portant post, which he commanded, into the pos 
session of the British general. His plan, it is 
believed, was to have drawn the greater part of 
his army without the works under the pretext 
of fighting the enemy in the defiles, and to have 
left unguarded a designated pass, through which 
the assailants might securely approach and sur 
prise the fortress. His troops he intended to 
place, so that they Avould be compelled to sur 
render, or be cut in pieces. But just as his 
scheme was ripe for execution the wise Disposer 
of events, who so often and so remarkably inter 
posed in favor of the American cause, blasted his 

Maj. Andre, after his detection, apprized Arnold 
of his danger, and the traitor found opportunity 
to escape on board the Vulture, Sept. 25, 1780, a 
few hours before the return of Washington, who 
had been absent on a journey to Hartford, On 
the very day of his escape Arnold wrote a letter 
to Washington, declaring that the love of his 
country had governed him in his late conduct, 
and requesting him to protect Mrs. Arnold. She 
was conveyed to her husband at New York, and 
his clothes and baggage, for which he had 
written, were transmitted to him. During the 
exertions, which were made to rescue Andre from 
the destruction, which threatened him, Arnold 
had the hardihood to interpose. He appealed to 
the humanity of the commander-in-clu ef, and 
then sought to intimidate him by stating the situ 
ation of many of the principal characters of 
South Carolina, who had forfeited their lives, but 
had hitherto been spared through the clemency 
of the British general. This clemency, he said, 
could no longer in justice be extended to them, 
should Maj. Andre suffer. 

Arnold was made a brigadier-general in the 
British service ; which rank he preserved through 
out the war. Yet he must have been held in 
contempt and detestation by the generous and 
honorable. It was impossible for men of this 
description, even when acting with him, to forget 
that he was a traitor : first the slave of his rage, 
then purchased with gold, and finally secured by 
the blood of one of the most accomplished officers 
in the British army. One would suppose, that 
his mind could not have been much at ease ; but 
he had proceeded so far in vice, that perhaps his 
reflections gave him but little trouble. "I am 

mistaken," says Washington in a private letter, 
"if at this time Arnold is not undergoing the 
torments of a mental hell. He wants feeling. 
From some traits of his character, which have 
lately come to my knowledge, he seems to have 
been so hackneyed in crime, so lost to all sense of 
honor and shame, that while his faculties still 
enable him to continue his sordid pursuits, there 
will be no time for remorse." 

Arnold found it necessary to make some exer 
tions to secure the attachment of his new friends. 
With the hope of alluring many of the discon 
tented to his standard, he published an address 
to the inhabitants of America, in which he en 
deavored to justify his conduct. He had encoun 
tered the dangers of the field, he said, from ap 
prehension that the rights of his country were in 
danger. He had acquiesced in the Declaration 
of Independence, though he thought it precipitate. 
But the rejection of the overtures made by Great 
Britain in 1778, and the French alliance, had 
opened his eyes to the ambitious views of those, 
who would sacrifice the happiness of their country 
to their own aggrandizement, and had made him 
a confirmed loyalist. He artfully mingled asser 
tions, that the principal members of Congress 
held the people in sovereign contempt. This 
was followed in about a fortnight by a proclama 
tion, addressed " to the officers and soldiers of the 
continental army, who have the real interest of 
their country at heart, and who are determined 
to be no longer the tools and dupes of Congress 
or of France." To induce the American officers 
and soldiers to desert the cause, which they had 
embraced, he represented, that the corps of 
cavalry and infantry, -which he Avas authorized to 
raise, would be upon the same footing Avith other 
troops in the British senice ; that he should Avith 
pleasure adA r ance those, Avhose valor he might 
Avitness ; that the priA ate men, who joined him, 
should receive a bounty of three guineas each, be 
sides payment at the full value for horses, arms, 
and accoutrements. His object was the peace, 
liberty, and safety of America. " You are 
promised liberty," he exclaims, " but is there an 
indiAidual in the enjoyment of it, saving your op 
pressors ? Who among you dare speak or Avrite 
Avhat he thinks against the tyranny, which has 
robbed you of your property, imprisons your 
persons, drags you to the field of battle, and is 
daily deluging your country with your blood ? " 
" What," he exclaims again, " is America now, 
but a land of AvidoAvs, orphans, and beggars ? As 
to you, Avho have been soldiers in the continental 
army, can you at this day Avant evidence, that the 
funds of your country arc exhausted, or that the 
managers have applied them to their private 
uses ? In either case you surely can no longer 
continue in their sen-ice Avith honor or advantage. 
Yet you have hitherto been their supporters in 



that cruelty, which with equal indifference to 
yours as well as to the labor and blood of others, 
is devouring a country, that from the moment you 
quit their colors will be redeemed from their 
tyranny." These proclamations did not produce 
the effect designed ; and in all the hardships, 
sufferings, and irritations of the war Arnold 
remains the solitary instance of an American 
officer, who abandoned the side first embraced in 
the contest, and turned his sword upon his former 
companions in arms. 

He was soon dispatched by Sir Henry Clinton 
to make a diversion in Virginia. With about 
seventeen hundred men he arrived in the 
Chesapeake in Jan., 1781, and being supported by 
such a naval force as was suited to the nature of 
the service, he committed extensive ravages on 
the rivers and along the unprotected coasts. It 
is said that, while on this expedition Arnold 
inquired of an American captain, whom he had 
taken prisoner, what the Americans would do 
with him, if he should fall into their hands. The 
officer replied, that they would cut off his lame 
leg and bury it with the honors of war, and hang 
the remainder of his body in gibbets. After his 
recall from Virginia he conducted an expedition 
against his native state, Connecticut. He took 
Fort Trumbull Sept. 6th, with inconsiderable loss. 
On the other side of the harbor Lieut-Col. Eyre, 
who commanded another detachment, made an 
assault on Fort Griswold, and with the greatest 
difficulty entered the works. An officer of the 
conquering troops asked, Avho commanded? "I 
did," answered Col. Ledyard, " but you do now," 
and presented him his sword, which was in 
stantly plunged into his own bosom. A merci 
less slaughter commenced upon the brave garrison, 
who had ceased to resist, until the greater part 
were either killed or wounded. After burning 
the town and the stores, which Avere in it, and 
thus thickening the laurels, with which his brow 
was adorned, Arnold returned to New York in 
eight days. 

From the conclusion of the war till his death 
Gen. Arnold resided chiefly in England. In 
1786 he was at St. John s, New Brunswick, 
engaged in trade and navigation, and again in 
1790. For some cause he became very unpopular 
in 1792 or 1793, was hung in effigy, and the j 
mayor found it necessary to read the riot act, and j 
a company of troops was called to quell the mob. 
Repairing to the West Indies in 1794, a French 
fleet anchored at the same island ; he became 
alarmed lest he should be detained by the Ameri 
can allies, and passed the fleet concealed on a : 
raft of lumber. He died in Gloucester place, 
London. He married Margaret, the daughter of 
Edward Shippen of Philadelphia, chief justice, 
and a loyalist. Gen. Greene, it is said, was his 
rival. She combined fascinating manners with 


strength of mind. She died at London Aug. 24, 
1804, aged 43. His sons were men of property 
in Canada in 1829. He fought bravely for his 
country and he bled in her cause ; but his counti-y 
owed him no returns of gratitude, for his sub 
sequent conduct proved, that he had no honest 
regard to her interests, but was governed by 
selfish considerations. His progress from self- 
indulgence to treason was easy and rapid. He 
was vain and luxurious, and to gratify his giddy 
desires he must resort to meanness, dishonesty, 
and extortion. These vices brought with them 
disgrace ; and the contempt, into which he fell, 
awakened a spirit of revenge, and left him to the 
unrestrained influence of his cupidity and passion. 
Thus from the high fame, to which his bravery 
had elevated him, he descended into infamy. 
Thus too he furnished new evidence of the infatu 
ation of the human mind in attaching such value 
to the reputation of a soldier, which may be 
obtained, while the heart is unsound and every 
moral sentiment is entirely depraved. Marshall s 
Washington, IV. 271-290; Warren s Hist. War; 
Holmes ; Stedman, I. 138, 336 ; n. 247 ; Smith s 
Narrative of the Death of Andre ; Maine Hist. 
Coll. I.; Amer. Rememb., 1776, part II. ; 1778, 
part n. 

ARNOLD, PELEG, chief justice of Rhode 
Island, was a delegate to Congress under the 
confederation, and then was appointed judge. He 
died at Smithfield Feb. 13, 1820, aged 68. 

ARNOLD, THOMAS, appointed chief justice in 
1809, died at Warwick, It. I., Oct. 8, 1820. 

ARNOLD, JOSIAH LYNDON, a poet, was born 
at Providence and was graduated at Dartmouth 
college in 1788. After superintending for some 
time the academy at Plainfield, Conn., he studied 
law at Providence and was admitted to the bar; 
but he did not pursue the profession, being ap 
pointed a tutor in the college. On the death, 
March, 1793, of his father, Dr. Jonathan Arnold, 
formerly a member of Congress, he settled at St. 
Johnsbury, Vt., the place of his father s residence, 
where he died June 7, 1796, aged 28 years. His 
few hasty effusions in verse were published after 
his death. Specimens of Amer. Poetry, II. 77. 

ARNOLD, SETH, died at Westminster, Vt., 
Aug. 6, 1849, aged 101 years, 10 months, a 
Revolutionary, pensioner. 

ARNOLD, LKMUEL H., governor, died in 
Kingston, R. I., June 27, 18u2, aged 59. Born 
in St. Johnsbury, he graduated at Dartmouth 
in 1811, and left the bar for mercantile pursuits. 
He was governor of Rhode Island in 1831 and 
1832, and afterwards a member of Congress. 
His father, Jonathan, was of the Continental 
Congress from Rhode Island. 

ASBURY, FIIANCIS, senior bishop of the 
Methodist Episcopal church in the Uniled States, 
came to this country in 1771 as a preacher, at the 




age of twenty-six. In 1773 the first annual con 
ference of the Methodists was held at Philadelphia, 
when it consisted of ten preachers and about 
eleven hundred members. He was consecrated 
bishop by Dr. Coke in 1784. From this time he 
travelled yearly through the United States, 
probably ordaining three thousand preachers and 
preaching seventeen thousand sermons. He died 
suddenly while on a journey, at Spotsylvania, Va., 
March 31, 1S1G, aged 70 years. A letter from J. 
W. Bond to Bishop M Kendree gives an account 
of his death. 

ASH, JOHN, an agent of Carolina, was sent by 
that colony to England to seek redress of 
grievances, in 1703. In the same year he pub 
lished an account of the affairs in Carolina. 

ASHE, THOMAS, published in 1682 a description 
of Carolina. 

ASHE, SAMUEL, governor of North Carolina, 
was appointed chief justice in 1777, and was 
governor from 1796 to 1799. He died Jan., 1813, 
aged 88 years. 

ASHLEY, JONATHAN, minister of Deerfield, 
Mass., was graduated at Yale college in 1730, and 
was ordained in 1738. He died in 1780, aged 
67. He possessed a strong and discerning mind 
and lively imagination, and was a pungent and 
energetic preacher. He proclaimed the doctrines 
of grace with a pathos, which was the effect, not 
merely of his assent to their Divine authority, but 
of a deep sense of their importance and excellency. 
He published a sermon on visible saints, vindicating 
Mr. Stoddarcl s sentiments respecting church 
membership ; a sermon at the ordination of John 
Norton, Deerfield, 1741 ; the great duty of 
charity, 1742; a letter to W. Cooper, 174*5. 

ASHLEY, JOHN, major-general, was the son 
of Col. John Ashley, one of the settlers in 1732 
of Iloussatonnoc, afterwards Sheffield, died Nov. 
5, 1799, aged 60. He descended from Robert 
A. of Springfield, 1630, and was graduated at 
Yale college in 17o8. In the Shays insurrection 
he commanded the force, which dispersed the in 
surgents at Sheffield Feb. 26, 1787. His daughter 
Lydia, married to II. II. Hinman, died in 18<53, 
aged 65. Hint. Berkshire, 213. 

ASHLEY, EDWARD, died at Groton, Conn., 
Jan., 1767, aged 108. 

ASHLEY, WILLIAM II., general, of St. Louis, 
died March 26, 1838. Born in Powhatan county, 
Va., at the age of thirty he emigrated to Missouri, 
then upper Louisiana, and settled near the lead 
mines. He was lieutenant-governor of Missouri, 
and a member of Congress 1831-33. He was 
respected for his talents, enterprise, and integrity. 
In 1822 he projected the "mountain expedition," 
uniting the Indian trade in the Itocky Mountains 
with hunting and trapping, and enlisted in the 
scheme three hundred men. After losses by 

Indian robbery and river disasters he and his as 
sociates acquired a handsome fortune. 

ASIIMUN,- ELI P., died at Northampton May 
10, 1819, aged 48. Born in Blandford, he studied 
law with Judge Sedgwick, and practised in his 
native town until 1807. In 1816 he was a Senator 
of the U. S. A man once asked him for a writ 
against his neighbor, saying, " I will sue him, for 
he has sued me. I can prove he had the property." 
But Mr. A. pushed his inquiries, and asked, if 
the purchaser had paid for the property, and 
extorted the answer, " There was nobody present, 
when he paid me, and he can t prove it." The 
man was sent away from the office with a scorching 

ASIIMUN, JOHN HOOKER, son of the preceding, 
professor of law in Harvard university, died April 
1, 1833, aged 32. He was born July 3, 1800, was 
graduated at Cambridge in 1818, and appointed 
professor in 1829. Dying early, " he had gathered 
about him," said Judge Story, " all the honors, 
which are usually the harvest of the ripest life." 

ASIIMUN, JEHUDI, agent of the American 
Colonization Society, died Aug. 25, 1828, aged 
34. He was born of pious parents in Champlain, 
on the western shore of the lake of the same 
name, New York, in April, 1794. In early life he 
was an unbeliever ; but it pleased God to disclose 
to him the iniquity of his heart and his need of 
mercy and the value and glory of the Gospel. 
He graduated at Burlington college in 1816, and 
after preparing for the ministry was elected a 
professor in the theological seminary at Bangor, 
Maine, in which place, however, he continued but 
a short time. Removing to the District of Co 
lumbia, he became a member of the Episcopal 
church, edited the Theological Repertory and 
published his memoirs of Samuel Bacon. He 
also projected a monthly journal for the American 
Colonization Society, and published one number ; 
but the work failed for want of patronage. 
Being appointed to take charge of a reinforcement 
to the colony at Liberia, he embarked for Africa 
June 19, 1822, and arrived at Cape Montserado 
Aug. 8. He had authority, in case he should 
find no agent there, to act as such for the society, 
and also for the navy department. In the absence 
of the agents, it was at a period of great difficulty, 
that he assumed the agency. The settlers were 
few and surrounded with numerous enemies. It 
was necessary for him to act as a legislator and 
also as a soldier and engineer, to lay out the 
fortifications, superintending the construction, and 
this too in the time of affliction from the loss of 
his wife and while suffering himself under a fever, 
and to animate the emigrants to the resolute pur 
pose of self-defence. About three months after 
his arrival, just as he was beginning to recover 
strength, and while his whole force was thirty-five 



men and boys, he was attacked at the dawn of 
day, Nov. 11, by eight hundred armed savages; 
but by the energy and desperate" valor of the 
agent the assailants were repulsed, with the loss 
of four colonists killed and four wounded, and 
again in a few days, when they returned with 
redoubled numbers, were utterly defeated. Here 
was a memorable display of heroism. The same 
energy, diligence, and courage were displayed in 
all his labors for the benefit of the colony. When 
ill health compelled him to take a voyage to 
America, he was escorted to the place of embarka 
tion, March 26, 1828, by three companies of the 
militia, and the men, women, and children of 
Monrovia parted with him with tears. He left a 
community of twelve hundred freemen. The 
vessel touched and landed him at St. Bartholo 
mew s in very ill health. He arrived at New 
Haven Aug. 10th, a fortnight before his death. 
In his sickness he was very humble and patient. 
He said : " I have come here to die. It is hard to 
be broken down by the slow progress of disease. 
I wish to be submissive. My sins, my sins ; they 
seem to shut me out from that comfort, which I 
wish to enjoy. I have been praying for light; 
and a little light has come, cheering and refresh 
ing beyond expression." An eloquent discourse 
was preached by Leonard Bacon at his funeral, 
describing his remarkable character, the important 
influence on the tribes of Africa of his piety and 
regard to justice, and his great services for the 
colonists. He was, as Mrs. Sigourney represents, 

" Their leader, -when the blast 
Of ruthless war swept b}- ; 
Their teacher, when the storm was past, 
Their guide to worlds on high." 

Mr. Gurlcy, the editor of the African Repository, 
is preparing an account of his life. In the Re 
pository various communications, written by Mr. 
Ashmun, were published ; his memoirs of S. 
Bacon have been already mentioned. African 
Repository, IV. 214-224, 286; Christian Spec- 
tator, II. 528 ; N. Y. Mercury, I. 13. 

ASPINWALL, WILLIAM, M. D., an eminent 
physician, was born in Brookline, Mass., in June, 
1743, and graduated at Cambridge in 1764. His 
ancestor, Peter, was the first settler in Brookline 
in 1650. Dr. Aspinwall studied his profession 
with Dr. B. Gale of Connecticut, and at Philadel 
phia, where he received his medical degree in 
1768. In the war of the Revolution he acted as 
a surgeon in the army. In the battle of Lexing 
ton he served as a volunteer, and bore from the 
field the corpse of his townsman, Isaac Gardner, 
Esq., whose daughter he afterwards married. 
After the death of Dr. Boylston he engaged in 
the business of inoculating for the small pox, and 
erected hospitals for the purpose. Perhaps no 
man in America ever inoculated so many, or had 


such reputation for skill in that disease. Yet, 
when the vaccine inoculation was introduced, 
after a proper trial he acknowledged its efficacy 
and relinquished his own profitable establishment. 
For forty-five years he had extensive practice, 
frequently riding on horseback forty miles a day. 
In his youth he lost the use of one eye ; in his 
old age a cataract deprived him of the other. 
He died April 16, 1823, in his 80th year, in the 
peace of one, who had long professed the religion 
of Jesus Christ and practised its duties. At the 
bed of sickness he was accustomed to give re 
ligious counsel. His testimony in favor of the 
gospel he regarded as his best legacy to his chil 
dren. In his political views he was decidedly 
democratic or republican ; yet he was not a per 
secutor, and when in the council, he resisted the 
measures of the violent. He was anxious, that 
wise and good men should bear sway, and that 
all benevolent and religious institutions should be 
perpetuated. His son of the same name suc 
ceeded him in his profession. Another son, Col. 
Thomas Aspinwall, lost an arm in the war of 
1812 and was afterwards appointed consul at 
London. Tliaclier s Medical Biography. 

ASPLUND, JOHN, died in Maryland in 1807. 
Born a Swede, he was a Baptist minister in Caro 
lina in 1782. He was drowned from a canoe in 
Maryland. With great labor he prepared the 
Register of the Baptist churches in 1791 and 

ASTOR, JOHN JACOB, died in New York March 
29, 1848, aged 84. He was born in Waldrop, 
near Heidelberg, of humble parents, and came to 
Baltimore in 1784, commencing business as a 
fur-trader. He made frequent voyages up the 
Mohawk to trade with the Indians, and exte ndcd 
his business to the Columbia river, founding As 
toria. W. Irving has recorded the over-land 
journeys projected by him to the Pacific. Pre 
vious to the war of 1812 he had ships in the 
Canton trade : their safe arrival during the war 
gave him enormous wealth. He purchased Amer 
ican stocks at sixty to seventy cents, which after 
the Avar were worth twenty per cent, above par. 
His chief wealth was from the purchase of real 

ATHERTON, HUMPHREY, major-general, came 
to this country about the year 1636, succeeded 
Robert Sedgwick in his military office in 1654, 
and was much employed in negotiations with the 
Indians. He died in consequence of a fall from 
his horse Sept. 17, 1661. His residence was at 
Dorchester. Among his children are the names 
of Rest, Increase, Thankful, Hope, Consider, 
Watching, and Patience. Hope, a graduate of 
1665, was the first minister of Hatfield. As 
chaplain he was at the Indian battle in Montague, 
i May 18, 1676. Farmer s Genealogical Ueyis- 
\ ter ; Savage s Wintlirop, II. 137. 




ATHERTdN, CHARLES II., an eminent law 
yer, died at Amherst, N. H., Jan. 8, 1853, aged 
79, a graduate of Harvard in 1794. He was a 
member of Congress 1815-1817, and register of 
probate thirty-nine years. 

ATHERTON, CHARLES G., son of the pre 
ceding, died in Nashua Nov. 15, 1853, aged 53, a 
graduate of Harvard in 1822. He was a repre 
sentative in Congress 1837-1843, and a senator 
from 1843 till his death. lie left a widow, but 
no children to inherit an estate of 200,000 or 
300.000 dollars. 

ATKINS, HEXRY, a navigator, sailed from 
Boston in the ship Whale, on a voyage to Davis 
Straits, in 1729. In this and in subsequent voy 
ages for the purpose of trade with the Indians, 
the last of which was made in 1758, he explored 
much of the coast of Labrador. A short account 
of his observations was published in the first vol 
ume of Mass. Historical Collections. 

ATKINS, ELISHA, minister of Killingly, died 
June 11, 1839, aged 89, formerly a chaplain in the 

ATKINSON, THEODORE, chief justice of New 
Hampshire, was born at New Castle, son of Col. 
Theodore Atkinson, and graduated at Harvard 
college in 1718. He sustained many public offi 
ces, civil and military; was secretary in 1741; a 
delegate to the congress at Albany in 1754, and 
chief justice in the same year. The Revolution 
deprived him of the offices of judge and secre 
tary. He died in 1779, bequeathing 200 pounds 
to the Episcopal church, the interest to be ex 
pended in bread for the poor, distributed on the 
Sabbath. Adams Annals of Portsmouth, 269. 

ATKINSON, ISRAEL, an eminent physician, 
was a native of Harvard, Mass., and graduated at 
Cambridge in 1762. He settled in 1765, at Lan 
caster, where he died July 20, 1822, aged 82. 
For some years he was the only physician in the 
county of Worcester, who had been well edu 
cated. Thaclier s Medical Bioc/rapJty. 

ATKINSON, HEXRY, brigadier-general, died 
near St. Louis June 20, 1842, aged 60. He en 
tered the army in 1808. 

ATLEE, SAMUEL JOHN, colonel, commanded 
a Pennsylvania company in the French war and a 
regiment in the war of the Revolution, and ac 
quired great honor in the battle on Long Island, 
though taken prisoner and subject to a long cap 
tivity. Afterwards he acted as commissioner to 
treat with the Indians. In 1780 he was elected 
to Congress and was on the committee concern 
ing the mutiny of the Pennsylvania troops in 
1781. His usual residence was at Lancaster. 
He died at Philadelphia in Nov., 1786, aged 48. 

ATLEE, WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, a judge of the 
supreme court and president of the common pleas 
for Lancaster and other counties, died at his scat 
on the Susquehanna Sept. 9, 1793. Jcnnison. 

ATWELL, LUCRETIA, Mrs., died at Montville, 
Conn., Nov. 1, 1851, aged 102; retaining all her 
faculties to the day of her death. 

ATWELL, ZACIIARIAH, captain, died at Lynn 
in 1847, aged 67. Crossing the Atlantic seventy 
times, he never lost a man. 

AT WOOD, MARY, the mother of Harriet Newell, 
died in Boston July 4, 1853, aged 84. She was 
the daughter of Thomas Tenney of East Brad 
ford, of an eminent family, and married in 1788 
Moses Atwood, a merchant of Haverhill, who 
died in 1808. The whole care of her family 
now rested upon her ; but she was diligent, pru 
dent, prayerful. When her daughter asked her 
consent to quit her country in the cause of Christ, 
she resigned the beloved one to her work. In 
the course of her life her home was with her 
children in Medford, Newton, Pittsburg, Granby, 
and Philadelphia ; and widely apart did she bury 
most of them, to be gathered together in glory 
eternal. The Journal of Missions for Sept., 1853, 
has a beautiful piece of poetry on her death. 

AUCHMUTY, ROBERT, an eminent lawyer, 
died in 1750. He was of Scottish descent, and 
after his education at Dublin studied law at the 
Temple. He came to Boston in early life ; and 
on the death of Mr. Menzies was appointed judge 
of the court of admiralty in 1703, but held the 
place only a few months. In 1740 he was one 
of the directors of the Land Bank bubble, or 
Manufacturing Company, in which the father of 
Samuel Adams was involved. When sent to 
England as agent for the colony on the boundary 
question with Rhode Island, he projected the 
expedition to Cape Breton, publishing a pam 
phlet, entitled, " the importance of Cape Breton to 
the British nation, and a plan for taking the 
place." On the death of Byfield he was again 
appointed judge of admiralty in 1733. His daugh 
ter married Mr. Pratt. His son Samuel gradu 
ated at Harvard college in 1742, was an Episcopal 
minister in New York, and received the degree 
of doctor in divinity from Oxford. He died 
March 3, 1777 ; and his son, Sir Samuel, licut.- 
general in the British army, died in 1822. His 
name is introduced in the versification of Hugh 
Gaine s petition, Jan. 1, 1783. He is alluded to 
also in Trumbull s M Fingal. His other son, 
Robert, a most interesting, persuasive pleader, 
defended, with John Adams, Capt. Preston. He 
had previously been appointed judge of admiralty 
in 1768. His letters, with Ilutchinson s, were 
sent to America by Franklin in 1773. Like his 
brother, he was a zealous royalist, and left Amer 
ica in 1776. He died in England. Jennison, 
Manuscripts ; Thomas, II. 488 ; Hutchinson s Last 
History, 401 ; Eliot. 

AUDUBON, JOHN JAMES, died at Minniesland, 
near New York, Jan. 27, 1851, aged 71. Born 
of French parents at New Orleans, he was edu- 



cated at Paris. As early as 1810 he went down 
the Ohio in an open boat in search of a forest 
home. His life was a life of adventure and ro 
mantic interest, hardly a region of the United 
States being unvisited by him in his ornithological 
pursuits, lie published a splendid work, Birds 
of America, from original drawings, folio ; also 
Ornithological biography, 8vo. 1831. 

AUSTIN, BENJAMIN, a political writer, died in 
Boston May 4, 1820, aged 68. He early espoused 
the democratic or republican side in the political 
controversy, which raged during the administra 
tion of John Adams. He was bold, unflinching, 
uncompromising. He assailed others for their 
political errors; and he was himself traduced 
with the utmost virulence. Perhaps no man ever 
met such a tide of obloquy. Yet many, who once 
detested his party, have since united themselves 
to it. After the triumph of Mr. Jefferson, he 
was appointed, without soliciting the place, com 
missioner of loans for Mass. In 1806 his son, 
Charles Austin, when attempting to chastise Mr. 
Selfridge for abuse of his father, was by him shot 
and killed in the streets of Boston. Mr. S. was 
tried and acquitted. His political writings, with 
the signature of " Old South," published in the 
Chronicle, were collected into a volume, entitled 
" Constitutional Republicanism/ 8vo. 1803. 

May 10, 1826, aged 78. He rendered important 
services in the Revolution. Born in Boston Jan. 
2, 1748, he was graduated in 1766 ; was a mer 
chant and secretary of the board of war in Mas 
sachusetts. He was sent to Paris in 1777 with 
news to our commissioners of the capture of Bur- 
goyne : presenting a note to Dr. Chauncy s church 
for a safe voyage, the Doctor, who was somewhat 
unskilful, prayed, that whatever might become of 
the young man, the packet might be safe. For 
two years in Paris he was Franklin s secretary. 
A large cake was once sent to the apartment of 
the commissioners, inscribed " Le digne Frank 
lin," the worthy Franklin. F. immediately re 
marked " The present is for all of us these 
French people cannot write English : they mean 
Lee, Deane, Franklin." 

As the agent of Franklin he spent two years 
in London in the family of the Earl of Shel- 
burnc. On his return in May, 1779, he was lib 
erally rewarded by Congress. In 1780 in going 
to Spain as an agent of the state he was cap 
tured and carried to England. lie was secretary 
and treasurer of the state, and an exemplary 
member of the church. His son, James T. Austin, 
was attorney-general in 1832. 

AUSTIN, MOSES, an enterprising settler in 
upper Louisiana, was a native of Durham, Conn., 
and after residing in Philadelphia and Richmond 
emigrated to the west with his family in 1798, 
having obtained a considerable grant of land 


from the Spanish governor. He commenced the 
business of mining at Mine au Breton, and cre 
ated there a town ; but becoming embarrassed by 
his speculations, he sold his estate and purchased 
a large tract near the mouth of the river Colorado, 
in Mexico. Ere his arrangements for removal 
were completed, he died in 1821. Believing the 
gospel, he placed his hopes of future happiness 
on the atonement of the Saviour. Schoolcraft s 
Travels, 1821, p. 239-250. 

AUSTIN, SAMUEL, D. D., president of the uni 
versity of Vermont, was born at New Haven, 
graduated at Yale college in 1783, and ordained, 
as the successor of Allyn Mather, at Fairhaven, 
Conn., Nov. 9, 1786, but was dismissed Jan. 19, 
1790. He was afterwards for many years pastor 
of a church in Worcester, Mass. He was but a 
few years at the head of the college in Burling 
ton. After his resignation of that place he was 
not resettled in the ministry. He died at Glas- 
tenbury, Conn., Dec. 4, 1830, aged 70 years. 
His wife was a daughter of Dr. Hopkins of Had- 
ley. He Avas eminently pious and distinguished 
as a minister. With three other ministers he 
was the projector of the Massachusetts mission 
ary society, and was active in originating the 
Mass, general association. Much might be said 
of his high intellectual character, of his zeal and 
eloquence, his charity, influence, and usefulness. 
But for the last three years it pleased God to 
cast a thick cloud over his mind, so that he was 
in a state of despondence and sometimes in 
paroxysms of horror. His last words in prayer 
were, " Blessed Jesus ! sanctify me wholly." 

He published two important works ; a view of 
the church, and theological essays : also letters 
on baptism, examining Merrill s seven sermons, 
1805 ; reply to Merrill s twelve letters, 1806; and 
the following sermons, on disinterested love, 
1790; ordination and installation of S.Worces 
ter; on the death of Mrs. Blair, 1792; Mass, 
missionary, 1 803 ; dedication at Hadley ; ordina 
tion of W. Fay, J. M. Whiton, N. Nelson, G. S. 
Olds; at a fast, 1811 : at two fasts, 1812 ; view of 
the economy of the church. 

AUSTIN, DAYID, died in Norwich, Conn., Feb. 
5, 1831, aged 71. His father was collector of the 
customs and a merchant in New Haven. He 
graduated in 1779. After travelling abroad he 
was ordained at Elizabethtown, N. J., in 1788. 
His wife, Lydia Lathrop of Norwich, was the 
daughter of a man of wealth. An illness of the 
scarlet fever in 1795, it is supposed, affected his 
reason. He predicted the second coming of 
Christ on the fourth Sunday of May, 1796. As 
the event did not cure him of his delusion, the 
presbytery dismissed him in 1797. By building 
houses for the Jews, who, he thought, were 
coming to New Haven, he incurred debts, for 
which he was imprisoned. Recovering his reason, 




he was the minister of Bozrah from 1815 till his 
death. He published in four vols. the "American 
Preacher," by various ministers, and the " Down 
fall of Babylon." Observer, Aug. 11, 1844. 

AVERY, JOHX, a minister, came to this coun 
try in 1635. While sailing from Xewbury towards 
Marblehead, where he proposed to settle, he was 
shipwrecked in a violent storm Aug. 14, 1635, on 
a rocky island, called Thacher s woe and Avery s 
fall, and died with his wife and six children. 
Mr. A. Thacher escaped. His last words were : 
" I can lay no claim to deliverance from this 
danger, but through the satisfaction of Christ I 
can lay claim to heaven : this, Lord, I entreat of 
thee." Magnal. in. 77 ; Savage, I. 165 ; Eliot. 

AVERY, WILLIAM, Dr., died in Dedham about 
1687, having lived there as early as 1653. Of 
his grandchildren, Joseph was the first minister 
of Norton from 1714 to 1770, and John the first 
minister of Truro, dying in 1754, aged about 70. 
Rev. David A. of Holden and Rev. Daniel A. of 
Wrentham were also his descendants. 

AXTELL, HENRY, D. D., minister of Geneva, 
X. Y., was born at Mendham, X. J., in 1773, and 
graduated at Princeton in 1796. He went to 
Geneva soon after the settlement of that part of 
the state, and was very useful. At the time of 
his ordination in 1812 his church consisted of 
seventy members : at the time of his death of 
about 400. In two revivals his labors had been 
particularly blessed. He died Feb. 11, 1829, 
aged 55. His eldest daughter was placed in the 
same grave. 

BACHE, RICHARD, postmaster-general of the 
United States, was appointed in the place of Dr. 
Franklin in Xov. 1776, and was succeeded by 
Mr. Hazard in 1782. A native of England, he 
came in early life to this country, and was at the 
beginning of the Revolution chairman of the re 
publican society in Philadelphia. He married in 
1767 Sally, the only daughter of Dr. Franklin, 
who died in Oct., 1808; he died at Settle in the 
county of Berks, Penn., July 29, 1811, aged 74. 

BACHE, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, a printer, died 
in 1799. He was the son of the preceding, and 
accompanied Dr. Franklin to Paris, where he 
completed his education as a printer and founder 
in the printing house of the celebrated Didot. 
After his return in 1785 he pursued with honor 
his studies at the college of Philadelphia. In 
Oct., 1790, he commenced the publication of the 
General Advertiser, the name of which was after 
wards changed to that of the Aurora, a paper, 
which under the direction of Mr. Bache and his 
successor, Mr. I Hume, exerted a powerful influ 
ence on the politics of the country in hostility to 
the two first administrations. His widow married 
Mr. Duanc. Jennison s Manuscripts. 

BACHE, GEORGE M., a lieutenant in the navy, 
was swept from the deck of his ship off Cape Ilat- 

teras in a hurricane Sept. 8, 1846. He had toiled 
for eight years in a scientific coast-survey, being 
chief of a hydrographic party. He was a native 
of Philadelphia. 

BACHI, PIETRO, died in Boston Aug. 22, 1853, 
aged 66. Born in Sicily, he came to this country 
in 1825 and was teacher of Italian at Harvard 
from 1826 to 1846. 

BACKUS, ISAAC, a distinguished Baptist min 
ister of Massachusetts, died Xov. 20, 1806, aged 
82. He was born at Xorwich in Connecticut, in 
1724. In 1741, a year memorable for the revival 
of religion through this country, his attention 
was first arrested by the concerns of another 
world, and he was brought, as he believed, to the 
knowledge of the truth, as it is in Jesus. In 
1746 he commenced preaching the gospel; and 
April 13, 1748, he was ordained first minister of 
a Congregational church in Titicut precinct, in the 
town of Middlcborough, Mass. This society was 
formed in Feb., 1743, in consequence of disputes 
with regard to the settlement of a minister. The 
members of it wished for a minister of different 
sentiments from the man, who was settled, and, 
as they could not obtain a dismission from the 
church by an ecclesiastical council, at the end 
of five years they withdrew without this sanction, 
and formed a church by themselves in Feb., 1748. 
The society, however, was not permitted now to 
rest in peace, for they were taxed with the other 
inhabitants of the town for the purpose of build 
ing a new meeting-house for the first church. 

In 1749 a number of the members of Mr. 
Backus church altered their sentiments with re 
gard to baptism, and obtained an exemption from 
the congregational tax ; and he at length united 
with them in opinion. He was baptized by im 
mersion in August, 1751. For some years after 
wards he held communion with those, who were 
baptized in infancy, but he withdrew from this 
intercourse with Christians of other denomina 
tions. A Baptist church was formed Jan. 16, 
1756, and he was installed its pastor June 23 of 
the same year by ministers from Boston and Re- 
hoboth. In this relation he continued through 
the remainder of his life. He had been enabled 
to preach nearly sixty years until the spring before 
his death, when he experienced a paralytic stroke, 
which deprived him of speech, and of the use of 
his limbs. 

Mr. Backus was a plain, evangelical preacher, 
without any pretensions to eloquence. It may be 
ascribed to his natural diffidence that, when 
preaching or conversing on important subjects, 
he was in the habit of shutting his eyes. To his 
exertions the Baptist churches in America owe 
not a little of their present flourishing condition. 
He was ever a zealous friend to the equal rights 
of Christians. When the Congress met at Phil 
adelphia in 1774, he was sent as an agent from 



the Baptist churches of the Warren association 
to support their claims to the same equal liber 
ties, wlu ch ought to be given to every denomina 
tion. In October he had a conference with the 
Massachusetts delegation and others, at which he 
contended only for the same privileges, which 
were given to the churches in Boston; and he 
received the promise, that the rights of the 
Baptists should be regarded. On his return, as a 
report had preceded him, that he had been at 
tempting to break up the union of the colonies, 
he addressed himself to the convention of Mass. 
Dec. 9, and a vote was passed, declaring his con 
duct to have been correct. When the convention 
in 1779 took into consideration the constitution 
of the state, the subject of the extent of the civil 
power in regard to religion naturally presented 
itself, and in the course of debate the perfect 
correctness of the Baptist memorial, which was 
read at Philadelphia, was called in question. In 
consequence of which Mr. Backus published in 
the Chronicle of Dec. 2d a narrative of his pro 
ceedings as Baptist agent, and brought arguments 
against an article in the bill of rights of the con 
stitution of Massachusetts. He believed, that the 
civil authority had no right to require men to 
support a teacher of piety, morality, and religion, 
or to attend public worship ; that the church 
ought to have no connection with the state ; that 
the kingdom of the Lord Jesus was not of this 
world, and was not dependent on the kingdoms 
of this world; and that the subject of religion 
should be left entirely to the consciences of 

The publications of Mr. Backus are more 
numerous, than those of any other Baptist writer 
in America. An abridgement of the whole work 
was published in one volume, when the author 
was 80 years of age. 

Little can be said in commendation of his 
three volumes of the history of the Baptists, of 
which he published an abridgment, brought 
down to 1804. It contains indeed many facts, 
for which the public is indebted to the patient in 
dustry of the writer, and it must be a very valu 
able work to the Baptists, as it presents a minute 
account of almost every church of that denom 
ination in New England. But these facts are 
combined without much attention to the connec 
tion, which ought to subsist between them, and 
the author shows himself too much under the in 
fluence of the zeal of party. Backus Church 
History, III. 139-141 ; Benedict, n. 267-274. 

BACKUS, CHARLES, D. D., an eminent minister, 
was born in Norwich, Conn., in 1749. He lost 
his parents in his childhood, but, as he early dis 
covered a love of science, his friends assisted him 
to a liberal education. He was graduated at 
Yale college in 1769. His theological education 
was directed by Dr. Hart of Preston. In 1774 


he was ordained to the pastoral charge of the 
church in Somers, in which town he remained till 
his death Dec. 30, 1803, after a faithful ministry 
of more than twenty-nine years. In the last 
year of his residence at college the mind of Dr. 
Backus was impressed by Divine truth, and, 
although his conduct had not been immoral, he 
was deeply convinced of his sinfulncss in the 
sight of God. He was for a time opposed to the 
doctrines of the gospel, particularly to the doc 
trine of the atonement, and of the dependence 
of man upon the special influences of the Holy 
Spirit to renew his heart. But at last his pride 
was humbled, and he was brought to an acquaint 
ance with the way of salvation by a crucified Re 
deemer. From this time he indulged the hope 
that he was reconciled unto God. A humble and 
an exemplary Christian, under the afflictions of 
life he quietly submitted to the will of his Father 
in heaven. He was a plain, evangelical, impressive 
preacher. Knowing the worth of immortal souls, 
he taught with the greatest clearness the way of 
salvation through faith in the Redeemer, and 
enforced upon his hearers that holiness, without 
which no man can see the Lord. During his 
ministry there were four seasons of peculiar atten 
tion to religion among his people. Dr. Backus 
was eminent as a theologian. His retired situa 
tion and his eminence as an instructor drew 
around him many, who were designed for the 
Christian ministry. Nearly fifty young men were 
members of his theological school, among whom 
were Drs. Woods, Church, Hyde, Moore, Davis, 
Lovell, and Cooley. He refused invitations to the 
theological chair in Dartmouth and Yale. His 
only child, a son, a member of college, died in 
1794. He was a very fervent, eloquent, extempo 
raneous preacher. In his last sickness he had 
much of the Divine presence. The last words, 
which he was heard to whisper, were, " Glory to 
God in the highest, and on earth peace, good 
will towards men." He published the following 
sermons: at the ordination of A. Backus, 1791; 
of F. Reynolds, 1795 ; of J. Russell, Princeton, 
and T. M. Cooley, 1796 ; of J. H. Church and T. 
Snell, 1798; of Z. S. Moore and V. Gould; on 
death of J. Howard, 1785; of M. Chapin, 1794; 
of Mrs. Prudden ; of six young persons, drowned 
at Wilbraham, 1799; to free masons, 1795; five 
on the truth of the Bible, 1797 ; century sermon, 
1801; a volume on regeneration. 

BACKUS, AZEL, D. D., president of Ham 
ilton college, died Dec. 28, 1816, aged 51. 
He was the son of Jabez Backus of Norwich, 
Conn. His father bequeathed to him a farm in 
Franklin, which, he says, " I wisely exchanged for 
an education in college." He was graduated at 
Yale in 1787. While in college he was a deist; 
but his uncle and friend, Charles Backus of 
Somers, won him from infidelity through the 




Divine blessing, and reared him up for the minis 
try. From the time that he believed the gospel, 
he gloried in the cross. In early life he was or 
dained as the successor of Dr. Bellamy at Beth- 
lorn, where he not only labored faithfully in the 
ministry, but also instituted and conducted a school 
of considerable celebrity. After the establishment 
of Hamilton college, near Utica, he was chosen 
the first president, and was succeeded by President 
Davis of Middlebury college. He was a man of 
an original cast of thought, distinguished by sus 
ceptibility and ardor of feeling and by vigorous 
and active piety. Of his benevolence and good 
ness no one could doubt. In his sermons, though 
familiar and not perhaps sufficiently correct and 
elevated in style, he was earnest, affectionate, and 
faithful. He published a sermon on the death of 
Gov. Wolcott, 1797; at the election, 1798; at the 
ordination of John Frost, Whitesborough, 1813. 
Belig. Intel. I. 527, 592; Panoplist, XIII. 43. 
BACON, NATHANIEL, general, a Virginia rebel, 
died Oct. 1, 1G76. He was educated at the Inns 
of court in England, and after his arrival in this 
country was chosen a member of the council. 
He was a young man of fine accomplishments, of 
an interesting countenance, and of impressive 
eloquence. The treachery of the English in the 
murder of six Woerowances or Indian chiefs, who 
came out of a beseiged fort in order to negotiate 
a treaty, induced the savages to take terrible 
vengeance, inhumanly slaughtering sixty for the 
six, for they thought that ten for one was a just 
atonement for the loss of their great men. Their 
incursions caused the frontier plantations to be 
abandoned. Thus did the crime of the Virginians, 
as is always the case with public crime, draw after 
it punishment. The governor, Berkeley, resorted 
to the wretched policy of building a few forts on 
the frontiers, which could have no effect in pre 
venting the incursions of the savages, who quickly 
found out, as an old history of the affair expresses 
it, " where the mouse-traps were set!" The people, 
in their indignation, determined on wiser and 
more active measures. Having chosen Bacon as 
their general, he sent to their governor for a 
commission, but being refused, he marched with 
out one at the head of eighty or ninety men, and 
in a battle defeated the Indians and destroyed 
their magazine. In the mean time the governor, 
at the instigation of men who were envious of the 
rising popularity of Bacon, proclaimed him a 
rebel May 29, 1G7G, and marched a force against 
him to " the middle plantation," or Williamsburg, 
but in a few days returned to meet the assembly. 
Bacon himself soon proceeded in a sloop with 
thirty men to Jamestown ; but was taken by sur 
prise and put in irons. At his trial before the 
governor and council June 10, he was acquitted 
and restored to the council, and promised also in 
two days a commission as general for the Indian 

war, agreeably to the passionate wishes of the 
people. Their regard to him will account for his 
acquittance. As the governor refused to sign the 
promised commission, Bacon soon appeared at the 
head of five hundred men and obtained it by 
force. Thus was he " crowned the darling of the 
people s hopes and desires." Nor did the people 
misjudge as to his capacity to serve them. By 
sending companies under select officers into the 
different counties to scour the thickets, swamps, 
and forests, where the Indians might be sheltered, 
he restored the dispersed people to their planta 
tions. While he was thus honorably employed, 
the governor again proclaimed him a rebel. This 
measure induced him to countermarch to Wil 
liamsburg, whence he issued, Aug. 6, his declara 
tion against the governor and soon drove him 
across the bay to Accomac. He also exacted of 
the people an oath to support him against the 
forces employed by the governor. He then 
prosecuted the Indian war. In September he 
again put the governor to flight and burned 
Jamestown, consisting of sixteen or eighteen 
houses and a brick church, the first that was built 
in Virginia. At this period he adopted a singular 
expedient to prevent an attack by the governor, 
beseiged by him. He seized the wives of several 
of the governor s adherents and brought them 
into camp; then sent word to their husbands, 
that they would be placed in the fore front of his 
men. Entirely successful on the western shore, 
Bacon was about to cross the bay to attack the 
governor at Accomac, when he was called to sur 
render up his life " into the hands of that grim 
and all conquering captain, Death." In his sick 
ness he implored the assistance of Mr. Wading, a 
minister, in preparing for the future world. 

After the death of Bacon one Ingram, a Aveak 
man, assumed his commission, but was soon won 
over by the governor. Among his followers, who 
were executed, was Col. Hansford, who, with the 
feelings of Maj. Andre, had no favor to ask, but 
that " he might be shot like a soldier, and not be 
hanged like a dog ; " also Capt. Carver, and Far- 
low, and Wilford. Maj. Cheisman died in prison. 
Drummond also, formerly governor of Carolina, 
and Col. llichard Lawrence were \ictims of this 
civil war, which, besides the loss of valuable lives, 
cost the colony 100,000 pounds. After reading 
; the history of this rebellion, one is ready to per 
suade himself, that its existence might have been 
prevented, had the governor consulted the wishes 
of the people by giving Bacon the command in 
the Indian war ; had he been faithful to his own 
promise ; had he not yielded to the envious or 
malignant counsels of others. Had Bacon lived 
and been triumphant, he would probably have 
been remembered, not as an insurgent, but as the 
deliverer of his country. Yet it is very obvious, 
that under an organized government he did not 



prove himself a good citizen, but was an artful 
demagogue, and borne away by a reprehensible 
and rash ambition. Death of Bacon; Keith s 
Hist, of Virginia, 156-162; Chalmers, I. 332- 
335; Beverly, 105; Wynne, II. 222, 223; Mar 
shall, I. 198-201. 

BACON, THOMAS, an Episcopal minister at 
Frederictown, Md., died May 24, 1768. He 
compiled " a complete system of the revenue of 
Ireland," published in 1737 ; also a complete body 
of the laws of Maryland, fol., 1765. He also 
wrote other valuable pieces. Jenn. 

BACON, JACOB, first minister of Keene, N. II., 
died at Rowley in 1787, aged 81. A graduate of 
Harvard in 1731, he was ordained in 1738. The 
settlement was broken up by the Indians in 
April, 1747. He afterwards was settled in Ply 
mouth. His successors at K. were Carpenter, 
Sumner, Hall, Oliphant, and Barstow. The last 
was ordained July 1, 1818. 

BACON, JOHN, minister, of Boston, died Oct. 
25, 1820. He was a native of Canterbury, 
Conn., and was graduated at the college of 
New Jersey in 1765. After preaching for a time 
in Somerset county, Maryland, he and John Hunt 
were settled as colleague pastors over the old 
south church in Boston, as successors to Mr. 
Blair, Sept. 25, 1771. His style of preaching 
was argumentative ; his manner approaching the 
severe. Difficulties soon sprung up in regard to 
the doctrines of the atonement and of imputation 
and the administration of baptism on the half 
way covenant, which led to the dismission of Mr. 
Bacon Feb. 8, 1775. His views seem to have 
been such as now prevail in New England, while 
his church advocated limited atonement and the 
notion of the actual transference of the sins of 
believers to Christ and of his obedience to them. 
Probably the more popular talents of Mr. Hunt 
had some influence in creating the difficulty. Mr. 
Bacon removed to Stockbridge, Berkshire county, 
where he died. He was a magistrate ; a repre 
sentative ; associate and presiding judge of the 
common pleas ; a member and president of the 
state senate ; and a member of Congress. In his 
political views he accorded with the party of Mr. 
Jefferson. He married the widow of his prede 
cessor, Mr. Gumming. She was the daughter of 
Ezekiel Goldthwait, register of deeds. His son, 
Ezekiel Bacon, was a distinguished member of 
Congress just before the war of 1812. He pub 
lished a sermon after his installation, 1772 ; an 
answer to Huntington on a case of discipline, 
1781 ; a speech on the courts of U. S., 1802 ; con 
jectures on the prophecies, 1805. Wisner s Hist. 
0. 8. Church, 33; Hint, of Berkshire, 104, 201. 

BACON, MARY, died at Providence July 3, 
1848, aged 108 ; born June 10, 1740, the daughter 
of John Matthewson. 

BACON, SAMUEL, agent of the American gov- 

ernment for establishing a colony in Africa, was an 
Episcopal clergyman. He proceeded in the 
Elizabeth to Sierra Leone with eighty-two colored 
people, accompanied by Mr. Bankson, also agent, 
and Dr. Crozer ; and arrived March 9, 1820. The 
Augusta schooner was purchased and the people 
and stores were transhipped, and carried to 
Campelar in Sherbro river March 20th. Dr. 
Crozer and Mr. Bankson died in a few weeks, and 
Mr. Bacon being taken ill on the 17th April 
proceeded to Kent, at Cape Shilling, but died two 
days after his arrival, on the 3d of May. Many 
others died. The circular of the colonization 
society, signed by E. B. Caldwell, Oct. 26, 
describes this disastrous expedition. Memoirs 
by Ashmun. 

BADGER, STEPHEN, minister of Natick, Mass., 
was born in Charlestown in 1725 of humble 
parentage, and graduated at Harvard college in 
1747, his name being last in the catalogue, when 
the names were arranged according to parental 
dignity. Employed by the commissioners for 
propagating the Gospel in New England, he was 
ordained as missionary over the Indians at Natick, 
as successor of Mr. Peabody, March 27, 1753, 
and died Aug. 28, 1803, aged 78 years. Mr. 
Biglow represents him as in reality a Unitarian, 
although not avowedly such. He published a 
letter from a pastor against the demand of a con 
fession of particular sins in order to church fellow 
ship ; a letter concerning the Indians in the Mass. 
hist, collections, dated 1797 ; and two discourses 
on drunkenness, 1774, recently reprinted. In 
his letter concerning the Indians he states, that 
Deacon Ephraim, a good Christian Indian of his 
church, on being asked how it was to be accounted 
for, that Indian youths, virtuously educated in 
English families, were apt, when losing the re 
straints under which they had been brought up, 
to become indolent and intemperate like others, 
replied : " Ducks will be ducks, notwithstanding 
they are hatched by the hen," or in his own 
imperfect English "Tucks will be tucks, for all 
ole hen he hatchum." Another Indian of Natick 
once purchased a dram at a shop in Boston, and 
the next spring, after drinking rum at the same 
shop, found that the price of the poison was 
doubled. On inquiring the reason, the dealer 
replied, that he had kept the cask over winter, 
and it was as expensive as to keep a horse. 
" Hah," replied the Indian, " he no eat so much 
hay ; but I believe he drink as much water ! " 
Of the strength of rum the Naticks were un 
happily too good judges. It is deplorable, that in 
1797 there were among the Natick Indians, for 
whom the apostolic Eliot labored, only two or 
three church-members, and not one who could 
speak their language, into which he translated the 
Bible. Among the many causes of their degene 
racy may be mentioned the sale of their lands, 




their intermixture with blacks and whites, leaving 
only about twenty clear-blooded Indians, their 
unconquerable indolence and propensity to excess, 
and perhaps the want of zeal on the part of their 
religious teachers. In 1670 there were forty or 
fifty church-members. The number of Indians 
in 1749 was one hundred and sixty; in 1703 only 
thirty-seven. The war of 1759 and a putrid fever 
had destroyed many of them. Si glow s Hist. 
Natick, 59^-69, 77 ; Col. Hist. Soc. \. 32-45. 

BADGER, WILLIAM, governor of N. H., died 
at Gilmanton Sept. 21, 1852, aged 73. He was 
governor in 1834 and 1835 and had sustained 
many offices. 

BADGER, RACHEL, Mrs., died at Lynde- 
borough, X. II., 1834, aged 100. 

BADGER, JOSEPH, died at Perrysburgh May 
5, 184G, aged 87, a soldier of the Revolution, and 
chaplain under Harrison at Fort Meigs ; an ex 
emplary Christian. 

BADLAM, STEPHEN, brigadier-general of the 
militia, died in Aug., 1815. He was born in Can 
ton, Mass., and joined the American army in 
1775. In the next year, as major of artillery, he 
took possession, July 4th, of the mount, which 
from that circumstance was called Mount Inde 
pendence. He did good service with his fieklpiece 
in the action at Fort Stanwix, under Willett, in 
Aug., 1777. His residence was at Dorchester, 
where he was an eminently useful citizen, acting 
as a magistrate and a deacon of the church. 
Codman s Funeral Sermon ; Panoplist, XI. 572. 

BAILEY, MOUNTJOY, general, died at Wash 
ington March 22, 1836, aged 81 ; an officer of the 

BAILEY, EBENEZER, died at Lynn Mineral 
Springs Aug., 1839, long an eminent teacher of 
youth in Boston. A lock-jaw was occasioned by 
running a nail into his foot. 

BAILEY, MOSES, died in Andover, Mass., 
March 14, 1842, aged 98, leaving one hundred 
and thirty-five descendants. 

BAILEY, JACOB, a graduate of Harvard in 
1755, died in 1808, an Episcopal preacher in 
Pownalborough and Xova Scotia. His journal 
was published in 1853, with a biography by W. J. 

BAILY, JOHN, an excellent minister in Boston, 
died in 1697, aged 53. He was born in 1644 in 
Lancashire, England. From his earliest years 
his mind seems to have been impressed by the 
truths of religion. While he was yet very young, 
his mother one day persuaded him to lead the 
devotions of the family. When his father, who 
was a very dissolute man, heard of it, his heart 
was touched with a sense of his sin in the neglect 
of this duty, and he became afterwards an 
eminent Christian. After having been carefully 
instructed in classical learning, he commenced 
preaching the gospel about the age of twenty-two. 

He soon went to Ireland, where by frequent 
labors he much injured his health, which was 
never perfectly restored. He spent about fourteen 
years of his life at Limerick, and was exceedingly 
blessed in his exertions to turn men from dark 
ness to light. Yet while in this place as well as 
previously, he was persecuted by men, who were 
contending for form and ceremony in violation of 
the precepts and the spirit of the gospel. While 
he was a young man, he often travelled far by 
night to enjoy the ordinances of the gospel, 
privately administered in dissenting congregations, 
and for this presumptuous offence he was some 
times thrown into Lancashire jail. As soon as he 
began to preach, his fidelity was tried, and he 
suffered imprisonment because in his conscience 
he could not conform to the established church. 
While at Limerick a deanery was offered him, if 
he would conform, with the promise of a bishopric 
upon the first vacancy. But disdaining worldly 
things, when they came in competition with duty 
to his Saviour and the purity of Divine worship, 
he rejected the offer in true disinterestedness and 
elevation of spirit. But neither this proof, that 
he was intent on higher objects, than this world 
presents, nor the blamelessness of his life, nor the 
strong hold, which he had in the affections of his 
acquaintance, could preserve him from again 
suffering the hardships of imprisonment, while 
the papists in the neighborhood enjoyed liberty 
and countenance. When he was before the 
judges he said to them, "If I had been drinking, 
and gaming, and carousing at a tavern with my 
company, my lords, I presume, that would not 
have procured my being thus treated as an 
offender. Must praying to God, and preaching 
of Christ with a company of Christians, who are 
peaceable and inoffensive and as serviceable to his 
majesty and the government as any of his sub 
jects; must this be a greater crime?" The 
recorder answered, " We will have you to know 
it is a greater crime." His flock often fasted and 
prayed for his release ; but he was discharged on 
this condition only, that he should depart from 
the country within a limited time. 

He came to New England in 1684, and was 
ordained the minister of Watertown, Oct. 6, 1686, 
with his brother, Thomas Bailey, as his assistant ; 
he removed to Boston in 1692, and became as 
sistant minister of the first church July 17, 1693, 
succeeding Mr. Moody. In 1696 Mr. Wadsworth 
was settled. His brother, Thomas, who died in 
Watertown in Jan., 1689, wrote Latin odes at 
Lindsay in 1668, which are in manuscript in the 
library of the Mass. Historical Society. 

He was a man eminent for piety, of great sen 
sibility of conscience, and very exemplary in his 
life. It was his constant desire to be patient and 
resigned under the calamities, which were ap 
pointed him, and to fix his heart more upon 



things above. His ministry was very acceptable 
in different places, and he was a warm and ani 
mated preacher. Dunton says, " I heard him 
upon these words Looking unto Jesus and 
I thought he spake like an angel." But with all 
his faithfulness he saw many disconsolate hours. 
He was distressed with doubts respecting him 
self; but his apprehensions only attached him 
the more closely to his Redeemer. 

In his last sickness he suffered under a com 
plication of disorders ; but he did not complain. 
His mind was soothed in dwelling upon the suf 
ferings of his Saviour. At times he was agitated 
with fears, though they had not respect, as he 
said, so much to the end, as to what he might 
meet in the way. His last words were, speaking 
of Christ, " O, what shall I say ? He is altogether 
lovely. His glorious angels are come for me ! " 
He then closed his eyes, and his spirit passed 
into eternity. He published an address to the 
people of Limerick ; and man s chief end to 
glorify God, a sermon preached at Watertown, 
1089. Middleton s Evang, Biography, iv. 
101-105; Nonconformist Memorial, i. 331-335; 
Mather s Funeral Sermon ; Magnalia, in. 224- 
238; Eliot. 

BAIXBRIDGE, WILLIAM, commodore, died at 
Philadelphia July 27, 1833, aged 59. He was 
born at Princeton, N. J., the son of Dr. Absalom 
B. : in 1798 he was a lieutenant in the navy ; in 
1800 he commanded a frigate and sailed for 
Algiers. In consequence of his vessel s grounding 
before Tripoli, he was captured in the Philadel 
phia in 1800. In the Constitution he captured 
the British frigate Java, Dec. 29, 1812. After the 
war he had the command at several naval sta 
tions : for several years he was commissioner of 
the navy board. 

BAIRD, THOMAS D., editor of the Pittsburgh 
Christian Herald, died Jan. 7, 1839, aged 65. 

BALCH, WILLIAM, minister of Bradford, Mass., 
was born at Beverly in 1704 and graduated in 
1724. He was a descendant of John Balch, 
who came to this country about 1625 and died at 
Salem in 1648. Ordained in 1728 over the sec 
ond church in Bradford, he there passed lu s 
days, and died Jan. 12, 1792, aged 87 years. 

About the year 1742 or 1743 several members, 
a minority of his church, dissatisfied with his 
preaching, applied to a neighboring church to 
admonish their pastor, agreeably to the Platform. 
A council was convened, which censured the con 
duct of the complainants. But in 1746 Mr. Wig- 
glesworth and Mr. Chipman, ministers of Ipswich 
and Beverly, accused Mr. Balch of propagating 
Arminian tenets. He wrote a reply, mingling 
keen satire with solid argument. After this, they, 
who were dissatisfied with Mr. Balch, built a 
meeting-house for themselves. In his old age he 
received a colleague. He lived in. retirement, 


occupied in agriculture, and raising the best 
apples in Essex. His mental powers retained 
their vigor in old age. New writings delighted 
him; and he engaged freely in theological dis 
cussion. He published the following discourses: 
on reconciliation, 1740; faith and Avorks, 1743; 
at the election, 1749; at the convention, 1760; 
account of the proceedings of the 2d church; 
reply to Wigglesworth and Chipman, 1746. 
Eliot ; Mass. Historical Collections, rv. s. s. 145. 

BALCH, THOMAS, first minister of the 2d parish 
of Dedham, died in 1774, aged about 60. He 
graduated in 1733, and was ordained in 1736. 
He published a sermon at the ordination of J. 
Newman, Edgartown, 1747 ; Christ present, 1748 ; 
at election, 1749; ordination of W. Patten, 1757; 
at artillery election, 1763. 

BALCH, STEPHEN B., D. D., died at George 
town, D. C., Sept, 22, 1833, aged 86. 

BALCH, JOSEPH, died in Johnstown, N. Y., 
Dec. 5, 1855, aged 95, a soldier of the Revolu 
tion, then of Wethcrsfield. At the age of about 
80 he made a Christian profession. On the day 
of his death he was attending a public fast : the 
Bible fell from his hands, and he died. 

BALDWIN, EBENEZER, minister of Danbury, 
Conn., was graduated at Yale college in 1763, and 
was tutor in that seminary from 1766 to 1770. 
He was ordained as successor of Mr. Warner and 
Mr. White, Sept. 19, 1770, and died Oct. 1, 1776, 
aged 31 years. He was a man of great talents 
and learning, an unwearied student, grave in 
manners, and an able supporter of the sound 
doctrines of the gospel. He left a legacy of 
about 300 pounds to his society, which is appro 
priated to the support of religion. Bobbins 
Centennial Sermon. 

BALDWIN, JONATHAN, died at Brookficld in 
1788, aged 57. He was a captain in the French 
war ; and was a prominent member of the Mass, 
congress in 1774 : a colonel in the Revolutionary 
struggle. A soldier, a patriot, a Christian, he was 
also a friend of literature, leaving a bequest to 
Leicester academy. 

BALDWIN, ABRAHAM, a distinguished states 
man, was born in Connecticut in 1754 and grad 
uated at Yale college in 1772. From 1775 to 
1779 he was a tutor in that seminary, being an 
eminent classical and mathematical scholar. Hav 
ing studied law, he removed to Savannah and was 
admitted a counsellor at the Georgia bar, and in 
three months was elected a member of the state 
legislature. At the first session he originated 
the plan of the university of Georgia, drew up 
the charter, by which it was endowed with forty 
thousand acres of land, and, vanquishing many 
prejudices, by the aid of John Milledge persuaded 
the assembly to adopt the project. The college 
was located at Athens, and Josiah Meigs was ap 
pointed its first president. Being elected a dele- 




gate to congress- in 1786, he was an active mem 
ber of the convention, which formed the present 
constitution of the United States, during its ses 
sion from May 25 to Sept. 17, 1787. After its 
adoption he was continued a member of congress 
until 1799, when he was appointed as colleague 
with Mr. Millcdge a senator, in which station he 
remained until his death, at Washington city, 
March 4, 1807, aged 53 years. His remains were 
placed by the side of his friend and former col 
league, Gen. J. Jackson, whom he had followed to 
the grave just one year before. He was the 
brother-in-law of Joel Barlow. Having never 
been married, his economy put it in his power to 
assist many young men in their education. His 
father dying in 1787 with little property, six 
orphan children, his half brothers and sisters, 
were protected and educated by him, and owed 
every tiling to his care and affection. In public 
life he was industrious and faithful. Though firm 
in his own republican principles during the con 
tests of the last ten years of his life, he was yet 
moderate, and indulgent towards his opponents. 
Until a week before his death his public sen-ices 
for twenty-two years had been uninterrupted by 
sickness. National Intelligencer. 

BALDWIN, THOMAS, D. D., a Baptist minister 
in Boston, was born in Norwich, Conn., Dec. 23, 
1753. After he had removed to Canaan, in New 
Hampshire, he became pious, and joined the 
Baptist church in 1781. It was with pain, that 
he thus forsook his connections and early friends, 
for he had been educated a pedo-Baptist and his 
venerable minister at Norwich was his grand 
uncle. Having for some time conducted the re 
ligious exercises at public meetings, in Aug., 1782, 
he ventured for the first time to take a text and 
preach doctrinally and methodically. His ad 
vantages for intellectual culture had been few. 
At the request of the church he was ordained 
June 11, 1783, as an evangelist, and he performed 
the duties of pastor for seven years, besides 
preaching often during each week in the towns 
within a circle of fifty miles, " chiefly at his own 
charges," sometimes receiving small presents, but 
never having a public contribution. In these jour 
neys he was obliged to climb rocky steeps and to 
pass through dismal swamps; and as the poor 
people had no silver, and the continental cur 
rency was good for nothing, sometimes the trav 
elling preacher was obliged either to beg or to 
starve. For several years he was chosen a mem 
ber of the legislature. 

In 1790 he was invited to Boston, as the pastor 
of the second Baptist church. He now success 
fully pursued a course of study, and by his un 
wearied exertions acquired a high rank as a 
preacher. His church, though small in 1790, be 
came under his care numerous and flourishing. 
Of his own denomination in New England he 

was the head, and to him all his brethren looked 
for advice. Besides being connected with most 
of the benevolent institutions of Boston, he was a 
member of the convention for revising the con 
stitution of the state, and just before his death 
was fixed upon, by one party among the people, 
as a candidate for an elector of president of the 
United States. He died very suddenly at Water- 
ville, Me., whither he had gone to attend the 
commencement, Aug. 29, 1825, aged 71 years. 
The following stanza on his death will apply to a 
multitude of others, recorded in this work. 

" He was a goorl man. Yet amid onr tears 
Sweet, grateful thoughts within our bosoms rise ; 
We trace his spirit up to brighter spheres, 
And think with what pure, rapturous surprise 
He found himself translated to the skies : 
From night at once awoke to endless noon. 
Oh ! with what transport did his eager eyes 
Behold his Lord ia glory ? T was the boon 
His heart had longed for ! Why deem we it came to soon ? " 

He published the following discourses : at the 
thanksgiving, 1795 ; quarterly sermon ; at the 
concert of prayer ; account of revival of religion, 
1799 ; on the death of Lieut-Gov. Phillips ; elec 
tion sermon, 1802 ; on the eternal purpose of 
God ; at thanksgiving ; before a missionary soci 
ety, 1804; at the ordination of D. Merrill, 1805; 
installation of J. Winchell, 1814 ; before the fe 
male asylum, 1806; on the death of Dr. Still- 
man ; at the artillery election, 1807 ; and the bap 
tism of believers only, and particular communion 
vindicated, 12mo. 1806. Of this work the first 
and second parts were originally published in 
1789 and 1794. 

rian of the Antiquarian Society at Worcester, w r as 
killed by the upsetting of a stage, in which he 
was travelling, at Norwich, Ohio, Aug. 20, 1835, 
aged 35. He was riding with the driver, and 
leaped from the stage for security, but fell back 
from the bank. 

BALDWIN, LOAMMI, died at Charlestown, 
June 30, 1838, of paralysis. He was graduated 
in 1800, and educated for the law, but became 
one of the most distinguished civil engineers of 
our country. The dry docks at the navy yards at 
Charlestown and near Norfolk and other public 
works attested his skill. He was lamented by 
many friends. 

BALDWIN, ELILTU W., D. D., president of 
Wabash college, Crawfordsville, Ind., died Oct. 
15, 1840, aged 50. Born at Durham, N. Y., he 
graduated at Yale in 1812, studied at Andover, 
and was a minister in New York from 1820 to 
1835. He died in peace and joyful hope. 

BALDAVIN, ELI, D. D., of the Reformed 
Dutch Church at New Brunswick, N. J., died in 

BALDWLN, ASIIBEL, died at Rochester, New 
York, Feb. 8, 1846, aged 89. A graduate of 




Yale, he served in the army, and \vas ordained by 
Bishop Seabury in 1785 the first Episcopal or 
dination in the U. S. He was secretary of the 
general Episcopal convention many years. 

BALDWIN, HENRY, Judge, died in Philadel 
phia Apr. 21, 1844, aged Go. A native of New 
Haven, he graduated in 1797, and settled in 
Pennsylvania. lie was a member of Congress 
and judge of the Supreme Court of the U. S. ; 
and was highly respected. 

BALDWIN, SIMEON, judge, died in New Ha 
ven May 26, 1851, aged 89. He was born in 
Norwich and graduated 1781. After being a 
tutor for several years he commenced the practice 
of the law in 1786. He was in congress from 
1803 to 1805 ; a judge of the superior court in 
1806; in 1822 president of the Farmington canal 
board ; and mayor of the city in 1826. 

BALDWIN, METHUSELAH, minister of Scotch- 
town, N. Y., died in 1847, aged 84. 

BALDWIN, CYRUS, Dr., died in Goodrich, 
Mich., Aug., 1855, aged 81. Born in Worcester, 
he assisted as an earnest Christian in founding 
churches in Baldwinsviile, N. Y., and elsewhere. 
He lived in Hebron, and in Home, Mich., in 
Grand Blanc, in Atlas, and Goodrich. 

BALFOUR, WALTER, died in Charlestown, 
Jan. 3, 1852, aged 74; a Scotchman, who came 
early to this country as a Presbyterian preacher. 
After ten years he became a Baptist, and in a few 
years more a Universalist. He published inqui 
ries, essays, reply and letters to Mr. Stuart, and 
letters to Mr. Hudson. He had also a contro 
versy with Sabinc and Whitman. 

BALL, HEMAN, 1). D., died at Rutland, Vt, 
Dec. 17, 1821, aged 57, highly respected and of 
extensive influence. He was a native of West 
Springfield, and a graduate of Dartmouth in 1791. 
He published a sermon on the death of Washing 

BALL, LUCY, missionary to China, died June 
6, 1844, aged 37. Her name was Mills of New 
Haven ; her husband was Dyer Ball, who em 
barked in 1838. Her oldest daughter made a 
profession of religion in the presence of all the 
missionaries at Hong Kong a few weeks before 
her mother s death. 

BALLANTLNE, JOHN, minister of Wcstfield, 
was the son of John B. of Boston, clerk of court 
and register of deeds, and of Mary Winthrop, 
daughter of Adam W. ; was graduated in 1735 
and was ordained June 17, 1741. He died Feb. 
12, 1776, aged 59. His wife was Mary, daughter 
of Luther Gay and sister of Dr. Gay of Suflield. 
His son, Wm. G., a graduate of 1771, died in 
1854 ; he was the minister of Washington, Mass., 
ancestor of Rev. Henry B., missionary to India. 
His daughter, Mary, married Gen. Ashley. He 
published a sermon on the march of a company 
to Crown Point June 2, 1756. 

BALLARD, JOHN B., died in New York Jan. 
29, 185G, aged 60. A native of Dudley, Mass., 
he was the pastor of several Baptist churches, 
then a dozen years the agent of the Sunday 
school union in N. C. and Ky. ; last a useful tract 
missionary six years in N. Y. 

BALLOU, HOSEA, died June 7, 1851, aged 80. 
Born in Richmond, N. II., the son of a Baptist 
minister, he was a member of the Baptist church ; 
but on becoming a Universalist he was excluded 
from the church. He was settled in Dana, Barn 
ard, Vt., Portsmouth, Salem ; and in the School 
street church in Boston from 1817 till his death. 
He published two orations ; a dedication and or 
dination sermon ; orthodoxy unmasked ; reply to 
T. Merritt ; divine benevolence, 1815 ; strictures 
on Channing s sermon ; series of lecture sermons, 
1818; series of letters; on the atonement, 1828. 

BANCROFT, AARON, D. D., died at Worces 
ter Aug. 19, 1839, aged 84. Born at Reading in 
1735, he graduated at Cambridge in 1778, and 
was the minister of a Unitarian church from 1786 
till his death. He was the father of Mr. Bancroft, 
the historian. 

He published eulogy on Washington, 1800; 
life of Washington, 1807 ; election sermon, 1801 ; 
on conversion, 1818; convention sermon, 1820; 
sermons on the doctrines of the gospel, 1822 ; on 
the death of John Adams; at the end of fifty 
years of his ministry ; and about twenty-five other 
single sermons and controversial pieces. 

BANISTER, JOHN, an eminent botanist, was 
a native of England. After passing some time 
in the West Indies he came to Virginia and set 
tled on James River, near James Town. Rees 
I speaks of him as a clergyman. In 1680 he trans 
mitted to Mr. Ray a catalogue of plants, observed 
by him in Virginia, which was published by Ray 
in the second volume of his history of plants, in 
the preface to the supplement of which work, 
published in 1704, he speaks of Banister as an 
illustrious man, who had long resided in Virginia, 
devoted to botanical pursuits, and as drawing with 
his own hand the figures of the rarer species. He 
mentions a!ro, thnt he had fallen a victim to his 
favorite pursuit before he had completed a work, 
in which he was engaged, on the natural history 
of Virginia. In one of his botanical excursions, 
while clambering the rocks, Banister fell and was 
killed. This event occurred after 1687 and prob 
ably before the end of the century. Many of his 
descendants arc living in Virginia and are very 
respectable. In honor of him Dr. Houston 
named a plant Banisteria, of which twenty-four 
species are enumerated. Lawson says, he " was 
the greatest virtuoso we ever had on the conti 
nent." Besides his " catalogue of plants," his prin 
cipal work in the philosophical transactions 1693, 
other communications on natural history were 
published ; observations on the natural produc- 




tions of Jamaica; the insects of Virginia, 1700; 
curiosities in Virginia ; observations on the musca 
lupus ; on several sorts of snails ; a description 
of the pistolochia or serpentaria Virginiana, the 
snake root. Barton s Med. Jour. II. 134-139 ; 
Hay s Sup.; Lau son, 136. 

BANNEKER, BENJAMIN, a negro astronomer, 
died in Baltimore county, Md., in Oct., 1806, aged 
70. His parents obtained their freedom, and sent 
him to a common school, where he acquired a 
great readiness in calculation. He assisted Ellicott 
in laying out the city of Washington. Procuring 
Mayer s tables, Ferguson s astronomy, and some 
instruments, he made sets of observations for an 
almanac for the years 1792 and 1793. He pub 
lished a letter to the secretary of state, 1792. 

BANNISTER, WILLIAM B., died at Newbury- 
port July 1, 1853, aged 79. Born in Brookfield, 
he was a graduate of Dartmouth in 1797 ; he was 
a man of wealth, pious, and benevolent. In his 
age he married Miss Grant, the eminent teacher 
at Ipswich, \vho survived him. For some years 
he was a member of the senate, and a trustee of 
Amherst college and a visitor of the theological 
seminary at Andover, and a worthy member of 
various charitable institutions, to which he be 
queathed about 40,000 dollars, most of his prop 

BARBOUR, THOMAS, colonel, was a whig of 
the Revolution and in 1769 was a member of the 
house of burgesses of Virginia, which made the 
first protest against the stamp act. He died at 
Barboursville May 16, 1825, aged 90. For 60 
years he had discharged the duties of a civil mag 
istrate, and was many years the sheriff of the 
county, enjoying in a high degree the confidence 
of his fellow citizens. He was the father of 
James Barbour, the secretary of war. 

BARBOUR, PHILIP P., a judge of the Su 
preme court, and a member of congress 1814-25, 
and speaker, died at Washington Feb. 25, 1841, 
aged about 60. He was a man of talents and 
eloquence, and successful. His disease was ossi 
fication of the heart. 

BARBOUR, JOHN S., died in Ciilpepper co., 
Va., Jan. 12, 1855, aged 65 ; from 1823 to 1833 a 
member of Congress, a man of ability and influ 

BARCLAY, ROBERT, governor of East Jer 
sey, the author of the " Apology for the Quakers," 
died in 1690, aged 41. lie was born in 1648 in 
Scotland, and receiving his education at Paris he 
at first imbibed the Catholic tenets, but afterwards 
with his father embraced the principles of the 
Quakers. His book was published in Latin in 
1676, and translated by himself. He travelled 
with William Penn in England and on the conti 
nent. In 1682, when East Jersey was transferred 
to Penn and eleven associates, he was appointed 
the governor, though he never came to this coun 

try; in which office lord Neil Campbell succeeded 
him in 1685. His brother, John, a useful citizen 
of Jersey, died at Amboy in 1731, leaving two 
sons. His grandson, Alexander, was comptroller 
of the customs in Philadelphia, and died in 1771. 

BARCLAY, HENRY, D. D., an Episcopal cler 
gyman in New York, was a native of Albany, 
and graduated at Yale college in 1734. In 
England he received orders in the church, and 
was appointed missionary to the Mohawk Indians. 
Having served in this capacity for some years 
with but little success, he was called to the city of 
New York and appointed rector of Trinity church. 
In this respectable station he continued till his 
death, in 1765. The translation of the liturgy 
into the Mohawk language, made under his di 
rection and that of Rev. W. Andrews and J. 
Ogilvic, was printed in 1769. Mr. Ogilvie suc 
ceeded him both among the Indians and at New 
York. Life of Ritten. 245 ; Miller s Retros 
pect, n. 356. 

BARD, JOHN, a learned physician, died March 
30, 1799, aged 83. He was born in Burlington, 
N. J., Feb. 1, 1716. His father, Peter Bard, an 
exile from France in consequence of the revoca 
tion of the edict of Nantes, came to this country 
in 1703 as a merchant ; he soon married the 
daughter of Dr. Marmion, and was for many 
years a member of the council and a judge of the 
supreme court. 

Mr. Bard received his early education under 
the care of Mr. Annan of Philadelphia, a very 
eminent teacher. About the age of fifteen he 
was bound an apprentice for seven years to Dr. 
Kearsly, a surgeon of unhappy temper and rigor 
ous in the treatment of his pupils. Under his 
thraldom the kindness of Mrs. Kearsly and the 
friendship of Dr. Franklin beguiled his sorrows. 
He engaged in business in 1737 and soon ac 
quired a large share of practice and became much 
respected. In 1743 he was induced by urgent ap 
plications from New York to remove to that city 
to supply the loss of several eminent physicians. 
Here he continued till within a few months of his 
death. In the year 1795, when the yellow fever 
had put to flight a number of physicians, who 
were in the meridian of life, the veteran Dr. Bard, 
though verging towards his eightieth year, re 
mained at his post. In May, 1798, he removed 
to his estate at Hyde Park, near Poughkecpsie. 
Here he continued in the enjoyment of perfect 
health, till he felt a paralytic stroke, which in a 
few days occasioned his death. He was a firm be 
liever in the truth and excellency of the Christian 
religion. In a letter to his son, Dr. Samuel Bard, 
he said, " above all things suffer not yourself by 
any company or example to depart, either in your 
conversation or practice, from the highest rever 
ence to God and your religion." In liis old age 




he was cheerful and remarkable for his gratitude 
to his heavenly Father. 

Dr. Bard was eminent in his profession, and his 
practice was very extensive. Soon after the close 
of the war with Great Britain, on the re-establish 
ment of the medical society of the state of NCAV 
York, he was elected its president, and he was 
placed in the chair for six or seven successive 
years. He possessed a singular ingenuity and 
quickness in discriminating diseases ; yet he did 
not presumptuously confide in his penetration, 
but was remarkably particular in his inquiries into 
the circumstances of the sick. Ever desirous of 
removing the disorders, to which the human frame 
is subject, his anxiety and attention were not 
diminished, when called to visit the indigent, from 
whom he could not expect compensation. His 
conduct through his whole life was marked by the 
strictest honor and integrity. In conversation he 
was polite, affable, cheerful, and entertaining. To 
his pupils he was not only an instructor, but a 
father. In the early part of his life he devoted 
much attention to polite learning, in which he 
made great proficiency. He possessed a correct 
and elegant taste, and wrote with uncommon ac 
curacy and precision. He drew up an essay on 
the pleurisy of Long Island in 1749, which paper 
was not published ; a paper, inserted in the Lon 
don Medical Observations; and several. papers on 
the yellow fever and the evidence of its importa 
tion, inserted in the American Medical Register. 
In 1750 he assisted Dr. Middleton in the first re 
corded dissection in America, that of Hcrmannus 
Carroll, executed for murder. Thacher s Med. 
Biog. 96-103 ; M Vickar s life of S. Sard. 

BAUD, SAMUEL, M. D., son of the preceding, 
died May 24, 1821, aged 79. He was born in 
Philadelphia April 1, 1742. When a boy, in order 
to screen a servant, who had broken his father s 
cane, he falsely took the blame to himself. His 
father praised his generosity, but severely pun 
ished his falsehood, thus giving him a lesson on 
the value of truth, which he was careful to trans 
mit to his children. From his mother he received 
early impressions in favor of religion. Residing 
one summer, on account of ill health, in the fam 
ily of Lieut.-Gov. Golden, his father s friend, he 
acquired a taste for botany under the teaching of 
Miss Golden. His skill in painting enabled him 
to perpetuate the beauty of plants. While a stu 
dent at Columbia college he formed the habit of 
early rising, at daylight in summer and an hour 
previous to it in winter, which he continued 
through life. In Sept., 1761, he embarked for 
England in order to obtain a thorough medical 
education, and was absent, in France, England, 
and Scotland, five years. His professional studies 
were pursued with undiminished zeal, and espe 
cially under the illustrious teachers in the school 
of Edinburgh. Such was his skill in botany, that 

he obtained the annual medal, given by Dr. Hope, 
the professor, for the best collection of plants. 
He received his degree at Edinburgh in May, 
1765. On his return he found his father in debt 
for his education, which had cost more than a 
thousand pounds; he entered into partnership 
with him and for three years drew notliing beyond 
his expenses from the profits of the business, 
amounting to 1500 a year. Having thus hon 
orably discharged this debt, he married liis cousin 
Mary Bard, a lady of beauty and accomplish 
ments, to whom he had long been attached. He 
formed this connection on a stock of 100, ob 
serving, that " his wife s economy would double his 

Dr. Bard formed the plan of the medical school 
of New York, which was established within a year 
after his return. He was appointed professor of 
the practice of physic. Medical degrees were 
first conferred in 1769. In the same year the 
hospital was founded by his exertions ; but the 
building was burnt, causing a delay of the estab 
lishment until 1791. In 1774 he delivered a 
course of chemical lectures. In the time of the 
war he left the city, placing his family in the 
house of his father at Hyde Park ; but, anxious to 
provide for his wife and children, and to secure 
his property, he the next year by permission 
returned to New York, while the enemy had 
possession of it, and engaged anew in his pro 
fessional business, after being a considerable time 
without a call and reduced to his last guinea. 
After the return of peace Washington selected 
him as his family physician. At this period he 
lost four out of his six children by the scarlatina, 
which prevailed in a virulent form, attended with 
delirium. In consequence of the illness of Mrs. 
Bard he withdrew from business for a year, 
devoting himself to her. A prayer for her 
recovery was found among his papers. In 1784 
he returned to the city. At this period he devoted 
5000 guineas to enable his father to free himself 
from debt. At another time, when he had ac 
cumulated 1500 guineas, he sent that sum to 
England, but lost it by the failure of the banker. 
On receiving the intelligence, he said to his wife, 
" We are ruined ; " but she replied, " Never mind 
the loss, we will soon make it up again." Having 
formed the purpose to retire from business, he in 
1795 took Dr. Hosack into partnership, and in 
1798 removed to his seat in the neighborhood of 
his father at Hyde Park. But, when the yellow 
fever appeared, he resolutely returned to his post. 
By his fearless exposure of himself he took the 
disease, but nursed by his faithful wife he recovered. 
The remaining twenty-three years of his life were 
spent in happy retirement, surrounded by his 
children and grandchildren, delighted with their 
society, and finding much enjoyment also in 
agricultural improvements, in contemplating the 




beauties of nature, and in the gratification of his 
continued thirst for knowledge. For the benefit 
of those, who with himself had engaged in rearing 
merino sheep, he published "The Shepherd s 
Guide." In 1813 he was appointed president of 
the college of physicians and surgeons. His 
discourses, on conferring degrees, were very im 
pressive. He died of the pleurisy, and his wife 
of the same disorder the preceding day; they 
were buried in one grave. It had long been 
their wish to be thus united in death, and a re 
markable dream of Mrs. Bard to tin s effect was 

Dr. Bard was attached to the Episcopal mode 
of religious worship. The church at Hyde Park 
was chiefly founded by him in 1811, and to 
provide for the absence of its rector he procured 
a license to act as lay reader at the age of seventy. 
He regularly devoted a part of the morning to 
religious reading and reflection. Of religion he 
said to his son, William Bard, Esq., " This is our 
stronghold, our castle and rock of defence, our 
refuge in times of adversity, our comforter under 
misfortune, our cheerful companion and friendly 
monitor in the hours of gladness and prosperity." 
The following is an extract from the form of 
dailv devotion, used by himself and wife : " O 
God! enlighten our understanding, that we may 
comprehend thy will, strengthen our resolution to 
obey thy commands, endow us with resignation 
under thy dispensations, and fill our hearts with 
love and gratitude for all thy benefits. Give unto 
us, O Lord, whose lives thou hast continued to so 
late a day, sincere and true repentance, and grant, 
that as age advances upon us, our minds may be 
more and more enlightened by the knowledge of 
thy will, more resigned to thy dispensations, and 
more invigorated with the resolution to obey thy 
commands. Calm all our thoughts and fears; 
give peace and quiet to our latter days ; and so 
support us by thy grace through the weakness 
and infirmities of age, that we may die in humble 
hope and confidence of thy merciful pardon 
through the merits of our Redeemer." He pub 
lished a treatise de viribus opii, 17 Go; on angina 
sufiocativa, repub. in vol. I. Amer. Phil. Soc. ; on 
the use of cold in hemorrhage ; compendium of 
midwifery, 1807, and subsequent editions; many 
occasional addresses to public bodies ; and anni 
versary discourses to medical students. Life by 
McVickar; Thaclier s Med. Diog. 103-143. 

BARKER, JOHN, general, an officer of the 
Revolution, died at Philadelphia April 3, 1818, 
aged 72; he was sheriff, mayor, and a popular 

BARLOW, JOEL, an eminent statesman and 
poet, died in Poland Dec. 22, 1812, aged 08. He 
was born at Reading, Conn., March 24, 1754, 
and was the youngest of ten children. His 
father, Samuel, a respectable fanner, died while he 

was yet at school, leaving him property sufficient 
only to defray the expenses of his education. In 
1775 he was placed at Dartmouth college ; but he 
very soon removed to Yale college, where he was 
graduated in 1778, being ranked among the first 
cf his class, for talents and learning, and particu 
larly conspicuous for his skill in poetry. During 
the vacations of the college he more than once 
seized his musket, and repaired as a volunteer to 
the camp, where four of his brothers were on duty. 
He was present at several skirmishes, and is said 
to have fought bravely in the battle of the Wlu te 

After leaving college he engaged for a short 
time in the study of the law ; but, being urged to 
qualify himself for the office of chaplain, he 
applied himself diligently to the study of theology, 
and at the end of six weeks was licensed to 
preach. He immediately joined the army and 
discharged the duties of his new station until the 
return of peace. As a preacher he was much 
respected. But in the camp he continued to 
cultivate his taste for poetry, writing patriotic 
songs, and composing, in part, his Vision of Co 
lumbus. He also published in 1780 an elegy on 
the death of his early friend and patron, Titus 
Hosmcr, and in 1781 a poem entitled "The 
Prospect of Peace," which he had pronounced at 
Commencement. About this time he married 
Ruth Baldwin of New Haven, sister of Abraham 

In 1783, after the army was disbanded, he 
returned to the study of the law at Hartford, 
where for his immediate support he established a 
weekly newspaper. The original articles, which 
he inserted, gave it celebrity and a wide circula 
tion. In 17 80 he was admitted to the bar and 
in the same year published a corrected and 
enlarged edition of Watts version of the Psalms 
with a collection of hymns. It was printed at 
Hartford by "Barlow & Babcock." This work 
was undertaken at the request of the General 
.Association of the ministers of Connecticut, and 
published by their recommendation. Many of 
the psalms were altered so as to be adapted to 
the American churches, several were Avritten 
almost anew, and several, which had been 
omitted by Dr. Watts, were supplied. Barlow 
inserted also some original hymns. In 1787 he 
published the Vision of Columbus, a large poem, 
with flattering success. It was dedicated to Louis 
XVI. Some of its interesting passages are said 
to be imitations or copies of descriptions in the 
Incas of Marmontel. 

About this time he gave up his concern in the 
weekly paper, and opened a book-shop, chiefly 
with a view to the sale of his poem and of the 
new edition of the psalms.. Having accomplished 
these objects, he quitted the business and engaged 
in the practice of the law. But in this profession 




he was not successful. lie was concerned in 
several occasional publications at Hartford, par 
ticularly in the Anarchiad, a very singular poem, 
which was projected by Dr. Hopkins, and which 
had considerable political influence. In an oration 
July 4, 1787, he earnestly recommended an 
efficient general government, the new Constitution 
being then under consideration of the convention 
at Philadelphia. Urged by the necessity of pro 
viding for his subsistence, he went to Europe in 
1788 as the agent of the Scioto land company, 
but ignorant of their fraudulent designs. From 
England he crossed over to France, where he 
made sale of some of the lands ; but in the 
result he was left without any resource for his 
maintenance, excepting his own talents and repu 
tation. At this period his zeal for republicanism 
induced him to take an active part in the French 
Revolution, being particularly connected with the 
Girondists, or the moderate party. In 1791 he 
went to England, where he published the first 
part of his " Advice to the Privileged Orders," a 
work in which he reprobates the feudal system, 
the national church establishments, the military 
system, the administration of justice, and the 
system of revenue and finance, as they exist in 
the royal and aristocratical governments of Eu 
rope. In Feb., 1792, he published the " Conspiracy 
of Kings," a poem of about four hundred lines, 
occasioned by the first coalition of the continental 
sovereigns against France ; and in the autumn of 
the same year a letter to the national convention 
of France, in which he recommends among other 
measures the abolition of the connection between 
the government and the national church. These 
publications brought him some profit as well as 
fame. At the close of this year he was deputed 
by the London constitutional society to present 
their address to the French national convention, 
which conferred upon him the rights of a French 
citizen. Feari ul of the resentment of the English 
government, he now fixed his residence in France. 
A deputation being soon sent to Savoy to organize 
it as a department of the Republic, he accompanied 
it with his friend, Gregoire, to Chamberry, the 
capital, where he resided several months, and at 
the request of his legislative friends wrote an 
address to the people of Piedmont, inciting them 
to throw off their allegiance to their king. At 
this time he also composed " Hasty Pudding," a 
mock didactic poem, the most popular of his 
poetical productions. After his return to Paris he 
translated Volney s Ruins, but his time was prin 
cipally occupied by commercial speculations, in 
which he acquired a large property. Shocked by 
the atrocities of the Revolution, he took little 
part in politics. 

About the year 179o he went to the north of 
Europe to accomplish some private business, 
entrusted to him, and on lus return was appointed 

by President Washington as consul at Algiers, 
with powers to negotiate a treaty of peace with 
the l)ey and redeem the American captives on the 
coast of Barbary. He immediately left Paris, and 
passing through Spain crossed over to Algiers. 
He soon concluded a treaty and negotiated also a 
treaty with Tripoli, rescuing many American 
citizens from slavery. His humane exertions were 
attended with great danger. In 1797 he resigned 
his consulship and returned to Paris, where he 
purchased the splendid hotel of the Count Cler- 
mont de Tonnerc, in which he lived for some years 
in a sumptuous manner. 

On the occurrence of the rupture between his 
native country and France, he published a letter 
to the people of the United States on the meas 
ures of Mr. Adams administration. Tin s was 
soon followed by a second part, containing specu 
lations on various political subjects. At this 
period he presented a memoir to the French 
government, denouncing the whole system of 
privateering, and contending for the right of 
neutrals to trade in articles contraband of war. 

In the spring of 180.3, having sold his real 
estate in France, he returned to America after an 
absence of nearly seventeen years. He purchased 
a beautiful situation and house near Georgetown, 
but within the limits of the city of Washington. 
This place he called " Kalorama." He printed in 
180G a prospectus of a national institution at 
Washington, which should combine a university 
with a learned society, together with a military 
and naval academy and a school of fine arts. In 
compliance with this project a bill was introduced 
into the Senate, but it was not passed into a law. 

In 1808 he published the Columbiad, a poem, 
which had been the labor of half his life, in the 
most splendid volume, which had ever issued from 
the American press. It was adorned by excellent 
engravings, executed in London, and was inscribed 
to Robert Fulton, with whom he had long lived in 
friendship and whom he regarded as his adopted 
son. This work, though soon published in a 
cheaper form, has never acquired much popularity. 
As an epic poem it has great faults both in the 
plan and the execution. It is justly exposed to 
severe criticism for some extravagant and absurd 
flights of fancy and for the many new-coined and 
uncouth words which it contains. Its sentiments 
also have been thought hostile to Christianity. 
Gregoire addressed a letter to the author, re 
proving him for placing the cross among the 
symbols of fraud, folly, and error. Mr. Barlow in 
his reply declared, that he was not an unbeliever, 
or that he had not renounced Christianity, and 
justified the description, which had offended 
Gregoire, on the ground that he had been ac 
customed to regard the cross not as the emblem 
of Christianity itself but of its corruptions by 




In 1811 he was nominated a minister plenipo 
tentiary to the French government, but in his 
attempt to negotiate a treaty of commerce and 
indemnification for spoliations he was not success 
ful. At length, in October, 1812, he was invited 
to a conference with the emperor at Wilna. He 
immediately set off, travelling day and night. 
Overcome by fatigue, and exposed to sudden 
changes from extreme cold to the excessive heat 


of the small cottages of the Jews, which are the 
only taverns in Poland, he was seized by a violent 
inflammation of the lungs, which terminated his 
life at Zarnowica, or Zarnowitch, an obscure 
village near Cracow. His widow died in Wash 
ington May 30, 1818, aged 62. 

He was of an amiable disposition and domestic 
habits, generally silent in mixed company, and 
often absent in mind. His manners were grave 
and dignified. If, as there is reason to conclude, 
though once a preacher of the gospel he had 
ceased to regard it as of Divine authority, and 
died without the support of its glorious promises ; 
there is no wise man, who will envy him the 
possession of his worldly prosperity and distinc 
tion acquired at the price of the abandonment 
of the religion, which he once preached. As a 
poet Mr. Barlow will hardly live in the memory 
of future ages. His vision of Columbus, replete 
with the scenes of the Revolution, acquired, not 
withstanding its imperfections, great popularity as 
a national, patriotic poem. But, when cast anew 
into an epic form, with the attempt to give, by 
means of a vision, an epic unity to a long scries of 
unconnected actions, presenting philosophical spec 
ulation rather than interesting narrative, the Co- 
lumbiad sunk into neglect. Besides intellectual 
power a poet must have a rich fancy, a refined 
taste, and a heart of feeling. Mr. Barlow had 
meditated a general history of the United States, 
and made large collections of the necessary docu 

He published several pieces in American Poems ; 
prospect of peace, 1781 ; vision of Columbus, 1787 ; 
the conspiracy of kings, London, 1796; advice to 
privileged orders, in tw o parts ; a letter to the 
national convention ; address to the people of 
Piedmont; hasty pudding, a poem, 12mo. 1796; 
the Columbiad, 4to. 1808, and 12mo. 1809; ora 
tion on the fourth July, 1809. London Monthly 
Mag. 1798; Public Characters, 1806, p. 152- 
180; Monthly Mag. and American Revieiv, I. 
465-468; Analectic Mag. IV. 130-158; Speci 
mens of American Poetry, II. 1-13. 

BARNARD, JOHN, minister of Marblchead, 
died Jan. 24, 1770, aged 88 years. He was born 
in Boston Nov. 6, 1681. His parents were re 
markable for their piety, and they took particular 
care of his education. He was graduated at Har 
vard college in 1700. In the former part of his 
collemal course the sudden death of two of his 

acquaintance impressed his mind and led him to 
think of his own departure from this world; but 
the impression was soon effaced. However, be 
fore he left that institution he was brought to 
repentance, and he resolved to yield himself to 
the commands of God. In 1702 he united him 
self to the north church in Boston under the 
pastoral care of the Mathers. In 1705 he was 
invited to settle at Yarmouth, but he declined 
accepting the invitation. He was employed for 
some time as an assistant to Dr. Colman. Being 
fond of active life, he was appointed by Gov. 
Dudley one of the chaplains, who accompanied 
the army to Port Royal in 1707 to reduce that 
fortress. In an attempt to take a plan of the 
fort, a cannon ball was fired at him, that covered 
him with dirt without doing him any injury. At 
the solicitation of Capt. John Wentworth, he 
sailed with him to Barbadoes and London. While 
he was in this city the affair of Dr. Sachcverel 
took place, of which he would often speak. He 
became acquainted with some of the famous dis 
senting ministers, and received some advantageous 
offers of settlement if he would remain in Eng 
land. He might have accompanied Lord Whar- 
ton to Ireland as his chaplain, but he refused to 
conform to the articles of the national church. 
Soon after this he returned to seek a settlement 
in his own country. The north church in Boston 
was built for him and he preached the dedication 
sermon May 23, 1714, expecting soon to be or 
dained according to mutual agreement; but a 
more popular candidate, a Mr. Webb, being in 
vited at the request of Dr. Cotton Mather, the 
people chose him for their pastor. Of this trans 
action he could not speak with calmness to the 
day of his. death. He was ordained minister of 
Marblehead July 18, 1716, as colleague with Mr. 
Cheever. In 1762 he received Mr. Whitwell as 
his assistant. The last sermon, which he preached, 
was delivered Jan. 8, 1769. 

Mr. Barnard was eminent for his learning and 
piety, and was famous among the divines of 
America. During the latter part of his life, Avhen 
he retained a vigor of mind and zeal uncommon 
at so advanced an age, he was regarded as the 
father of the churches. His form was remark 
ably erect, and he never bent under the infirmi 
ties of years. His countenance was grand, his 
mien majestic, and there was a dignity in his 
whole deportment. His presence restrained the 
imprudence and folly of youth, and when the 
aged saw him, they arose and stood up. He 
added a knowledge of the Hebrew to his other 
theological attainments ; he was well acquainted 
Avith the mathematics; and he excelled in skill 
for naval architecture. Several draughts of his, 
the amusement of leisure hours, were commended 
by master ship-builders. When he first went to 
Marblehead and for some years afterwards, there 



was not one trading vessel belonging to the town. 
It was through his exertions, that a commercial 
improvement soon took place. Having taken 
great pains to learn " the mystery of the fish 
trade," he directed the people to the best use, 
which they could make of the advantages of their 
situation. A young man was first persuaded to 
send a small cargo to Barbadoes, and his success 
was so encouraging, that the people were soon 
able in their own vessels to transport their fish to 
the West Indies and Europe. In 1767 there 
were thirty or forty vessels, belonging to the 
town, employed in the foreign trade. When Mr. 
Barnard first went to Marblehead, there was not 
in the place so much as one proper carpenter, 
nor mason, nor tailor, nor butcher. 

By prudence in the management of his affairs 
he acquired considerable property; but he gave 
tithes of all he possessed. His charity was of a 
kind, which is Avorthy of imitation. He was not 
disposed to give much encouragement to common 
beggars, but he sought out those objects of be 
nevolent attention, who modestly hid their wants. 
The poor were often fed by him, and the widow s 
heart was gladdened, while they knew not where 
to return thanks, except to the merciful Father 
of the wretched. In one kind of charity he was 
somewhat peculiar. He generally supported at 
school two boys, whose parents were unable to 
meet this expense. By his last will he gave 200 
pounds to Harvard college. He left no children. 
In his sickness, which terminated in his death, he 
said with tears flowing from his eyes, " My very 
soul bleeds, when I remember my sins ; but 1 
trust I have sincerely repented, and that God will 
accept me for Christ s sake. His righteousness is 
my only dependence." 

The publications of Mr. Barnard are numerous 
and valuable. They show his theological knowl 
edge, and his talents as a writer. His style is 
plain, warm, and energetic. The doctrines, which 
he enforces, are the same, which were embraced 
by the fathers of New England. His autobiog 
raphy is in Historical Collections, in. vol. v. He 
published a sermon on the death of G. Cur- 
win of Salem, 1717; on the death of his col 
league, S. Cheever, 1724; history of the strange 
adventures of Philip Ashton, 1725 ; two discourses 
addressed to young persons, with one on the 
earthquake, 1727 ; a volume of sermons on the 
confirmation of the Christian religion, on com 
pelling men to come in, and the saints victory 
and rewards, 1727 ; judgment, mercy, and faith, 
1729; on the certainty of the birth of Christ, 
1731 ; election sermon, 1734; call to parents and 
children, 1737 ; convention sermon, 1738 ; zeal 
for good works, 1742; election sermon, 174G; 
the imperfection of the creature and the excel 
lency of the divine commandment, in nine ser 
mons, 1747; the mystery of the gospel in the 

salvation of a sinner, in several discourses, 1750; 
a version of the psalms, 1752 ; a proof of Jesus 
Christ s being the Messiah, a Dudleian lecture, 
the first that was published, 1756; the true di 
vinity of Jesus Christ, 1761; a discourse at the 
ordination of Mr. Whitwcll, a charge, and an ad 
dress to the people, annexed to Mr. T. Barnard s 
ordination sermon, 1762. A letter from Mr. Bar 
nard to President Stiles, written in 1767, giving a 
sketch of the eminent ministers of New England, 
is published in the Mass. Hist. Coll. WhitvielVs 
Funeral Sermon ; Collections of Historical So 
ciety, VIII. 66-69; X. 157, 167 ; Holmes, II. 525. 

BARNARD, JOHN, minister of Andover, Mass., 
was the grandson of P rancis Barnard of Hadley, 
and the son of Thomas Barnard, the third min 
ister of Andover, who was ordained colleague 
with Francis Dane in 1682 and died Oct. 13, 1718. 
The first minister of Andover was J. Woodbridge. 
Mr. Barnard was graduated in 1709 and suc 
ceeding his father in the ministry died June 14, 
1758, aged 68. During liis ministry Mr. Phillips 
was the minister of the south parish. He was 
succeeded by Mr. Symmes. His sons were min 
isters of Salem and Haverhill. He published a 
discourse on the earthquake ; to a society of 
young men; on sinful mirth, 1728; on death of 
A. Abbot, 1739 ; at ordination of T. Walker, 
1731 ; election sermon, 1746. 

BARNAHI), THOMAS, minister of Salem, the 
son of the preceding, died Aug. 15, 1776, aged 62. 
He was graduated at Harvard college in 1732 
and ordained at Newbury Jan. 31, 1739. Dis 
turbed by those, who called in question the cor 
rectness of his sentiments, he was dismissed at his 
own request, and afterwards studied law. He was 
installed Sept. 17, 1755, as the minister of the 
first church at Salem, and received Asa Dunbar 
as his colleague in 1772 ; Dr. Prince succeeded 
Mr. Dunbar in 1779. A paralytic affection im 
paired his mental powers. He was regarded as a 
semi-arian of Dr. Clarke s school, and as rather an 
Arminian, than a Calvinist. As a preacher he 
was destitute of animation and he was deficient 
in perspicuity of style. He published discourses 
at the ordination of E. Barnard, 1743; of Mr. 
Bailey of Portsmouth, 1757; of W. Whitvell, 
1762; before the society for encouraging industry, 
1757 ; at the artillery election, 1758; at the elec 
tion, 1763; Dudleian lecture, 1768; at the funeral 
of P. Clarke, 1768. Muss. Historical Collec 
tions, vi. 273. 

BARNARD, EDWARD, minister of Haverhill, 
the brother of the preceding, was graduated in 
1736, and ordained April 27, 1743, as the suc 
cessor of John Brown. He died Jan. 26, 1774, 
aged 53, and was succeeded by John Shaw. In 
his last days a division sprung up in his society. 
There were those, who accused him of not preach 
ing the gospel. He was regarded as an Ar- 




minian. Yet he was accustomed to preach, as he 
said, " the fallen state of man, which gave rise to 
the gospel dispensation, the fulness and freeness 
of divine grace in Christ as the foundation of all 
our hopes, the influence of the Spirit, the necessity 
of regeneration, implying repentance towards 
God and faith towards onr Lord Jesus Christ, the 
necessity of practical religion, originating from 
evangelical principles." He was an excellent 
scholar and a highly esteemed preacher and min 
ister. He published a poem on the death of 
Abiel Abbot ; sermon at the ordination of II. 
True, 1754; of G. Merrill, 1765; of T. Cary; at 
the fast, 1764; at the election, 1766; at the con 
vention, 1773. SaltonstalVs Sketch of Haver- 
hill in Historical Collections, n. s. IV. 143-146. 

BARNARD, THOMAS, D. D., minister in Salem, 
the son of T. Barnard, graduated at Harvard col 
lege in 1766, and was ordained over the north 
church Jan. 13, 1773. He died of the apoplexy 
Oct. 1, 1814, aged 66. He published the follow 
ing discourses : at the ordination of A. Bancroft, 
1786; of I. Nichols, 1809; at the election, 1789; 
at the convention, 1793 ; before the humane so 
ciety, 1794; at the thanksgiving; Dudleian lec 
ture, 1795; at thanksgiving, 1796; before a char 
itable society, 1803 ; before the society for propa 
gating the gospel among the Indians, 1806 ; be 
fore the Bible society of Salem, 1814. 

BARNARD, JEREMIAH, minister of Amherst, 
N. H., died Jan. 15, 1834, aged 84. 

BARNES, DAVID, D. D., minister of Scituate, 
Mass., was born at Marlborough, graduated in 
1752, and ordained Dec. 4, 1754. His predeces 
sors in the second society since 1645 were Weth- 
erell, Mighill, Lawson, Eelles, and Dorby. He 
died April 27, 1811, aged 80 years. His wife was 
the daughter of Col. G. Leonard. David L. 
Barnes, a lawyer of Providence, appointed dis 
trict judge of Rhode Island in 1801, and who 
died Nov. 3, 1812, was lu s only son. Dr. Barnes 
is represented as remarkable for meekness. A 
volume of his sermons was published with a bio 
graphical sketch. He published an ordination 
sermon, 1756 ; on the love of life and fear of 
death, 1795 ; on the death of "Washington, 1800; 
on the death of James Hawley, 1801 ; ordination 
sermon, 1802; discourse on education, 1803. 
Mass. Historical Collections, s. s. iv. 237. 

BARNES, DANIEL II., a distinguished con- 
chologist, died in the meridian of life Oct. 27, 
1818. He and Dr. Grificom originated and con 
ducted with great reputation the high school of 
New York. He was also a Baptist preacher. 
Invited by Gen. Van Rcnsselacr to attend the 
first public examination of the school established 
by him at Troy, he proceeded to New Lebanon 
and there preached on Sunday, the day before his 
death, from the text, " Ye know not what shall 
be on the morrow. For what is your life," &c. 


On Monday, while riding between Nassau and 
Troy, the driver being thrown from his seat as 
the stage was rapidly descending a hill, Mr. 
Barnes in his alarm jumped from the carriage and 
fractured his skull. He died in a short time 
after. Of the New York Lyceum of natural lu s- 
tory he was an active member. He was a clas 
sical scholar of high attainments, and of a most 
estimable character as a man. He had presided 
over several seminaries, and refused the presi 
dency of the college at Washington city. He 
was probably the first conchologist in the United 
States. His learned communications on con- 
chology were published in Silliman s journal, with 
explanatory plates. Of his writings in that jour 
nal the following is a catalogue : geological sec 
tion of the Canaan mountain, v. 8-21 ; memoir 
on the genera unio and alasmodonta, with nu 
merous figures, VI. 107-127, 258-280 ; five species 
of chiton, with figures, VII. 69-72 ; memoir on 
batrachian animals and doubtful reptiles, XI. 269- 
297, XIII. 66-70 ; on magnetic polarity, XIII. 70- 
73 ; reclamation of unios, XIII. 358-364. Silli 
man s Journal, XV. 401. 

BARNES, JOHN, died in Dudley in 1813, aged 
92, a Revolutionary soldier. 

BARNES, JOHN, a distinguished engineer, died 
at Marseilles Sept, 24, 1852. 

BARNES, LEWIS, a worthy, respected citizen 
of Portsmouth, died June 27, 1856, aged 79. A 
native of Gottenburg, with ancestors of rank, his 
name was Ludwig Baarnhiclm. On coming to 
this country at the age of 14, he lived at Salem 
under the patronage of Hasket Derby, and changed 
his name to Barnes. For more than fifty years 
he lived in Portsmouth. At first he commanded 
a ship, and then became a merchant ; and was 
intelligent, charitable, and a blessing to the com 
munity. His last hours were peaceful, full of 
faith and hope. His daughter married C. S. 
Franklin of New York. 

BARNEY, JOSHUA, commodore, a distinguished 
commander, died Dec. 1, 1818, aged 59. He was 
born in Baltimore July 6, 1759. In early life he 
made several voyages. At the beginning of the 
war he entered as master s mate in the sloop-of- 
war Hornet, in which vessel he accompanied the 
fleet of Commodore Hopkins, who in 1775 cap 
tured New Providence. Promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant for his bravery, he was captured in 
the Sachem, but was soon exchanged. He was 
twice afterwards captured. But in Oct., 1779, he 
and his friend Capt. Robinson brought a valuable 
prize into Philadelphia. In 1780 he married the 
daughter of Alderman Bedford. In a lew weeks 
afterwards, having all his fortune with him in 
paper money, he was robbed of it, wliilc going to 
Baltimore. Without mentioning his loss he soon 
went to sea, but was captured and sent to Ply 
mouth, England. From the Mill prison he es- 



capcd, and returning to Pennsylvania, the state in 
March, 1782, gave him the command of the 
Ilyder Ally, a small ship of sixteen guns. In 
this vessel, carrying four nine and twelve six 
pounders, he captured, April 26th, after an action 
of twenty-six minutes, the Gen. Monk of eighteen 
guns, nine pounders, with the loss of four killed 
and eleven wounded. The Gen. Monk lost thirty 
killed and fifty-three wounded. In Sept., 1782, 
he sailed in the command of the Gen. Monk, 
which was bought by the United States, with 
dispatches for Dr. Franklin at Paris ; he brought 
back a valuable loan from the king of France in 
chests of gold and barrels of silver. In 17% he 
went to France with Mr. Monroe, deputed the 
bearer of the American flag to the national con 
vention, lie was induced to take the command 
of a squadron in the French service, but resigned 
in 1800 and returned to America. In 1813 he 
was appointed to the command of the flotilla for 
the defence of the Chesapeake. He participated 
in the battle of Bladensburg Aug. 24, 1814, and 
was wounded in the thigh by a ball, which was 
never extracted. In May, 1815, he was sent on 
a mission to Europe, and returned in Oct., and 
resided on his farm at Elkridge. He visited the 
western country in 1817. Having resolved to em 
igrate to Kentucky, while on his journey he was 
taken ill at Fittsburg and died there. He had 
been forty-one years in public service and engaged 
in twenty-six battles and one duel. He fought 
with Lemuel Tailor in private combat Sept. 3, 
1813, observing the laws of honor but con 
temning the laws of liis country and of God. 
The want of moral courage, the courage to do 
right in disregard of the opinion of those, who 
judge wrong, the want of fixed virtuous principle, 
is a great deficiency in any character. Encyclo 
paedia Americana. 

BARON, ALEXANDER, M. D., was born in 
Scotland in 1745, and received his medical educa 
tion at Edinburgh. He arrived at Charleston, 
S. C., and soon obtained extensive practice in part 
nership successively with Drs. Milligan, Oliphant, 
and S. and R. Wilson. He died Jan. 9, 1819, 
aged 74. He had great reputation as a physi 
cian. Possessing extensive knowledge and en 
dowed with almost every attribute of genius, he 
was a most agreeable and instructive companion. 
His affability and kindness made him a favorite 
with the younger members of the profession. 
Thaclier s Med. Biog. 144-146. 

had the title of colonel, and was lieut.-gov. of 
Cape Breton, and afterwards of Prince Edward 
Island. He died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, Oct. 22, 
1804, aged 102 years. During the revolutionary 
war he published in 1780, by order of Admiral 
Howe, for the use of the British navy, valuable 
charts of the coasts and harbors in the gulf of 


St. Lawrence, of Nova Scotia, of New England, 
of New York and southerly, compiled from sur 
veys by Maj. Samuel Holland, surveyor-general. 
These charts of DCS Barres were authentic and 
useful surveys of these extensive coasts. All 
the numerous islands in Casco bay and along the 
whole coast of Maine are here described. A copy, 
with the title of Atlantic Neptune, Vol. IL, is in 
the library of Bowdoin college and another in 
that of the American philosophical society at 

BARRON, SAMUEL, a commodore in the navy, 
commanded about the year 1798 the brig Au 
gusta, equipped by the citizens of Norfolk in con 
sequence of aggressions by the French. When a 
fleet was sent to the Mediterranean in 1805 to 
co-operate with Gen. Eaton in his operations 
against Tripoli, Com. Barron had the command 
of it ; but ill health induced him to transfer the 
command to Capt. Rodgers. Eaton was indig 
nant at the negotiation for peace conmmcnced by 
Barron. On his return Barron felt keenly the 
neglect of the government in not continuing him 
in service. A few months before his death he 
was made superintendent of the naval arsenal at 
Gosport. He died of the apoplexy at Hampton, 
Va., Oct. 29, 1810. In the private walks of life 
he was greatly esteemed. Norfolk Ledger; 
Life of Eaton, 368. 

BARRON, JAMES, commodore, died in Norfolk, 
Apr. 21, 1851, aged 82. His father was commo 
dore of the vessels of Virginia. He was lieuten 
ant in 1798; in 1799 he went to the Mediterra 
nean under the command of his brother Samuel. 
In the ship Chesapeake he was compelled to 
strike to the British frigate Leopard, after winch 
he was not on sea duty. 

BARRY, JOHN, first commodore in the Amer 
ican navy, died Sept. 13, 1803, aged 58. He was 
born in the county of Wcxford, Ireland, in 1745. 
With an education adapted to his proposed ac 
tive life upon the sea, he came to this country 
about 1760, and was for years employed by the 
most respectable merchants in the command of 
vessels, having their unreserved confidence. In 
Feb., 1776, congress appointed him to the com 
mand of the brig Lexington of sixteen guns, and 
he sailed on a successful cruise from Philadelphia. 
From this vessel he was transferred to the Effing- 
ham, a large frigate. Shut up by the ice in the 
winter he joined the army as aid to Gen. Cadwal- 
lader in the operations near Trenton. When 
Philadelphia was in the hands of the enemy and 
the American frigates were up the river, at White- 
hill, Barry formed and executed the project of de 
scending the river in boats to cut off the supplies of 
the enemy. For this enterprise he received the 
thanks of Washington. After his vessel was de 
stroyed, he was appointed to the command of 
the Raleigh of thirty-two guns, which a British 


squadron compelled him to run on shore at Fox s 
island in Penobscot bay. He next made several 
voyages to the West Indies. In Feb., 1781, he 
sailed in the frigate Alliance of thirty-six guns 
from Boston for L Orient, carrying Col. Laurens 
on an embassy to the French court. On his re 
turn, May 29, 1781, he fought the ship of war 
Atlanta, of between twenty and thirty guns, and 
her consort the brig Trepasa. After a severe ac 
tion both struck their colors. Com. Barry was 
dangerously wounded in the shoulder by a grape- 
shot. He sailed again from Boston in the Alli 
ance, and carried La Fayette and Count de 
Noailles to France, and proceeded on a cruise. 
Returning from Havana he fought a vessel of the 
enemy of equal size, which escaped only by the 
aid of her consorts. It is related, that Gen. 
Howe at one period attempted to bribe him to 
desert the cause of America by the promise of 
fifteen thousand guineas and the command of a 
British frigate, and that the offer was rejected 
with disdain. Under the administration of Mr. 
Adams he superintended the building at Philadel 
phia of the frigate United States, of which he 
retained the command, until she was laid up in 
ordinary after the accession of Mr. Jefferson to 
the executive chair. He died at Philadelphia of 
an asthmatic affection. His person, above the 
ordinary stature, was graceful and commanding. 
His strongly marked countenance expressed the 
qualities of his mind and virtues of lu s heart. 
He possessed all the important qualities, requisite 
in a naval commander. Though a rigid discipli 
narian, his kindness and generosity secured the 
attachment of his men. There was no desertion 
from his ship. To the moral deportment of his 
crew he scrupulously attended, and he enforced on 
board a strict observance of divine worship. Ed 
ucated in the habits of religion, he experienced 
its comforts ; and he died in the faith of the gos 
pel. Portfolio ; American Naval Biography, 

BARRY, WILLIAM T., died at Liverpool, Aug. 
30, 1835. A native of Kentucky, he had been a 
senator, and postmaster-general, and minister to 

BARSTOW, JOHN, deacon, died in Canterbury, 
Conn., Dec. 9, 1838, aged 85. A soldier, he -was 
present at the surrender of Burgoync. In the 
army he kept a journal. His services to the town 
and church were very great. Many years super 
intendent of the Sabbath school, in lu s old age he 
taught the aged. In his sickness he sent word to 
his friends to prepare to meet him in heaven. lie 
was the father of Rev. Dr. B. of Keene. 

BARTLETT, Josun, M. D., governor of New 
Hampshire, died suddenly of a paralytic affection, 
May 19, 1795, aged 65. He was the son of Ste 
phen Bartlctt, and born in Amcsbury, Mass., in 



Nov., 1729. After an imperfect medical education 
he commenced the practice of physic at Kings 
ton in 1750. During the prevalence of the angi 
na maligna in 1754, lu s successful antiseptic prac 
tice in the use of the Peruvian bark established 
lu s fame. He also acted as a magistrate, and 
Gov. W r entworth gave him the command of a reg 
iment, but at last deprived him of his commis 
sions in Feb., 1775, in consequence of his being a 
zealous whig. Being appointed a delegate to con 
gress, his name was first called as representing 
the most easterly province, on the vote of the de 
claration of independence, and he boldly an 
swered in the affirmative. In 1777, as medical 
agent, he accompanied Stark to Bennington. In 
1778 he withdrew from congress. He was ap 
pointed chief justice of the court of common 
pleas in 1779, a justice of the superior court in 
1784, and chief justice in 1788. In 1790 he was 
President of New Hampshire, chosen by the leg 
islature, though Pickering and Joshua Wentwor th 
received each many more of the votes of the peo 
ple. In 1791 and 1792 he was chosen by the 
people. He had nominated his rival, J. Picker 
ing, chief justice. In 1793 he was elected the 
first governor under the new form of government. 
Of the medical society, established by his efforts 
in 1791, he was the president. The duties of his 
various offices were faithfully discharged. He 
was a good physician, devoting most of his time 
to his profession. His patriotism induced him to 
make great sacrifices for the public good. By the 
force of his talents, without much education, he 
rose to his various high offices. His mind was 
discriminating, his judgment sound, and in all 
his dealings he was scrupulously just. In his last 
years his health was impaired and after the loss 
of his wife in 1789 his spirits greatly depressed. 
His son, Dr. Ezra B., died at Ilaverhill, N. II., 
Dec. 6, 1848, aged 78. ThacJier s Med. Biog., 
147-150 ; Eliot ; Goodrich s Lives. 

BARTLETT, Josun, M. I)., was born in 
jCharlestown in 1759, and studied physic with Dr. 
I. Foster, who was chief surgeon of the military 
hospital in the war of 1775, under whom he served 
as surgeon s mate till 1780. He then went two 
voyages as surgeon to ships of war. He settled 
in Charlestown, where for many years he had 
extensive practice. At length misfortune broke 
down liis spirits and health, and life ceased to be 
desired. After two years the apoplexy terminated 
his life March 5, 1820. He had been a represen 
tative, senator, and councillor. He delivered 
many orations, medical, political and literary ; and 
published various papers in the works of the 
medical society and in the N. E. medical journal ; 
address to free masons, 1797; discourse before 
the Middlesex medical association ; progress of 
medical science in Mass., 1810; history of 




Charlestown, 1814; oration on the death of Dr. 
John Warren, 1815. Thacher s Med. Biog., 150, 

BARTLETT, JOSIAH, M. D., died at Stratham 
April 14, 1838, aged 70. The son of Governor 
Josiah B., he Avas a member of Congress in 1811- 

BARTLETT, JOHN, died at Marblehead in 
Feb., 1840, aged GO, having been the pastor of the 
Unitarian church thirty-seven years. He published 
two discourses. 

BARTLETT, ELISHA, M. D., died in Smith- 
field, R. I., July 19, 1855, aged about 40. For 
some years he had been unable to practice. 
When residing at Lowell, he was its first mayor; 
afterwards he was at the head of a medical college 
at the West, whence in failing health he went back 
to the old homestead in R. I. 

BARTLETT, SHUBAEL, minister of Scantic, 
descended from the little company, which landed 
at Plymouth in 1620, and his character corres 
ponded with that of his puritan ancestry. At the 
age of twenty-two he entered Yale college, in 
which he and one other were the only professors 
of religion. lie graduated in 1800, and having 
studied theology with Dr. Dwight was ordained at 
East Windsor Feb. 12, 1804; and there he died 
June 6, 1854, aged 76. A half-century sermon, 
which he prepared, was read to his people by his 
son-in-law, Rev. S. B. Brown, late a missionary to 
Cliina. He was a faithful preacher, endowed 
with a spirit of prayer. During his ministry five 
hundred and twenty-four members were added to 
his church. His descent was from several of the 
Pilgrims at Plymouth. 

BARTLETT, WILLIAM, a generous benefactor 
of theological literature, was born in Newbury 
Jan. 31, 1748, and died Feb. 8, 1841, aged 93. 
He was one of the founders of the theological 
seminary in Andover. He gave 25,000 dollars to 
endow a professorship of sacred rhetoric; built 
two professors houses, one of the large halls, and 
the chapel; paid the president s salary for five or 
six years ; contributed largely to another professor 
ship ; and bequeathed 50,000 dollars in his Mill. 

BARTLETT, ZACCIIEUS, M. D., died at Ply 
mouth in Dec., 1835, aged 70. A graduate of 
Harvard in 1780, he was a member of the state 
convention in 1820, and president of the pilgrim 

BARTLETT, ICIIABOD, a lawyer of distinction 
in N. II., died at Portsmouth Oct. 19, 1853, aged 
67. Born in Salisbury, he graduated at Dart 
mouth in 1808, and lived first in Durham, then in 
P. He Avas a member of Congress from 1823 to 

BARTLETT, RICILUID, secretary of state of 
IS T . II., died at New York Oct. 23, 1837, aged 45. 

BARTLETT, ELISIIA, died in Georgia, Vt., in 
1855, aged 100, a soldier of the Revolution. His 

father was Moses B., the minister of Chatham, 
Conn., who graduated in 1730, and died in 1766. 

BARTON, THOMAS, an Episcopal minister, M as 
a native of Ireland and educated at the university 
of Dublin. In 1753 he married at Philadelphia 
the sister of Mr. Rittenhouse, and the next year 
Avas ordained in England. His talents and learn 
ing M ere of great service to his friend Mr. Ritten 
house, who enjoyed few advantages of early edu 
cation. From 1755 to 1759 he M as a missionary 
of a society in England and resided in Redding 
township, York county. In 1758 he M as a chap 
lain in the expedition against Fort Du Qucsne, 
and became acquainted M ith Washington and 
Mercer and other distinguished officers. He 
resided in Lancaster as rector nearly twenty years. 
Adhering to the royal government in the Revolu 
tion and refusing to take a required oath, he M cnt 
in 1778 to New York, M here he died May 25, 
1780, aged 50 years. His eldest son, William 
Barton of Lancaster, M-rote the memoirs of Ritten 
house and a tract on free commerce ; he left seven 
other children, one of M hom was Prof. Barton. 
His M idow passed her last years in the house of 
her nephew and niece, Dr. Samuel Bard and -wife. 
Within a few days of their decease she also died, 
aged 90. He published a sermon on Braddock s 
defeat, 1755. Mem. of Rittenhouse, 100, 112, 
287, 441 ; Thacher s Med. Biog., 139. 

in the university of Pennsylvania, died Dec. 19, 
1815, aged 49. lie was the son of the Rev. 
Mr. Barton of Lancaster, Penn., and was born 
Feb. 10, 1766. His mother was the sister of 
Rittenhouse, M hose life M as written by his brother, 
William Barton. After spending several years in 
study in Philadelphia, he went to Edinburgh and 
London in 1786 to pursue his medical studies. 
His medical degree he obtained at Gottingen. In 
1789 he returned to Pliiladelphia and commenced 
the practice of physic. In the same year he was 
appointed professor of natural history and botany 
in the college. He succeeded Dr. Griffiths as 
professor of materia medica and Dr. Rush as 
professor of the theory and practice of medicine. 

Dr. Barton was distinguished by his talents and 
professional attainments. He contributed much 
to the progress of natural science, and his various 
works evince a closeness of observation, an extent 
of learning, and a comprehensiveness of mind, 
honorable to his character. He was the first 
American M ho gave to his country an elementary 
M ork on botany. His publications are the folloAV- 
ing: On the fascinating quality ascribed to the 
rattlesnake, 1796; new vieAvs of the origin of the 
tribes of America, 1797 ; collections toM-ards a 
materia medica of the U. S., 1798; remarks on 
the speech attributed by Jefferson to Logan, 1798; 
medical physical journal, begun 1804, continued 
several years ; eulogy on Dr. Priestley ; elements 


of botany with thirty plates, 1804; also in two 
vols. 40 plates, 1812; flora Virginica, 1812; an 
tdition of Cullen s materia medica, 1808 ; account 
of the Syren laccrtina ; observations on the oppos- 
sum, 1813; collections on extinct animals, &c., 
1814; fragments of the natural history of Penn. ; 
remedy for the bite of the rattlesnake ; on the 
honey bee ; on the native country of the potato, 
and other papers in the Am. Philos. Transactions. 
W. P. C. Barton s Biog. Sketch; Thacher s 
Med. Biog., 151-153. 

BARTON, WILLIAM, lieutenant-colonel, a patriot 
of the Revolution, planned the capture of Maj.- 
Gen. Prescott on Rhode Island, and executed the 
project July 10, 1777. Information had been 
received at Providence, that the general was to 
sleep at Overing s house, four miles from Newport. 
Barton went with a party of forty men, including 
Capts. Adams and Phillips, in four whale-boats 
from Warwick neck ten miles by water, landed 
about half way from Newport to Bristol ferry, then 
marched one mile to the general s quarters. On 
reaching the chamber, at midnight, the sentry was 
secured ; then a negro, called Prince, who accom 
panied Barton, and who died at Plymouth 1821, 
aged 78, dashed his head against the door and 
knocked out a panel, so that Col. Barton rushed 
in and surprised Prescott in bed, and carried him 
off with his aid, Maj. William Barrington, who 
jumped from the window in his shirt. He escaped 
the guard boats and no alarm was given to the 
enemy, until the party on their return had nearly 
reached the main, when the firing of rockets was 
in vain. For this exploit Congress presented him 
with a sword and with a grant of land in Ver 
mont. By the transfer of some of this land he 
became entangled in the toils of the law and was 
imprisoned in Vermont for years, until the visit to 
this country in 1825 of La Fayette, who in his 
munificence liberated his fellow soldier and re 
stored the hoary veteran to his family. Col. Bar 
ton was wounded in an action at Bristol ferry in 
May, 1778. He died at Providence in Oct., 1831, 
aged 84 years. Amer. Rememb., 1777, 271, 361; 
Mass. Hist. Coll., n., 107, 138; Heath, 122. 

BARTON, CYRUS, editor of the Concord Re 
porter, died Feb. 17, 1855. At the close of a 
political speech near C. he fell and expired. He 
was an associate with Isaac Hill in business. 

BARTON, ROGER, died in Mississippi March 
4, 1855, aged about 55; for fifteen years a Senator 
of the U. S. 

BARTRAM, Jonx, an eminent botanist, died 
in Sept., 1777, aged 75. He was born at Marpole, 
Chester county, Penn., in the year 1701. His 
grandfather, Richard, accompanied William Penn 
to this country in 1682. His father, John, re 
moved to North Carolina and was killed by the 
Whitoc Indians. He himself inherited the estate 



of his uncle, Isaac, at Derby, a few miles from 

This self-taught genius early discovered an 
ardent desire for the acquisition of knowledge, 
especially of botanical knowledge ; but the infant 
state of the colony placed great obstacles in his 
way. He however surmounted them by intense 
application and the resources of his own mind. 
By the assistance of respectable characters he 
obtained the rudiments of the learned languages, 
Avhich he studied with extraordinary success. So 
earnest was he in the pursuit of learning, that he 
could hardly spare time to eat ; and he might 
often have been found with his victuals in one 
hand and his book in the other. He acquired so 
much knowledge of medicine and surgery, as to 
administer great assistance to the indigent and 
distressed in his neighborhood. He cultivated 
the ground as the means of supporting a large 
family ; but while ploughing or sowing his fields, 
or mowing his meadows, he was still puslmig his 
inquiries into the operations of nature. 

He was the first American who conceived and 
carried into effect the design of a botanic garden, 
for the cultivation of American plants, as well as 
of exotics. He purchased a fine situation on the 
west bank of the Schuylkill about four miles below 
Philadelphia, where he laid out with his own 
hands a garden of five or six acres. He furnished 
it with a variety of the most curious and beautiful 
vegetables, collected in his excursions from Canada 
to Florida. These excursions were made princi 
pally in autumn, when his presence at home was 
least demanded by his agricultural avocations. 
His ardor in these pursuits was such, that at the 
age of seventy he made a journey into East 
Florida to explore its natural productions. His 
travels among the Indians were frequently at 
tended with danger and difficulty. By his means 
the gardens of Europe were enriched with elegant 
flowering shrubs, with plants and trees, collected 
in different parts of our country from the shore 
of Lake Ontario to the source of the River St. 
Juan. He made such proficiency in his favorite 
pursuit, that Linnaeus pronounced him " the 
greatest natural botanist in the world." His 
eminence in natural history attracted the esteem 
of the most distinguished men in America and 
Europe, and he corresponded with many of them. 
He was a fellow of the Royal Society. By means 
of the friendship of Sir Hans Sloane, Mr. Catesby, 
Dr. Hill, Linnccus, and others, he was furnished 
with books and apparatus, which he much needed, 
and which greatly lessened the difficulties of his 
situation. He in return sent them what was new 
and curious in the productions of America. He 
was elected a member of several of the most 
eminent societies and academies abroad, and was 
at length appointed American botanist to his 




Britannic majesty, George III., in which appoint 
ment he continued till his death. 

Mr. Bartram was an ingenious mechanic. The 
stone house in which he lived, he built himself, 
and several monuments of his skill remain in it. 
He was often his own mason, carpenter, and black 
smith, and generally made his own farming uten 
sils. His stature was rather above the middle 
size ; his body was erect and slender ; his com 
plexion was sandy ; his countenance was cheerful, 
though there was a solemnity in his air. His gen 
tle manners corresponded with his amiable dispo 
sition. He was modest and charitable ; a friend 
to social order ; and an advocate for the abolition 
of slavery. He gave freedom to a young African, 
whom he had brought up ; but he in gratitude to 
his master continued in his service. Though tem 
perate, he kept a plentiful table ; and annually on 
new year s day he made an entertainment, conse 
crated to friendship and philosophy. Born and 
educated in the society of Quakers, he professed 
to be a worshipper of " God alone, the Almighty 
Lord." He often read the scriptures, particularly 
on Sundays. Of his children, John, his youngest 
son, who succeeded him in his botanic garden, 
died at Philadelphia Nov., 1812. In addition to 
his other attainments he acquired some knowledge 
of medicine and surgery, which rendered him use 
ful to his neighbors. In his first efforts to make 
a collection of American plants he was aided by 
a liberal subscription of some scientific gentlemen 
in Pliiladclphia. In 1737, Mr. Collinson wrote to 
Col. Custis of Virginia, that Bartram was em 
ployed by " a set of noblemen" at his recommen 
dation ; and he added, " Be so kind as to give him 
a little entertainment, and recommendation to a 
friend or two of yours in the country, for he does 
not value riding 50 or 100 miles to see a new 

Mr. Bartram s communications in the British 
Philosophical Transactions, vols. 41, 43, 46, 62, 
are these : on the teeth of a rattlesnake ; on the 
muscles and oyster banks of Perm. ; on clay wasp 
nests ; on the great black wasp ; on the libella ; 
account of an aurora borealis, observed Nov. 12, 
1757. He published also observations on the 
inhabitants, climate, soil, &c., in his travels to 
lake Ontario, 4lh cd. 4to. Loud. 1751; descrip 
tion of East Florida, with a journal, 4to. 1774. 
Miller, I. 515 ; II. 367 ; Life of Eittenlwuse, 
375 ; Mem. Penns. Hist. Soc. I. 134 ; Barton s 
Med. and Phys. Jour. I. 115-124. 

BARTRAM, WILLIAM, a botanist, son of the 
preceding, died July 22, 1823, aged 84. He was 
born at the Botanic Garden, Kingsessing, Penns., 
in 1739. After living with a merchant in Phila 
delphia six years, he went to North Carolina, en 
gaged in mercantile pursuits ; but, attached to 
the study of botany, he accompanied his father in 
his journey to E. Florida. After residing for a 

time on the river St. John s in Florida, he re 
turned to Ins father s residence in 177 1. In April, 
1773, at the request of Dr. Fothergill he pro 
ceeded to Charleston in order to examine the nat 
ural productions of Carolina, Georgia, and the 
Floridas, and was thus employed nearly five years. 
His collections and drawings were forwarded to 
Dr. Fothergill. His account of his travels was 
published in 1791. It is a delightful specimen of 
the enthusiasm with which the lover of nature, 
and particularly the botanist, surveys the beautiful 
and wonderful productions which are scattered 
over the face of the earth. Of himself Mr. Bar- 
tram said, " continually impelled by a restless 
spirit of curiosity in pursuit of new productions 
of nature, my chief happiness consisted in tracing 
and admiring the infinite power, majesty, and per 
fection of the great Almighty Creator, and in the 
contemplation, that through divine aid and per 
mission I might be instrumental in discovering 
and introducing into my native country some orig 
inal productions of nature, which might be useful 
to society." Ilcposing in a grove of oranges, 
palms, live oaks, and magnolias, in the midst of 
beautiful flowers and singing birds, he cried out, 
" ye vigilant and most faithful servants of the 
Most High ; ye, who worship the Creator morning, 
noon, and eve, in simplicity of heart ! I haste to 
join the universal anthem. My voice and heart 
unite with yours in sincere homage to the great 
Creator, the universal sovereign." 

In 1782 he was elected professor of botany in 
the university of Penns., but from ill health de 
clined the appointment. Besides his discoveries 
in botany, he prepared the most complete table of 
American ornithology before the appearance of 
the book of Wilson, whom he assisted in the com 
mencement of that work. Such was his continued 
love for botany, that he wrote a description of a 
plant a few minutes before his death, which oc 
curred suddenly by the rupture of a blood-vessel 
in the lungs. He published Travels through N. 
and S. Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, 
the Cherokee country, with observations on the 
manners of the Indians, with plates, 8vo. Phil., 
1731; the same, London, 1792; and translated 
into French by Benoist, entitled Voyage, &c., 2 
vols.; Paris, 1801; an account of J. Bartram ; 
anecdotes of a crow ; description of Ccrthia ; on 
the site of Bristol. Enc. Amer. ; Barton s Med. 
Jour. I. i. 89-95 ; I. ii. 103. 

BASCOM, II. B., D. I)., bishop of the Meth 
odist church, died in Louisville on liis return from 
St. Louis to Kentucky Sept. 9, 1850, aged about 
56. He was born in Western New York ; in 
1828 was president of Madison college, the sec 
ond Methodist college in the U. S. In 1842, he 
was chosen president of Transylvania university, 
Ky. In 1849 he was elected bishop. He was a 
pulpit orator of great power, though not of good 


taste. He delighted in strong epithets and high 
flown metaphors. A volume of his sermons was 
published in 1849. He published inaugural ad 
dress, 1828. 

BASS, EDWARD, D. D., first bishop of Massa 
chusetts, was born at Dorchester Nov. 23, 172G, 
and graduated at Harvard college in 1744. For 
several years he was the teacher of a school. 
From 1747 to 17*51 he resided at Cambridge, pur 
suing In s theological studies, and occasionally 
preaching. In 1752, at the request of the Episco 
pal society in Newburyport, he went to England 
for orders, and was ordained May 24, by bishop 
Sherlock. In 1796 he was elected by the conven 
tion of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Mas 
sachusetts to the office of bishop, and was conse 
crated May 7, 1797, by the bishops of Pennsylva 
nia, New York, and Maryland. Afterwards the 
Episcopal churches in Rhode Island elected him 
their bishop, and in 1803 a convention of the 
churches in NCAV Hampshire put themselves under 
his jurisdiction. He died Sept. 10, 1803, humble 
and resigned. He was a sound divine, a critical 
scholar, an accomplished gentleman, and an exem 
plary Christian. Mass. Hist. Coll., IX. 188. 

BASSETT, RICHARD, governor of Delaware, 
was a member of the old congress in 1787, and 
was appointed a senator under the new constitu 
tion. He was governor, after Mr. Bedford, from 
1798 to 1801, when he was placed by Mr. Adams 
on the bench of the federal judiciary. The repeal 
of the act, constituting the courts, displaced him 
from his office in 1802. He had practised law 
for many years with reputation and was a gentle 
man of fortune. His daughter married Mr. Bay 
ard. He died in Sept., 1815. 

BASSETT, AMOS, D. D., died in Cornwall in 
1828, aged 44. A native of Derby, he graduated 
in 1784, and was the minister of Hebron from 
about 1793 to 1820, and was then the head of the 
Mission school at Cornwall. His voice and man 
ner in preaching were extremely solemn. He 
was perhaps gloom}- and hypochondriacal ; some 
times keen and severe. Seeing some men of in 
fluence, whom he deemed anti-patriotic and anti- 
christian, following in the funeral procession of a 
very wicked man, he said, "if it had been the 
devil liimsclf, they would have followed him, only 
they would have chosen to follow him alive." He 
published election sermon, 1807 ; and before a 
missionary society ; he wrote a reply of the con 
sociation to A. Abbot. 

BATES, BARNABAS, died at Boston Oct. 11, 
1853, aged 66. A native of England, he was a 
Baptist minister in R. I., then a Unitarian. He 
was collector of Bristol, and connected with the 
post office. As a zealous advocate of cheap post 
age he deserves public remembrance. 

BATES, ISAAC C., died in Washington, a sen 
ator, March 10, 1845, aged 65. Born in Cran- 



villc, he graduated at Yale in 1802, and settled as 
a lawyer in Northampton. For eight years he 
was a member of the house of representatives, 
and afterwards of the senate, rendering important 
public services. At his funeral in Washington, 
Mr. Tuston delivered an eloquent sermon on the 
happiness of heaven, described as " light." He 
delivered an able speech, costing much effort, 
against the admission of Texas into the Union ; 
and in a few days afterwards died. His printed 
addresses and speeches are specimens of logical 
and beautiful writing. 

BATES, JOSHUA, D. D., president of Middle- 
bury college, died in Dudley Jan. 14, 1854, aged 
77. Born at Cohasset, he graduated at Cam 
bridge in 1800 ; was settled as a minister in Ded- 
ham in 1803; was chosen president in 1818 and 
continued at Middlebury twenty-one years, till 
1840, when he resigned. In 1843 he was settled 
at Dudley, where he toiled during ten years of a 
green old age. He was distinguished as a scholar, 
was open-hearted and of a manly character, 
highly esteemed and useful. Dr. Sprague preached 
a sermon on his death. 

He published Reminiscences of Rev. John Cod- 
man, making a volume with W. Allen s life of 
J. C. ; two sermons on intemperance, 1813 ; a 
volume of sermons ; on the death of T. Prentiss, 
1814 ; at ordination of J. Thompson, 1804 ; R. 
Hurlburt and F. Burt, 1817 ; Ira Ingraham, 1821; 
J. Steel, 1828 ; inaugural address, 1818 ; two 
sermons to missionary societies. 

BATTELL, SARAII, the widow of Joseph B., 
died at Norfolk, Conn., Sept. 23, 1854, aged 75, 
the daughter of Rev. A. Robbins. She was one 
of the women of excellent Christian character 
and well-known benevolence, who by their virtues 
adorn our community. 

BAXTER, JOSEPH, minister of Medford, Mass., 
was the son of Lieut. John Baxter, of Braintrce, 
who died in 1719, aged 80, and grandson of 
Gregory Baxter, a settler of B. in 1632, who was 
a, relative of Richard Baxter, of England. lie 
was born in 1676, graduated in 1693, and or 
dained April 21, 1697. When Gov. Shute had a 
conference with the Indians at Georgetown, on 
Arrousic Island, in Aug., 1717, he presented to 
them a Mr. Baxter as a protestant missionary, 
who was probably Mr. Joseph B. ; but through 
the influence of the Jesuit Halle he was rejected. 
He had a correspondence in Latin with Ralle, and 
the Jesuit accused him of the want of scholarship. 
Gov. Shute in his letter replied, that the main 
qualification in a missionary to the barbarous In 
dians was not " to be an exact scholar as to the 
Latin tongue," but to bring them from darkness 
to the light of the gospel, and, " under the influ 
ence of the divine Spirit to translate them from 
the power of Satan, who has had an usurped pos 
session of these parts of the world for so many 



ages, to the kingdom of the Son of God." Mr. 
Baxter died May 2, 1745. His son, Joseph, a 
physician, died of the small pox. He published 
the election sermon, 1727 ; sermons to two socie 
ties of young men ; and sermons on the danger 
of security, 1729. Mass. Hist. Coll. v. 115; 
Coll. N. II. Hist. Soc. II. 245 ; Farmer. 

BAXTER, GEORGE A., 1). I)., died in Vir 
ginia March 16, 1841, aged 77; professor of the 
ology in Union theological seminary, Prince 
Edward county. He was previously president of 
Washington college, Lexington. He was one of 
the most eminent and respected of the Presbyte 
rian ministers of Virginia. 

BAY, ELIHU H., died at Charleston in 1839, 
aged 85. He published law reports. 

BAYARD, JOHN, a friend to his country, and 
an eminent Christian, was born Aug. 11, 1738, on 
Bohemia manor in Cecil county, Maryland. His 
father died without a will, and being the eldest 
son, he became entitled by the laws of Maryland 
to the whole real estate. Such, however, was his 
affection for his twin brother, younger than him 
self, that no sooner had he reached the age of 
manhood, than he conveyed to him half the estate. 
After receiving an academical education under Dr. 
Fin ley, he was put into the counting-house of 
Mr. John Rhea, a merchant of Philadelphia. It 
was here, that the seeds of grace began first to 
take root, and to give promise of those fruits of 
righteousness, which afterwards abounded. He 
early became a communicant of the Presbyterian 
church under the charge of Gilbert Tennent. 
Some years after his marriage he was chosen a 
ruling elder, and he filled this place with zeal and 
reputation. Mr. Whitfield, while on his visits 
to America, became intimately acquainted with 
Mr. Bayard, and was much attached to him. 
They made several tours together. In 1770, Mr. 
Bayard lost his only brother, Dr. James A. Bay 
ard, a man of promising talents, of prudence and 
skill, of a most amiable disposition and growing 
reputation. The violence of his sorrow at first 
produced an illness, which confined him to his bed 
for several days. By degrees it subsided into a 
tender melancholy, which for years after would 
steal across his mind, and tinge his hours of do 
mestic intercourse and solitary devotion with 
pensive sadness. When his brother s widow died, 
he adopted the children, and educated them as his 
own. One of them was an eminent statesman. 

At the commencement of the Revolutionary 
war he took a decided part in favor of his country. 
At the head of the second battalion of the Phila 
delphia militia he marched to the assistance of 
Washington, and was present at the battle of 
Trenton. He was a member of the council of 
safety, and for many years speaker of the legisla 
ture. In 1777, when there was a report that 


Col. Bayard s house had been destroyed by the 
British army, and that his servant, who had been 
intrusted with his personal property, had gone off 
with it to the enemy, Mr. William Bell, who had 
served his apprenticeship with Col. Bayard, and 
accumulated several thousand pounds, insisted 
that his patron should receive one half of his 
estate. This generous offer was not accepted, as 
the report was without foundation. Reiterated 
afflictions induced a deep depression of mind, 
and for some time he was no longer relieved by 
the avocations of business. In 1785, however, he 
was appointed a member of the old congress, then 
sitting in New York, but in the following year he 
was left out of the delegation. In 1788 he re 
moved to New Brunswick, where he was mayor 
of the city, judge of the court of common pleas, 
and a ruling elder of the church. Here he died 
Jan. 7, 1807, aged 68. 

At his last hour he was not left in darkness. 
That Redeemer, whom he had served with zeal, 
was with him to support him and give him the 
victory. During his last illness he spoke much 
of his brother, and one night, awaking from sleep, 
exclaimed, "My dear brother, I shall soon be 
with you." He addressed his two sons, " My dear 
children, you see me just at the close of life. 
Death has no terrors to me. What now is all 
the world to me ? I would not exchange my hope 
in Christ for ten thousand worlds. I once enter 
tained some doubts of his Divinity ; but, blessed 
be God, these doubts were soon removed by in 
quiry and reflection. From that time my hope 
of acceptance with God has rested on his merits 
and atonement. Out of Christ, God is a consum 
ing fire." As he approached nearer the grave, 
he said, " I shall soon be at rest ; I shall soon be 
with my God. O glorious hope ! Blessed rest ! 
HOAV precious are the promises of the gospel ! It 
is the support of my soul in my last moments." 
While sitting up, supported by his two daughters, 
holding one of his sons by the hand, and looking 
intently in his face, he said, " My Christian brother ! 
Then turning to his daughters he continued, " You 
are my Christian sisters. Soon will our present 

ties be dissolved, but more glorious bonds 

lie could say no more, but his looks and arms, 
directed towards heaven, expressed everything. 
He frequently commended himself to the blessed 
Redeemer, confident of his love; and the last 
words, which escaped from his dying lips, were, 
" Lord Jesus, Lord Jesus, Lord Jesus ! " Evang. 
Litclliyencer, I. 1-7, 49-57. 

BAYARD, JAMES A., a distinguished states 
man, died Aug. 6, 1815, aged 48. lie was the 
son of Dr. J. A. Bayard, and was born in Phila 
delphia in 1767. On the death of his father he 
was received into the family of his uncle, John 
Bayard, and was graduated at Princeton college 




in 1784. After studying law at Philadelphia with 
Gen. Reed and Mr. Ingcrsoll, he commenced the 
practice in Delaware. In Oct., 1796, he was 
elected a member, of Congress. In the party con 
tests of the day he was a distinguished supporter 
of the federal administration. In the memorable 
contest in the house concerning the election of 
president in 1801, Jefferson and Burr having an 
equal number of the electoral votes, he directed 
the course, which issued in the election of Mr. 
Jefferson. Among the debaters on the repeal of 
the judiciary bill in March, 1802, he was the 
ablest advocate of the system, which was over 
thrown. From the house he was transferred to 
the senate in 1804, and was again elected for six 
years from March, 1805, and also from March, 

1811. He opposed the declaration of war in 

1812. After the commencement of the war, the 
mediation of Russia being offered, he was selected 
by Mr. Madison as a commissioner with Mr. Gal- 
latin to negotiate a peace with Great Britain, and 
sailed from Philadelphia for St. Petersburg May 
9, 1813. The absence of the emperor preventing 
the transaction of any business, he proceeded to 
Holland by land in Jan., 1814. He lent his able 
assistance in the negotiation of the peace at 
Ghent in this year, and afterwards made a jour 
ney to Paris, where he was apprized of his ap 
pointment as envoy to the court of St. Petersburg. 
This he declined, stating, " that he had no wish 
to serve the administration, except when his ser 
vices were necessary for the good of his country." 
Yet he proposed to co-operate in forming a com 
mercial treaty with Great Britain. An alarming 
illness, however, constrained him to return to the 
United States. He arrived in June and died at 
Wilmington. His wife, the daughter of Gov. 
Basset, and several children, survived him. Mr. 
Bavard was an ingenious reasoner and an accom 
plished orator. His fine countenance and manly 
person recommended his eloquent words. There 
were few of his contemporaries of higher political 
distinction. But his race of worldly eminence 
was soon run. His speech on the foreign inter 
course bill was published 1798; and his speech 
on the repeal of the judiciary in a vol. of the 
speeches, 1802. Biog Amer. 50; Encyc.Amer. 

BAYARD, SAMUEL, judge, died at Princeton 
N. J., May 12, 1840, aged 75. He was a judge 
of the common pleas, a most upright, respected, 
and esteemed man. 

BAYLEY, MATTHIAS, died about the year 1789 
at Jones creek, a branch of the Pedee, in North 
Carolina, aged 136 years. He was baptized at 
the age of 134. His eyesight remained good, 
and his strength was very remarkable, till his 
death. American Museum, vil. 206. 

BAYLEY, RICHARD, an eminent physician of 
New York, died Aug. 17, 1801, aged 56. He 
was bom at Fairfield, Conn., in the year 1745. 


From his mother s being of French descent and 
his parents residence among the French Protes 
tant emigrants at New Rochclle, N. Y., he became 
early familiar with the French language. He 
studied physic with Dr. Charlton, whose sister he 
married. In 1769 or 1770 he attended the Lon 
don lectures and hospitals. Returning in 1772 
he commenced practice with Dr. Charlton in New 
York. His attention in 1774 was drawn to the 
croup, which prevailed, and which men of high 
character, as Dr. Bard, had fatally treated as the 
putrid sore throat. He had seen a child perish 
in thirty-six hours under the use of stimulants and 
antiseptics. His dissections confirmed him in his 
views ; and they were adopted afterwards by his 
friend, Michaelis, the chief of the Hessian medical 
staff in New York, the author of a treatise " De 
angina polyposa." 

In the autumn of 1775 he revisited England in 
order to make further improvement under Hunter, 
and spent the winter in dissections and study. In 
the spring of 1776 he returned in the capacity of 
surgeon in the English army under Howe. This 
was a measure of mistaken prudence, in order to 
provide for his wife and children. In the fall he 
proceeded with the fleet to Newport ; but incapable 
of enduring this separation from his wife, he 
resigned and returned to New York in the spring 
of 1777 just before her death. His influence was 
now beneficially exerted in saving the property of 
Ms absent fellow-citizens. In 1781 his letter to 
Hunter on the croup was published, in which he 
recommended bleeding, blisters to the throat, 
antimony, calomel, and enemata. He said, there 
was no fear of putresccncy, unless there were 
ulcers. To Baylcy the public is indebted for the 
present active treatment of the croup. In 1787 
he delivered lectures on surgery, and his son-in-law, 
Dr. Wright Post, lectured on anatomy, in the 
edifice since converted into the New York hospital. 
In 1788 " the doctors mob," in consequence of 
the imprudence of some students, broke into the 
building and destroyed Bayley s valuable anatomi- 
"cal cabinet. In 1792 he was elected professor of 
anatomy at Columbia college; but in 1793 he 
took the department of surgery, in which he was 
very skilful. About 1795 he was appointed health 
officer to the port. During the prevalence of the 
yellow fever he fearlessly attended upon the sick 
and investigated the disease. In 1797 he pub 
lished his essay on that fever, maintaining that it 
had a local origin and was not contagious, lie 
also published in 1798 a series of letters on the 
subject. By contagion he meant a specific poison, 
as in small pox. He allowed, that the fever in 
certain circumstances was infectious. No nurse 
or attendant in the hospitals had t alien the 
disease, yet it might be conveyed in clothing and 
in other ways. Hence the importance of cleanli 
ness and ventilation. The state quarantine laws 



originated with him; the total interdiction of 
commerce with the West Indies had by some been 
contemplated. In Aug., 1821, an Irish emigrant 
ship, with ship fever, arrived. lie found the crew 
and passengers and baggage huddled in one un- 
ventilated apartment, contrary to his orders. 
Entering it only a moment, a deadly sickness at 
the stomach and intense pain in the head seized 
him, and on the seventh day he expired. He is 
represented as in temper fiery, invincible in his 
dislikes, inflexible in attachment, of perfect integ 
rity, gentlemanly, and chivalrously honorable. 
He married in 1778 Charlotte Amelia, daughter 
of Andrew Barclay, a merchant of New York. 
His writings have been mentioned : on the croup, 
1781; essay on the yellow fever, 1797; letters on 
the same, 1798. Thacher s Med. Biog., 156- 

BAYLIES, WILLIAM, M. D., died at Dighton, 
Mass., June 17, 1826, aged 82. lie was gradu 
ated at Harvard college in 1760, and was a member 
of the provincial congress in 1775, and often a 
member of the council of the State. 

BAYLIES, HODIJAII, judge, died at Dighton 
April 26, 1843, aged 86. A graduate of Harvard 
in 1777, he was aid to Gen. Lincoln, also to 
Washington. He was collector of customs, and 
judge of probate from 1810 until he was 81. He 
possessed a Christian character, and shared largely 
in the public confidence. 

BAYLIES, FREDERIC, died in Edgartown Oct., 
1836, for twenty years a useful teacher of the 
Ladians on Martha s Vineyard and in 11. I. ; an 
exemplary, worthy man, doing much for Sunday 
schools and the cause of temperance. 

BAYLIES, NICHOLAS, judge, died at Lyndon, 
Vt, Aug. 17, 1847, aged 75. He was a graduate 
of Dartmouth in 1794, and practised law in 
Woodstock and Montpelier. His wife was Mary 
Itipley, daughter of Prof. Riplcy and grand 
daughter of President E. Whcclock. He pub 
lished some law books. 

BAYLIES, FRANCIS, died at Taunton, Oct. 28, 
1852, aged 68. For several terms he was a mem 
ber of congress. The only electoral vote for Jack 
son as president, from New England, Avas given 
by him. Soon afterwards he was appointed min 
ister to Brazil, but was quickly recalled. He 
published a history of the old colony of Plymouth 
in 2 vols., 1828. 

BAYNAM, WILLIAM, a surgeon, the son of 
Dr. John Baynham of Caroline county, Va., was 
born in 1749, and after studying with Dr. Walker 
was sent to London in 1769, where he made great 
proficiency in anatomy and surgery. He was for 
years an assistant demonstrator to Mr. Else, 
professor in St. Thomas hospital. After residing 
sixteen years in England, he returned to this coun 
try, and settled in Essex about 1785. He died 
Dec. 8, 1814, aged 66 years. He performed 


many remarkable surgical operations. As an 
anatomist he had no superior. The best prepara 
tions in the museum of Clinc and Cooper at Lon 
don were made by him. Various papers by Mr. 
B. were published in the medical journals. 
TJiacJier s Mcd. Biog., 168-173; JV. Y. Med. 
Journal, I.; Phil. Journal, IV. 

BEACH, JOHN, an Episcopal clergyman and 
writer, was probably a descendant of Ilichard 
Beach, who lived in New Haven and had a son, 
John, born in 1639. He was graduated at Yale 
college in 1721, and was for several years a Con 
gregational minister at Newtown. Through his 
acquaintance with Dr. Johnson, he was induced to 
embrace the Episcopal form of worship. In 1732 
he went to England for orders, and on his return 
was employed as an Episcopalian missionary at 
Heading and Newtown. After the Declaration of 
Independence, Congress ordered the ministers to 
pray for the commonwealth and not for the king. 
Mr. Beach, who retained his loyalty, chose to pray 
as usual for his majesty, and was in consequence 
handled roughly by the wliigs. He died March 
19, 1782. 

He published an appeal to the unprejudiced, in 
answer to a sermon of Dickinson, 1737 ; also, 
about the year 1745, a sermon on Itomans 6 : 23, 
entitled, a sermon shewing that eternal life is 
God s free gift, bestowed upon men according to 
their moral behavior. In this he opposed with 
much zeal some of the Calvinistic doctrines, 
contained in the articles of the church which he 
had joined. Jonathan Dickinson wrote remarks 
upon it the following year, in his vindication of 
God s sovereignty and His universal love to the 
souls of men reconciled, in the form of a dialogue, 
1747. He wrote also a reply to Dickinson s 
second vindication. Mr. Beach was a bold and 
distinguished advocate of those doctrines, which 
are denominated Arminian. Whatever may be 
said of his argument in his dispute with Dickinson, 
he evidently yields to his antagonist in gentleness 
and civility of manner. Another controversy, in 
which he engaged, had respect to Episcopacy. 
He published in 17-19, in answer to Hobart s first 
address, a calm and dispassionate vindication of 
the professors of the church of England, to which 
Dr. Johnson wrote a preface and Mr. Caner an 
appendix. He seems to have had high notions 
of the necessity of Episcopal ordination. His 
other publications are, the duty of loving our 
enemies, 1738; an inquiry into the state of the 
dead, 1755; a continuation of the vindication of 
the professors, &c., 1756 ; the inquiry of the young 
man in the gospel ; a sermon on the death of 
Dr. Johnson, 1772. Chandler s Life of John 
son, 62, 126. 

BEACH, ABRAHAM, D. D., an Episcopal min 
ister, was born at Cheshire, Conn., Sept. 9, 1740, 
and graduated at Yale college in 1757. The 


bishop of London ordained him in June, 1767, as 
a priest for New Jersey. During seventeen years, 
including the period of the Revolution, he tran 
quilly discharged the duties of his office at Xe\v 
Brunswick. Alter the peace, he was called to 
New York as an assistant minister of Trinity 
church, where he remained about thirty years, 
and then retired in 1813 to his farm on the Rari- 
tan to pass the evening of his life. He died Sept. 
11, 1828, aged 88 years. His daughter, Maria, 
and his son-in-law, Abiel Carter, an Episcopal 
minister, died at Savannah, Oct. 28, and Nov. 1, 
1827. His dignified person, expressive counte 
nance, and lively feelings rendered his old age 
interesting to his acquaintance. He was respected 
and honored in his failing years. A sermon of 
his, on the hearing of the word, is in American 
Preacher, in. He published a funeral sermon on 
Dr. Chandler, 1790. Episcopal Watchman. 

BEACH, EBEXEZER S., died at Rochester, N. Y., 
March 14, 1850, aged 65. He was educated and 
very successful in business. In furnishing stores 
for the army he made much money ; for his flour 
milling operations he was extensively known. 

BEACH, SAMUEL, M. D., of Bridgeport, died, 
killed by the railroad disaster at Norwalk bridge 
May 6, 1853. He was among the forty-five per 
sons killed. He received his medical degree at 
Yale in 1826; besides being an eminent physi 
cian he was an excellent Christian. 

BEADLE, WILLIAM, a deist, was born near 
London, and came to this country with a small 
quantity of goods. After residing at New York, 
Stratford, and Derby, he removed to Fairfield, 
where he married a Miss Lathrop of Plymouth, 
Mass. In 1772 he transplanted himself to 
Wethersfield, where he sustained the character of 
a fair dealer. In the depreciation of the paper 
currency, he, through some error of judgment, 
thought he was still bound to sell his goods at 
the old prices, as though the continental money 
had retained its nominal value. In the decay of 
his property he became melancholy. For years 
he meditated the destruction of his family. At 
last, Dec. 11, 1782, he murdered with an axe and 
a knife his wife and children and then shot him 
self with a pistol. He was aged 52 ; his wife 32 ; 
and the eldest child 15 years. The jury of in 
quest pronounced him to be of a sound mind ; 
and the indignant inhabitants dragged his body, 
uncollined, with the bloody knife tied to it, on a 
sled to the river, and " buried it, as they would 
have buried the carcase of a beast," and as the 
masonic oaths speak of burying a mason, mur 
dered for his faithlessness to masonry, " between 
high and low water mark." He was a man of 
good sense, of gentlemanly conduct, and a hospi 
table disposition. His wife was very pleasing in 
person, mind, and manners. It appears from his 
writings, that he was a deist, and that pride was 



the cause of his crimes. He was unwilling to 
submit to the evils of poverty or to receive aid 
from others, and unwilling to leave his family 
without the means of distinction. Yet was he 
worth 300 pounds sterling. He endeavored to 
convince himself, that he had a right to kill his 
children, because they were his ; as for his wife, 
he relied on the authority of a dream for a right 
to murder her. His wife, in consequence of his 
carrying the implements of death into his bed 
chamber, had dreamed, that she and the children 
were exposed in cofiins in the street. This solved 
his doubts. As to killing himself he had no 
qualms. From such horrible crimes what is there 
to restrain that class of men, who reject the 
scriptures, or who, while professing to believe 
them, deny that there will be a future judgment, 
and maintain, that death will translate the blood 
stained wretch to heaven? Dwiylifs Travels, 
I. 229. 

BEAN, JOSEPH, minister of Wrentham, died 
Dec. 12, 1784, aged 66. He was born in Boston 
March 7, 1718, of pious parents, who devoted him 
to God. Having learned a trade, he commenced 
business at Cambridge ; but in 1741 the preach 
ing of Whitefield and Tennent and of his own 
minister, Appleton, was the means of subduing 
his love of the world and of rendering him wise 
unto salvation. He now made a profession of 
religion and commenced a consistent course of 
piety and beneficence, in which he continued 
through life. He joined a religious society of 
young men, who met once a week ; and seized 
every opportunity for conversing with others, es 
pecially with the young on their spiritual concerns. 
In 1742 he deemed it his duty to abandon his 
trade and to seek an education, that he might 
preach the gospel. The study of the languages 
was wearisome ; but he persevered, and was 
gi aduated at Harvard College in 1748, and or 
dained the third minister of Wrentham Nov. 24, 
1750. Mr. Bean was an eminently pious and 
faithful minister, and is worthy of honorable re 
membrance. From his diary it appears, that he 
usually spent one or two hours, morning and 
evening, in reading the Bible and secret devotion ; 
also the afternoons of Saturday, when his dis 
courses were prepared for the Sabbath ; and the 
days of the birth of himself and children, as well 
as other days. He was truly humble, and watch 
ful against all the excitements of pride. His 
conscience was peculiarly susceptible. His heart 
w r as tender and benevolent. Such was his con 
stant intercourse with heaven, that hundreds of 
times, when riding in the performance of paro 
chial duty, he had dismounted in a retired place 
to pour out his heart to God. When he had pre 
pared a sermon, he would take it in his hand and 
kneel down to implore a blessing on it. Nothing 
was permitted to divert him from preaching faith- 




fully the solemn truths of the gospel. He loved 
his work and his people, and they loved and 
honored him. Such a life will doubtless obtain 
the honor, which cometh from God ; and in the 
day of judgment many such obscure men, whom 
the world knew not, will be exalted far above a 
multitude of learned doctors in divinity, and cele 
brated orators, and lofty dignitaries, whose names 
once resounded through the earth. He published 
a century sermon Oct. 26, 1773. Panoplist, v. 

BEASLEY, NATHANIEL, general, died in Knox 
co., Ohio, in 1835, aged 84. He was an early 
settler, intelligent and useful. 

BEASLEY, FREDERICK, D. D., died in Eliza- 
bethtown, N. J., Nov. 2, 1845, aged 68, formerly 
provost of the university of Pennsylvania. lie 
wrote on Episcopacy and on moral and meta 
physical subjects. 

BEATTY, CHARLES, a missionary for many 
years at Neshaminy, Penns., was appointed about 
1761 an agent to procure contributions to a fund 
for the benefit of the Presbyterian clergy, their 
widows, and children. He died at Barbadoes, 
whither he had gone to obtain benefactions for 
the college of New Jersey, Aug. 13, 1772. He 
was highly respected for his private virtues and 
for his public toils in the cause of learning, charity, 
and religion. He was a missionary from the 
Presbvterian church to the Indians, from about 
1740 to 1765. In one of his tours Mr. Duffield 
accompanied him. He published a journal of a 
tour of two months to promote religion among 
the frontier inhabitants of Pennsylvania, 8vo. 
London, 1768. Jennison ; Brainerd s Life, 

BEATTY, JOHN, M. D., general, the son of 
the preceding, was a native of Bucks county, 
Penn., and was graduated at Princeton in 1769. 
After studying medicine with Dr. Rush, he en 
tered the army as a soldier. Reaching the rank 
of Lieut.-Col. he in 1776 fell into the hands of 
the enemy at the capture of fort Washington, and 
suffered a long and rigorous imprisonment. In 
1779 he succeeded Elias Boudinot as commissary 
general of prisoners. After the war he settled at 
Princeton as a physician, and was also a member 
of the State legislature, and in 1793 of congress. 
For ten years he was secretary of the state of 
New Jersey, succeeding in 1795 Samuel W. Stock 
ton. For eleven years he was president of the 
bank of Trenton, where he died April 30, 1826, 
aged 77. For many years he was a ruling elder 
in the church. Thacher s Med. Biog. 173,174. 

BEAUMONT, WILLIAM, doctor, died in St. 
Louis April 25, 1853, aged 57. His account of 
experiments with St. Martin, the Canadian, were 
published in 1833 and 1847. 

BECK, GEORGE, a painter, was a native of Eng 
land, and appointed professor of mathematics hi 

the royal academy at Woolwich in 1776, but 
missed the office by his neglect. After coming 
to this country in 1795, he was employed in paint 
ing by Mr. Hamilton of the Woodlands, near 
Philadelphia. His last days were spent in Lex 
ington, Ky., where he died Dec. 14, 1812, aged 
63. Besides his skill in mathematics and paint 
ing, he had a taste for poetry, and wrote original 
pieces, besides translating Anacrcon, and much 
of Homer, Virgil, and Horace. He published 
observations on the comet, 1812. Jennison. 

BECK, JOHN BRODHEAD, M. D., died at 
Rhinebeck, April 9, 1851, aged 57. He was em 
inent as a physician in New York ; professor of 
materia medica and botany in 1826, and then of 
medical jurisprudence. 

BECK, T. ROMEYN, M. D., died at Albany 
Nov., 1855, aged 64. He was born at Schenec- 
tady Aug. 11, 1791, the grandson of Rev. Derick 
Romeyn, a professor of theology in the Dutch 
church ; graduated at Union in 1807, and received 
the degree of M. D. from the New York college 
of physicians in 1811, delivering a dissertation on 
insanity, which was published. He practised 
physic in Albany; in 1815 he was professor of 
the institutes and lecturer on medical jurispru 
dence in the western district. In 1817 he was 
appointed principal of the Albany academy ; in 
1829 president of the medical society, his ad 
dresses in which station were published in the 
society s transactions. In 1854 he was president 
of the lunatic asylum. For many years he 
edited the American journal of insanity. He 
published in 1853 his medical jurisprudence, a 
work unequalled in that branch. 

BECK, LEWIS C., professor, died in Albany 
April 21, 1853, aged 53. lie was born and edu 
cated at Schencctady. For many years he was 
the professor of chemistry and natural science at 
Rutgers college, and subsequently professor of 
chemistry in the Albany medical college. He 
published an account of the salt springs at Salina, 
1826; manual of chemistry, 1831. 

BEDELL, GREGORY T., D. D., an Episcopal 
minister, died at Philadelphia Aug. 30, 1834; a 
man of learning. He published Cause of the 
Greeks, 1827. 

BEDFORD, GUNNING, governor of Delaware, 
was a patriot of the Revolution. He was chosen 
governor in 1796. He was afterwards appointed 
the district judge of the court of the United 
States; and died at Wilmington, in March, 1812. 

BEECIIER, PHILEMON, general, an early set 
tler of Ohio, emigrated from Litchficld, Conn., 
and died at Lancaster, Ohio, Nov. 30, 1839, aged 
63. He was a member of congress in 1817-1821 
and in 1823-1829; in his politics a federalist. 
He was an able lawyer and advocate, respected 
for his talents and his exemplary Christian virtues. 

BEECIIER, GEORGE, died July 1, 1843, aged 


about 3~), a graduate of Yale in 1828. He was a 
son of Dr. L. Beecher, and a minister, first at 
Batavia, and then three years at Chillicothe. He 
went into his garden with a double-barrelled gun 
to shoot birds : after one shot he put his mouth 
to the barrel, to blow into it, as was supposed, 
and the gun went off and killed him. 

BEEKMAN, CORNELIA, an admirable woman, 
a patriot of the Ilcvolution, died in Christian peace 
near Tarrytown March 14, 1847, aged 94 : her 
husband, Gerard G. B., died in 1822, aged 7G. 
She was the daughter of Pierre Van Cortlandt 
and Joanna Livingston. Married at 17, she lived 
in Bcekman street, N. Y. ; then, during the war, 
at Peekskill ; afterwards at the manor house of 
Philipsburgh, or castle Philipse, near Tarrytown, 
watered by the Pocanteco or Mill river. Her 
brother, Gen. P. Van Cortlandt, and her sister, 
Mrs. Van llensselaer, survived her ; also her 
daughter, Mrs. De Peyster, and her son, Dr. S. D. 

BEERS, NATHAN, died at New Haven Feb. 10, 
1849, aged 96. After serving in the Ilevolutionary 
war, he engaged in mercantile business, and was 
long the steward of Yale college. He was a 
deacon of the north church, distinguished for 
courtesy, integrity, and piety. 

BELCHER, SAMUEL, first minister of that 
parish in Xcwbury, Mass., which is called New- 
bury Xewtown, was graduated at Harvard college 
in 16.39. After preaching some time at the Isle 
of Shoals, he was ordained at Ncwbury Nov. 30, 
1698; and died at Ipswich, in 1714, aged 74. 
He was a good scholar, a judicious divine, and a 
holy and humble man. lie published an election 
sermon, 1707. Coll. Hist. Soc. x. 168 ; Farmer. 

BELCHER, JONATHAN, governor of Massachu 
setts and New Jersey, was the son of Andrew 
Belcher of Cambridge, one of the council of the 
province, and a gentleman of large estate, who 
died in 1717, and grandson of Andrew B., who 
lived in Cambridge in 1646, and who received in 
1652 a license for an inn, granting him liberty 
" to sell beer and bread for entertainment of 
strangers and the good of the town." He was 
born in Jan., 1681. As the hopes of the family 
rested on him, his father carefully superintended 
his education. He was graduated at Harvard 
college in 1699. While a member of this insti 
tution his open and pleasant conversation, joined 
with his manly and generous conduct, conciliated 
the esteem of all his acquaintance. Not long 
after the termination of his collegiate course he 
visited Europe, that he might enrich his mind 
by his observations upon the various manners and 
characters of men, and might return, furnished 
with that useful knowledge, which is gained by 
intercourse with the world. 

During an absence of six years from his native 
country, he was preserved from those follies into 



which inexperienced youth are frequently drawn, 
and he even maintained a constant regard to that 
holy religion, of which he had early made a pro 
fession. He was every where treated with the 
greatest respect. The acquaintance, which he 
formed with the princess Sophia and her son, af 
terwards king George II., laid the foundation of 
his future honors. After his return from his 
travels, he lived in Boston as a merchant with 
great reputation. He was chosen a member of 
the council, and the general assembly sent him as 
an agent of the province to the British court in 
the year 1729. Hutchinson relates, that just be 
fore he obtained tlu s appointment, he suddenly 
abandoned the party of Gov. Shute and his meas 
ures, to which he had been attached, and went 
over to the other side. This sudden change of 
sides is no rare occurrence among politicians. 

After the death of Gov. Burnet, he was ap 
pointed by his majesty to the government of Mas 
sachusetts and New Hampshire, in 1730. In this 
station he continued eleven years. His style of 
living was elegant and splendid, and he was dis 
tinguished for hospitality. By the depreciation of 
the currency his salary was much diminished in 
value, but he disdained any unwarrantable means 
of enriching himself, though apparently just and 
sanctioned by his predecessors in office. He had 
been one of the principal merchants of New Eng 
land ; but he quitted his business on his accession 
to the chair of the first magistrate. Having a 
high sense of the digniiy of his commission, he 
was determined to support it even at the expense 
of his private fortune. Frank and sincere, he 
was extremely liberal in his censures, both in con 
versation and letters. This imprudence in a pub 
lic officer gained him enemies, who were deter 
mined on revenge. He also assumed some 
authority, which had not been exercised before, 
though he did not exceed his commission. These 
causes of complaint, together with a controversy 
respecting a fixed salary, which had been trans 
mitted to him from his predecessors, and his 
opposition to the land bank company, finally occa 
sioned his removal. His enemies were so inveter 
ate, and so regardless of justice and truth, that, 
as they were unable to find real grounds for im 
peaching his integrity, they forged letters for the 
purpose of his ruin. They accused him of being 
a friend of the land bank, when he was its deter 
mined enemy. The leading men of New Hamp 
shire, who wished for a distinct government, were 
hostile to him ; and his resistance to a proposed 
new emission of paper bills also created him ene 
mies. On being superseded, he repaired to court, 
where he vindicated his character and conduct, 
and exposed the base designs of his enemies. He 
was restored to the royal favor, and was prom 
ised the first vacant government in America. 
This vacancy occurred in the province of New 




Jersey, where he arrived in 1747, and where he 
spent the remaining years of his life. In this 
province his memory has been held in deserved 

When he first arrived in this province, he found 
it in the utmost confusion by tumults and riotous 
disorders, which had for some time prevailed. 
This circumstance, joined to the unhappy contro 
versy between the two branches of the legislature, 
rendered the first part of his administration pe 
culiarly difficult ; but l;y bis firm and prudent j 
measures he surmounted the difficulties of his sit 
uation, lie steadily pursued the interest of the 
province, endeavoring to distinguish and promote 
men of worth without partiality. lie enlarged 
the charter of Princeton college, and was its 
chief patron and benefactor. Even under the 
growing infirmities of age, he applied himself 
with his accustomed assiduity and diligence to the 
high duties of his office. lie died at Elizabeth- 
town, Aug. 31, 1757, aged 70 years; His body 
was brought to Cambridge, Mass., where it was 
entombed. His eldest son, Andrew, a member of 
the council, died at Milton before the Revolution. 
In the opinion of Dr. Elliot he did not inherit the 
spirit of his father. 

Gov. Belcher possessed uncommon gracefulness 
of person and dignity of deportment. He obeyed 
the royal instructions on the one hand and exhib 
ited a real regard to the liberties and happiness 
of the people on the other. He was distin 
guished by his unshaken, integrity, by his zeal for 
justice, and care to have it equally distributed. 
Neither the claims of interest nor the solicitations 
of friends could move him from what appeared to 
be lu s duty. He seems to have possessed, in ad 
dition to his other accomplishments, that piety, 
whose lustre is eternal. His religion was not a 
mere formal thing, which he received from tra 
dition, or professed in conformity to the custom 
of the country, in which he lived; but it im 
pressed his heart, and governed his life. He had 
such views of the majesty and holiness of God, 
of the strictness and purity of the divine law, and 
of his own unworthiness and iniquity, as made 
him disclaim all dependence on his own right 
eousness, and led him to place his whole hope for 
salvation on the merits of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
who appeared to liim an all-sufficient and glori 
ous Saviour. He expressed the humblest sense 
of his own character and the most exalted views 
of the rich, free, and glorious grace offered in the 
gospel to sinners. His faith worked by love, and 
produced the genuine fruits of obedience. It ex 
hibited itself in a life of piety and devotion, of 
meekness and humility, of justice, .ruth, and be 
nevolence. He searched the holy scriptures with 
the greatest diligence and delight. In his family 
he maintained the worship of God, liimself read 

ing the volume of truth, and addressing in prayer 
the Majesty of heaven and of earth, as long as 
his health and strength would possibly admit. 
In the hours of retirement he held intercourse 
with heaven, carefully redeeming time from the 
business of this world to attend to the more im 
portant concerns of another. Though there was 
nothing ostentatious in his religion, yet he was 
not ashamed to avow his attachment to the gospel 
of Christ, even when he exposed himself to 
ridicule and censure. When Mr. Whitfield was 
at Boston in the year 1740, he treated that elo 
quent itinerant with the greatest respect. He 
even followed him as far as Worcester, and re 
quested him to continue his faithful instructions 
and pungent addresses to the conscience, desiring 
him to spare neither ministers nor rulers. He 
was indeed deeply interested in the progress of 
holiness and religion. As he approached the 
termination of his life, he often expressed his 
desire to depart and to enter the world of glory. 
Burr s Funeral Sermon; Hutchinson, II. 367- 
397; Holmes, II. 78; Smith s N. J., 437-438; 
Belknap s N. H.; Whitfield s Jour, for 1743; 
Marshall, I. 299; Minot, I. 61; Elliot. 

BELCIIER, JONATHAN, chief justice of Xova 
Scotia, was the second son of the preceding, and 
was graduated at Harvard college in 1728. He 
studied law at the temple in London and gained 
some distinction at the bar in England. At the 
settlement of Chebucto, afterwards called Hali 
fax, in honor of one of the king s ministers, he 
proceeded to that place, and being in 1760 senior 
councillor, on the death of Gov. Lawrence he 
was appointed lieutenant-governor, in which office 
he was succeeded by Col. Wilmot in 1763. In 
1761 he received his appointment of chief justice ; 
in the same year, as commander in chief, he made 
a treaty with the Mirhnichi, Jcdiuk, and I ogi- 
nouch, Mickmack tribes of Indians. He died at 
Halifax March, 1776, aged 60. He was a man 
of prudence and integrity, and a friend of New 
England. In 17^6 he married at Boston the sis 
ter of Jcrem. Allen, sheriff of Suffolk ; on her 
death in 1771 Mr. Secomb published a discourse, 
and her kinsman, Dr. Byles, a monody. Andrew 
Belcher, his son, was a distinguished citizen of 
Halifax and a member of the council in 1801. 
A daughter married Dr. Timothy L. Jennison of 
Cambridge, Mass. Mass. Hist. Coll. V. 102 ; 
Jennison ; Eliot. 

BELDEX, JOSHUA, physician of Weathersfield, 
was the son of Rev. Joshua Belden of that town, 
who reached the age of 90 years. After graduating 
at Yale college in 1787, he studied physic with 
Dr. L. Hopkins. Besides his useful toils as a 
physician, he was employed in various offices of 
public trust. He was a zealous supporter of all 
charitable and religious institutions. At the acre 


of 50 lie fell a victim suddenly to the spotted 
fever, June 6,1818. Thacher s Medical Bioy- 

BELKXAP, JEREMY, 1). D., minister in Bos 
ton, and eminent as a writer, died June 20, 1798, 
a ir ed 54. He was born June 4, 1744, and was a 
descendant of Joseph Belknap, who lived in Bos 
ton in 10,38. He received the rudiments of learn 
ing in the grammar school of the celebrated Mr. 
Lovel, and was graduated at Harvard college in 
1762. He exhibited, at this early period, such 
marks of genius and taste, and such talents in 
writing and conversation, as to excite the most 
pleasing hopes of his future usefulness and dis 
tinction. Having upon his mind deep impressions 
of the truths of religion, he now applied himself 
to the study of theology, and he was ordained 
pastor of the church in Dover, N. H., Feb. 18. 
1707. Here he passed near twenty years of his 
life, with the esteem and affection of his flock, and 
respected by the first characters of the state. He 
was persuaded by them to compile his history of 
New Hampshire, which gained liim a high repu 
tation. In 1786 he Avas dismissed from his peo 
ple. The Presbyterian church in Boston becom 
ing vacant by the removal of Mr. Annan, and 
having changed its establishment from the Pres- 
bvterian to the Congregational form, soon invited 
him to become its pastor. He was accordingly 
installed April 4, 1787. Here he passed the re 
mainder of his days, discharging the duties of 
his pastoral office, exploring various fields of liter 
ature, and giving his efficient support to every 
useful and benevolent institution. After being 
subject to frequent returns of ill health he was 
suddenly seized by a fatal paralytic affection. 

Dr. Belknap in his preaching did not possess 
the graces of elocution, nor did he aim at splen 
did diction ; but presented his thoughts in plain 
and perspicuous language, that all might under 
stand him. While he lived in Boston, he avoided 
controversial subjects, dwelling chiefly upon the 
practical views of the gospel. His sermons were 
filled with a rich variety of observations on human 
life and manners, lie was peculiarly careful in 
giving religious instruction to young children, that 
their feet might be early guided in the way of 
Hie. In the afternoon preceding his death, he 
was engaged in catechizing the youth of his soci 
ety. In the various relations of life his conduct 
was exemplary. He was a member of many lit 
erary and humane societies, whose interests he 
essentially promoted. Wherever he could be of 
any service, he freely devoted his time and talents. 
He was one of the founders of the Massachusetts 
historical society. He had been taught the value 
of an association, whose duty it should be to col 
lect and preserve manuscripts and bring together 
the materials for illustrating the history of our 



country; and he had the happiness of seeing 
such an institution incorporated in 1794. 

Dr. Belknap gained a high reputation as a wri 
ter ; but he is more remarkable for the patience 
and accuracy of his historical researches, than for 
elegance of style. His deficiency in natural sci 
ence, as manifested in his history of New Hamp 
shire, is rendered more prominent by the rapid 
progress of natural history since his death. His 
Foresters is not only a description of American 
manners, but a work of humor and wit, which 
went into a second edition. Before the llevolu- 
tion he wrote much in lavor of freedom and his 
country, and he afterwards gave to the public 
many fruits of his labors and researches. His 
last and most interesting work, his American Biog 
raphy, he did not live to complete. He was a 
decided advocate of our republican forms of gov 
ernment, and ever was a warm friend of the con 
stitution of the United States, which he consid 
ered the bulwark of our national security and 
happiness. He was earnest in his wishes and 
prayers for the government of his country, and in 
critical periods took an open and unequivocal, 
and, as far as professional and private duties al 
lowed, an active part. 

The following extract from some lines, found 
among his papers, expresses his choice with regard 
to the manner of his death ; and the event corre 
sponded with his wishes. 

When faith and patience, hope and love 
Have made us meet for heaveu above, 
How blest the privilege to rise, 
Snatched in a moment to the skies ! 
Unconscious, to resign our breath. 
Nor taste the bitterness of death. 

Dr. Belknap published a sermon on military 
duty, 1772 ; a serious address to a parishioner 
upon the neglect of public worship ; a sermon on 
Jesus Christ, the only foundation ; election ser 
mon, 1784; history of New Hampshire, the first 
volume in 1784, the second in 1791, and the third 
in 1792 ; a sermon at the ordination of Jedediah 
Morse, 1789; a discourse in 1792, on the com 
pletion of the third century from Columbus dis 
covery of America ; dissertations upon the char 
acter and resurrection of Christ, 12mo. ; collec 
tion of psalms and hymns, 1795; convention 
sermon, 1796 ; a sermon on the national fast, 
May 9, 1793 ; American biography, first volume 
in 1794, the second in 1798; the foresters, an 
American tale, being a sequel to the history of 
John Bull, the clothier, 12mo. He published 
also several essays upon the African trade, upon 
civil and religious liberty, upon the state and set 
tlement of this country, in periodical papers ; in 
the Columbian magazine printed in Philadelphia ; 
in the Boston magazine, 1784; in the historical 
collections; and in newspapers. Two of his 




sermons on the institution and observation of the 
Sabbath were published in 1801. Mass. Hist. 
Coll. VI. X.-XVlll. ; Columbian Cent., June 25, 
1798; Polyantlws,l. 1-13. 

BELKNAP, EZEKIEL, died in Atkinson, N. II., 
Jan. 5, 1836, aged 100 years and 40 days; an 
officer in the Revolutionary army. He was the 
son of Moses, who died in 1813, aged 99, and 
grandson of Hannah B., who died aged 107. 

BELL, JOHN, a distinguished citizen of New 
Hampshire, of great judgment, decision, and in 
tegrity, died at Londonderry, Nov. 30, 1825, aged 
95 years. His father, John, was an early settler 
of that town. During the llevolutionary war he 
was a leading member of the senate. From an 
early age he was a professor of religion. Two of 
his sons, Samuel and John, were governors of 
New Hampshire ; the former was a senator of 
the United States. His grandson, John Bell, son 
of Samuel, a physician of great promise, died at 
Grand Caillon, La., Nov. 27, 1830 aged 30. 

BELL, SAMUEL, governor, died in Chester, 
N. II., Dec. 23, 1850, aged 81 ; a graduate of Dart 
mouth, a judge of the superior court from 1816 
to 1819, governor from 1819 to 1823, and a sen 
ator in congress from 1823 to 1835. 

BELL, JOHN, governor of N. II. in 1828, died 
at Chester, March 22, 1836. 

BELLAMONT, RICHARD, earl of, governor 
of New York, Massachusetts, and New Hamp 
shire, was appointed to these offices early in May, 
1095, but did not arrive at New York until May, 
1698. He had to struggle with many difficulties, 
for the people were divided, the treasury was un- 
supplicd, and the fortifications were out of repair. 
Notwithstanding the care of government, the 
pirates, who in time of peace made great depre 
dations upon Spanish ships and settlements in 
America, were frequently in the sound, and were 
supplied with provisions by the inhabitants of 
Long Island. The belief, that large quantities of 
money were hid by these pirates along the coast, 
led to many a fruitless search ; and thus the nat 
ural credulity of the human mind and the desire 
of sudden wealth were suitably punished. The 
Earl of Bellamont remained in the province of 
New York about a year. He arrived at Boston 
May 26, 1699, and in Massachusetts he was re 
ceived with the greatest respect, as it was a new 
thing to sec a nobleman at the head of the gov 
ernment. Twenty companies of soldiers and a 
vast concourse of people met " his lordship and 
countess " on his arrival. " There were all man 
ner of expressions of joy, and, to end all, firework 
and good drink at night." He in return took ev 
ery method to ingratiate himself with the people. 
He was condescending, affable, and courteous 
upon all occasions. Though a churchman, he at 
tended the weekly lecUre in Boston with the gen 
eral court, who always adjourned for the purpose. 

For the preachers he professed the greatest 
regard. By his wise conduct he obtained a lar 
ger sum as a salary and as a gratuity, than any of 
his predecessors or successors. Though he re 
mained but fourteen months, the grants made to 
him were one thousand eight hundred and sev 
enty-five pounds sterling. His time was much 
taken up in securing the pirates and their effects, 
to accomplish which was a principal reason of his 
appointment. During his administration Capt. 
Kidd was seized, and sent to England for trial. 
Soon after the session of the general court in 
May, 1700, he returned to New York, where he 
died March 5, 1701. He had made himself very 
popular in his governments. He was a nobleman 
of polite manners, a friend to the revolution, 
which excited so much joy in New England, and 
a favorite of king William. Hutchinson, who 
was himself not unskilled in the arts of popu 
larity, seems to consider his regard to religion as 
pretended, and represents him as preferring for 
his associates in private the less precise part of 
the country. As the earl was once going from 
the lecture to his house with a great crowd around 
him, he passed by one Bullivant, an apothecary, 
and a man of the liberal cast, who was standing 
at his shop-door loitering. " Doctor," said the 
earl with an audible voice, " you have lost a pre 
cious sermon to-day." Bullivant whispered to one 
of his companions, who stood by him, " if I could 
have got as much by being there, as his lordship 
will, I would have been there too." However, 
there seems to be no reason to distrust the sin 
cerity of Bellamont. The dissipation of his early 
years caused afterwards a deep regret. It is said, 
that while residing at fort George, N. Y., he 
once a week retired privately to the chapel to 
meditate humbly upon his juvenile folly. Such 
a man might deem a sermon on the method of 
salvation " precious," without meriting from the 
scoffer the charge of hypocrisy. Hutchinson, II. 
87, 108, 112-16, 121. 

BELLAMY, JOSEPH, D. D., an eminent min 
ister, died March 6, 1790, aged 71, in the fiftieth 
year of his ministry. lie was born at New Che 
shire in 1719, and was graduated at Yale college 
in 1735. It was not long after his removal from 
New Haven, that he became the subject of those 
serious impressions, which, it is believed, issued 
in renovation of heart. From this period he 
consecrated his talents to the evangelical ministry. 
At the age of eighteen he began to preach with 
acceptance and success. An uncommon blessing 
attended his ministry at Bethlem in the town of 
Woodbury ; a large proportion of the society ap 
peared to be awakened to a sense of religion, and 
they were unwilling to part with the man, by 
whose ministry they had been conducted to a 
knowledge of the truth. He was ordained to the 
pastoral office over this church in 1740. In this 




retirement he devoted himself with uncommon 
ardor to his studies and the duties of his office 
till the memorable revival, which was most con 
spicuous in 1742. His spirit of piety was then 
blown into a flame ; he could not be contented to 
confine his labors to his small society. Taking 
care that his own pulpit should be vacant as little 
as possible, he devoted a considerable part of his 
time for several years to itinerating in different 
parts of Connecticut and the neighboring colonies, 
preaching the gospel daily to multitudes, who 
flocked to hear him. He was instrumental in the 
conversion of many. When the awakening de 
clined, he returned to a more constant attention 
to his own charge. He now began the task of 
writing an excellent treatise, entitled true religion 
delineated, which was published in 1750. His 
abilities, his ardent piety, his theological knowl 
edge, his acquaintance with persons under all 
kinds of religious impressions qualified him pecu 
liarly for a work of this kind. From this time 
he became more conspicuous, and young men, 
who were preparing for the gospel ministry, ap 
plied to him as a teacher. In tliis branch of his 
work he was eminently useful till the decline of 
life, when he relinquished it. His method of in 
struction was the following. After ascertaining the 
abilities and genius of those, who applied to him, 
he gave them a number of questions on the lead 
ing and most essential subjects of religion, in the 
form of a system. He then directed them to 
such books as treat these subjects with the great 
est perspicuity and force of argument, and usually 
spent his evenings in inquiring into their improve 
ments and solving difficulties, till they had ob 
tained a good degree of understanding in the 
general system. After this, he directed them to 
write on each of the questions before given 
them, reviewing those parts of the authors which 
treated on the subject proposed. These disserta 
tions were submitted to his examination. As they 
advanced in ability to make proper distinctions, he 
led them to read the most learned and acute op- 
posers of the truth, the deistical, arian, and socin- 
ian writers, and laid open the fallacy of their 
most specious reasonings. When the system 
was completed, he directed them to write on sev 
eral of the most important points systematicallv, 
in the form of sermons. He next led them to 
peruse the best experimental and practical dis 
courses, and to compose sermons on Hive subjects. 
He revised and corrected their compositions, in 
culcating the necessity of a heart truly devoted 
to Christ, and a life of watching and prayer ; dis 
coursing occasionally on the various duties, trials, 
comforts, and motives of the evangelical work ; 
that his pupils might be, as far as possible, 
" scribes well instructed in the kingdom of God." 
In 1786 Dr. Bellamy was seized by a paralytic 
affection, from which he never recovered. His 

first wife, Frances Sherman of New Haven, whom 
he married about 1744, died in 1785, the mother 
of seven children. Of these Jonathan Bellamy, 
a lawyer, took an active part in the war, and died 
of the small pox in 1777 ; and Rebecca married 
Rev. Mr. Hart. His eldest son, David, died at 
Bethlem May, 1826, aged 75. His second wife 
was the relict of Rev. Andrew Storrs of Water- 

Dr. Bellamy " was a large and well-built man, 
of a commanding appearance." As a preacher, 
he had perhaps no superior, and very few equals. 
His voice was manly, his manner engaging and 
most impressive. He had a peculiar faculty of 
arresting the attention ; he was master of his 
subject and could adapt himself to the meanest 
capacity. When the law was his theme, he was 
awful and terrifying; on the contrary, in the 
most melting strains would he describe the suffer 
ings of Christ and his love to sinners, and with 
most persuasive eloquence invite them to be rec 
onciled to God. 

He was a man of wit and humor. He and 
Mr. Sanford married sisters. B. said to S. in 
reference to their different manner of preaching, 
" When I go a fishing, I have a suitable pole, 
and black line, and, creeping along, keeping my 
self out of sight, throw my hook gently into the 
water ; but you, with a white-peeled pole, and 
white line, march up boldly to the bank, and 
splash in your hook and line, crying out, Bite, 
you dogs ! " 

In his declining years he did not retain his pop 
ularity as a preacher. As a pastor he was dili 
gent and faithful. He taught not only publicly 
but from house to house. He was particularly 
attentive to the rising generation. Besides the 
stated labors of the Lord s day, he frequently 
spent an hour in the intervals of public worship 
in catechising the children of the congregation. 
In a variety of respects Dr. Bellamy shone with 
distinguished lustre. Extensive science and ease 
of communicating his ideas rendered him one of 
the best of instructors. His writings procured 
him the esteem of the pious and learned at home 
and abroad, with many of whom he maintained an 
epistolary correspondence. In his preaching, a 
mind rich in thought, a great command of lan 
guage, and a powerful voice rendered his extem 
porary discourses peculiarly acceptable. He was 
one of the most able divines of this country. In 
his sentiments he accorded mainly with President 
Edwards, with whom he was intimately acquainted. 
From comparing the first chapter of John with 
the first of Genesis he was led to believe, and he 
maintained, that the God, mentioned in the latter 
as the Creator, was Jesus Christ. 

He published a sermon entitled, early piety 
recommended; true religion delineated, 1750; 
sermons on the Divinity of Christ, the millennium, 




and the wisdom of God in the permission of sin, 
1758 ; letters and dialogues on the nature of love 
to God, faith in Christ, and assurance, 1759 ; essay 
on the glory of the gospel ; a vindication of his 
sermon on the wisdom of God in the permission 
of sin ; the law a schoolmaster ; the great evil of 
sin ; election sermon, 1762. Besides these, he 
published several small pieces on creeds and con 
fessions ; on the covenant of grace ; on church 
covenanting; and in answer to objections made 
against his writings. The following are the titles 
of some of these : the half-way covenant, 1768 ; 
the inconsistency of renouncing the half-way 
covenant and retaining the halt-way practice ; that 
there is but one covenant, against Moses Mather. 
His works, in 2 vols., with memoir by Dr. T. 
Edwards, were published by Doct. Tract. Soc., 
Boston, 1830. Brainerd s Life, 22, 41, 43, 55; 
Trumbull, II. 159; Theol. Mag., I. 5. 

BELLAMY, SAMUEL, a noted pirate, in his 
ship, the "VVhidah, of twenty-three guns and one 
hundred and thirty men, captured several vessels 
on the coast of New England; but in April, 1717, 
he was wrecked on Cape Cod. The inhabitants 
of Wellfleet still point out the place of the 
disaster. More than one hundred bodies were 
found on the shore. Only one Englishman and 
one Indian escaped. A few days before, the 
master of a captured vessel, while seven pirates on 
board were drunk, ran her on shore on the back 
of the cape. Six of the pirates were executed at 
Boston in November. 

BELLINGIIAM, RICHARD, governor of Massa 
chusetts, was a native of England, where he was 
bred a lawyer. He came to this country in 1634, 
and August 3d was received into the church, with 
his wife Elizabeth, and in the following year was 
chosen deputy governor. In 1641 he was elected 
governor, in opposition to Mr. Winthrop, by a 
majority of six votes; but the election did not 
seem to be agreeable to the general court. He 
was re-chosen to this office in 1654, and after the 
death of Gov. Endicot was again elected in May, 
1665. He continued chief magistrate of Massa 
chusetts during the remainder of his life. He 
was deputy governor thirteen years, and governor 
ten. In 1664 he was chosen major-general. In 
this year the king scut four commissioners, Nich 
ols, Cartwright, Carr, and Maverick, to regulate 
the affairs of the colonies. A long account of 
their transactions is given by Hutchinson. Bell- 
ingham and others, obnoxious to the king, were 
required to go to England to answer for them 
selves ; but the general court, by the advice of 
the ministers, refused compliance and maintained 
the charter rights. But they appeased his majesty 
by sending lu m "a ship load of masts." He 
died Dec. 7, 1672, aged 80 years, leaving several 
children. Of his singular second marriage in 

1641 the following is a brief history: A young 
gentlewoman was about to be contracted to a 
friend of his, with his consent, "when on the 
sudden the governor treated with her and 
obtained her for himself." He failed to publish 
the contract where he dwelt, and he performed 
the marriage ceremony himself. The great in 
quest presented him for breach of the order of 
court; but at the appointed time of trial, not 
choosing to go off from the bench and answer as 
an offender, and but few magistrates being present, 
he escaped any censure. 

His excuse for this marriage was " the strength 
of his affection." In his last will he gave certain 
farms, after his wife s decease, and his whole 
estate at Winisimet, after the decease of his son 
and his son s daughter, for the annual encourage 
ment of " godly ministers and preachers," at 
tached to the principles of the first church, " a 
main o ne whereof is, that all ecclesiastical juris 
diction is committed by Christ to each particular 
organical church, from which there is no appeal." 
The general court, thinking the rights of his 
family were impaired, set aside the will. His 
sister, Anne Hibbins, widow of William Hibbins, 
an assistant, was executed as a witch in June, 
1656. Hubbard speaks of Bellingham as " a very 
ancient gentleman, having spun a long thread of 
above eighty years;" "he was a great justiciary, a 
notable hater of bribes, firm and fixed in any 
resolution he entertained, of larger comprehension 
than expression, like a vessel, whose vent holdeth 
no good proportion with its capacity to contain, a 
disadvantage to a public person." He did not 
harmonize with the other assistants ; yet they 
respected his character and motives. 

Gov. Bellingham lived to be the only surviving 
patentee named in the charter. He was severe 
against those who were called sectaries ; but he 
was a man of incorruptible integrity, and of ac 
knowledged piety. In the ecclesiastical contro 
versy, which was occasioned in Boston by the 
settlement of Mr. Davenport, he was an advocate 
of the first church. Hutchinson, I. 41, 43, 97, 
211, 269 ; Neal s Hist., I. 390 ; Mather s Mag., n. 
18; Holmes, I. 414; Savaye s Winthrop, n. 43. 

BENEDICT, NOAII, minister of Woodbury, 
Conn., was graduated at Princeton college in 
1757, and was ordained as the successor of 
Anthony Stoddard, Oct. 22, 1760. He died in 
Sept., 1813, aged 75. He published a sermon on 
the death of Dr. Bellamy, 1790, and memoirs of 
B., 1811. 

BENEDICT, JOEL, D. I)., minister of Plain- 
field, Conn., was graduated at Princeton college 
in 1765, settled at Plainfield in 1782, and died in 
1816, aged 71. He was a distinguished Hebrew 
scholar; and for his excellent character he was 
held in high respect. One of his daughters 


married Dr. Nott, president of Union college. 
He published a sermon on the death of Dr. Hart, 

BENEZET, ANTHONT, a philanthropist of 
Philadelphia, died May 3, 1784, aged 71. He 
was born at St. Quintals, a town in the province 
of Picardy, France, Jan. 31, 1713. About the 
time of lu s birth the persecution against the 
Protestants was carried on with relentless se 
verity, in consequence of which many thousands 
found it necessary to leave their native country, 
and seek a shelter in a foreign land. Among 
these were his parents, who removed to London 
in Feb., 1715, and, after remaining there upwards of 
sixteen years, came to Philadelphia in Nov., 1731. 
During their residence in Great Britain they had 
imbibed the religious opinions of the Quakers, 
and were received into that body immediately 
after their arrival in this country. 

In the early part of his life Benezet was put an 
apprentice to a merchant ; but soon after his mar 
riage in 1722, when his affairs were in a prosperous 
situation, he left the mercantile business, that he 
might engage in some pursuit, which would afford 
him more leisure for the duties of religion and for 
the exercise of that benevolent spirit, for which 
during the course of a long life he was so con 
spicuous. But no employment, which accorded 
perfectly with his inclination, presented itself till 
the year 1742, when he accepted the appointment 
of instructor in the Friends English school of 
Philadelphia. The duties of the honorable, though 
not very lucrative, office of a teacher of youth he 
from this period continued to fulfil with unremit 
ting assiduity and delight and with very little 
intermission till his death. During the two last 
years of his life his zeal to do good induced him 
to resign the school, which he had long super 
intended, and to engage in the instruction of the 
blacks. In doing this he did not consult his 
worldly interest, but was influenced by a regard 
to the welfare of men, whose minds had been 
debased by servitude. He wished to contribute 
something towards rendering them fit for the 
enjoyment of that freedom, to which many of 
them had been restored. So great was his 
sympathy with every being capable of feeling 
pain, that he resolved towards the close of his life 
to eat no animal food. His active mind did not 
yield to the debility of his body. He persevered 
in his attendance upon his school till within a few 
days of his decease. 

Such was the general esteem in which he was 
held, that his funeral was attended by persons of 
all religious denominations. Many hundred ne 
groes followed their friend and benefactor to the 
grave, and by their tears they proved that they 
possessed the sensibilities of men. An officer, 
who had served in the army during the war with 
Britain, observed at this time, " I would rather 



be Anthony Benezet in that coffin, than George 
Washington with all his fame." He exhibited 
uncommon activity and industry in every thing 
which he undertook. He used to say, that the 
highest act of charity was to bear with the un 
reasonableness of mankind. He generally wore 
plush clothes, and gave as a reason for it, that, 
after he had worn them for two or three years, 
they made comfortable and decent garments for 
the poor. So disposed was he to malic himself 
contented in every situation, that when his mem 
ory began to fail him, instead of lamenting the 
decay of his powers, he said to a young friend, 
"This gives me one great advantage over you, for 
you can find entertainment in reading a good 
book only once ; but I enjoy that pleasure as often 
as I read it, for it is always new to me." Few 
men, since the days of the apostles, ever lived a 
more disinterested life ; yet upon his death-bed 
he expressed a desire to live a little longer, " that 
he might bring down self." The last time he ever 
walked across his room was to take from his desk 
six dollars, which he gave to a poor widow, whom 
he had long assisted to maintain. In his conver 
sation he was affable and unreserved ; in his 
manners gentle and conciliating. For the acqui 
sition of wealth he wanted neither abilities nor 
opportunity; but he made himself contented with 
a little ; and with a competency he was liberal be 
yond most of those, whom a bountiful Providence 
had encumbered with riches. By his will he de 
vised lu s estate, after the decease of his wife, to 
certain trustees for the use of the African school. 
While the British army was in possession of Phila 
delphia, he was indefatigable in his endeavors to 
render the situation of the persons who suffered 
from captivity, as easy as possible. He knew no 
fear in the presence of a fellow man, however 
dignified by titles or station ; and such was the 
propriety and gentleness of his manners in his 
intercourse with the gentlemen, who commanded 
the British and German troops, that, when he 
could not obtain the object of his requests, he 
never failed to secure their civilities and esteem. 
Although the life of Mr. Benezet was passed in 
the instruction of youth, yet his expansive benevo 
lence extended itself to a wider sphere of useful 
ness. Giving but a small portion of his time to 
sleep, he employed his pen both day and night in 
writing books on religious subjects, composed 
chiefly with a view to inculcate the peaceable 
temper and doctrines of the gospel, in opposition 
to the spirit of war, and to expose the flagrant 
injustice of slavery, and fix the stamp of infamy 
on the traffic in human blood. His writings con 
tributed much towards meliorating the condition 
of slaves, and undoubtedly had influence on the 
public mind in effecting the complete prohibition 
of that trade, which until the year 1808 was a 
blot on the American national character. In order 




to disseminate his publications and increase his 
usefulness, he held a correspondence with such 
persons in various parts of Europe and America, 
as united with him in the same benevolent design, 
or would be likely to promote the objects, which 
he was pursuing. No ambitious or covetous views 
impelled liim to his exertions. Regarding all 
mankind as children of one common Father and 
members of one great family, he was anxious, that 
oppression and tyranny should cease, and that 
men should live together in mutual kindness and 
affection, lie himself respected and he wished 
others to respect the sacred injunction of doing 
unto others as they would that others should do 
unto them. On the return of peace in 1783, ap 
prehending that the revival of commerce would be 
likely to renew the African slave trade, which 
during the war had been in some measure ob 
structed, he addressed a letter to the queen of 
Great Britain, to solicit her influence on the side 
of humanity. At the close of this letter he says, 
" I hope thou wilt kindly excuse the freedom used 
on this occasion by an ancient man, whose mind 
for more than forty years past has been much 
separated from the common course of the world, 
long painfully exercised in the consideration of 
the miseries under which so large a part of man 
kind, equally with us the objects of redeeming 
love, are suffering the most unjust and grievous 
oppression, and who sincerely desires the tem 
poral and eternal felicity of the queen and her 
royal consort." lie published, among other tracts, 
an account of that part of Africa inhabited by 
negroes, 1762 ; a caution to Great Britain and 
her colonies, in a short representation of the ca 
lamitous state of the enslaved negroes in the 
British dominions, 1707 ; some historical account 
of Guinea, with an inquiry into the slave trade, 
1771; a short account of the society of Friends, 
1780; a dissertation on the Christian religion, 
1782; tracts against the use of ardent spirits; 
observations on the Indian natives, 1784. Rusk s 
Essays, 311-314; Vaux s Memoir; New and 
Gen. Biog. Diet. ; Am. Museum, ix. 192-194. 

BENJAMIN, NATHAN, missionary, died at Con 
stantinople Jan. 27, 1855, aged 43 ; one month 
after the death of Mrs. Grant. Born in Catskill, 
he lived in Williamstown, where he graduated in 
1831, and at Andover in 1834. He married Mary 
G. Wheeler of New York, and proceeded to 
Argos in 1836, and to Athens in 1838, where he 
labored six years, chiefly in connection with the 
press. In 1844 he entered upon the Armenian 
mission at Trebizond ; but the ill health of his 
wife brought him to America in 1845. 

Being summoned to a new mission, he arrived 
at Smyrna Dec. 7, 1847 ; and there he toiled in 
the printing of the Bible and tracts in the Arme 
nian. The printing operations were transferred 

to Constantinople in 1852 ; and there he also 
preached statedly in Greek and English. Living 
at Pera, and being the treasurer of the mission, 
a great amount of business fell upon him. He 
died of the typhus fever ; his last words were, 
"Come, Lord Jesus; come quickly." Mr. B. 
had a large share of common sense, a sound 
judgment, a knowledge of books and of men. 
By printed truth he will preach for ages to thou 
sands of Armenians. 

BENNET, DAVID, a physician, was born in 
England Dec. 1, 1615, and died at Rowley, Mass., 
Feb. 4, 1719, aged 103 years. He never lost a 
tooth. His senses were good to the last. His 
wife was the sister of William Phipps. His son, 
Spencer, who took the name of Phipps, was 
graduated in 1703, was lieut. governor of Mass., 
and died April 4, 1757, aged 72. Farmer. 

BENNETT, BARTLETT, a Baptist minister, died 
at Cincinnati Oct. 12, 1842, aged 99. He was 
born in Albemarle county, Va., in 1743 ; was a 
preacher at the age of 25, a pioneer of Kentucky. 

BENSON, EGBERT, LL. I)., judge, died at 
Jamaica, N. Y., in Aug., 1833, aged 86 ; a man 
of learning and eminent virtues. He was a grad 
uate of Columbia college in 1765, a member of 
congress, a judge of the supreme court of New 
York, and of the circuit court of the United States. 
He wrote remarks on " The Wife " of Irving. 

BENTLEY, WILLIAM, D. D., born in Bos 
ton, graduated at Harvard in 1777, and was 
ordained over the second church of Salem Sept., 
1783. He died suddenly Dec. 29, 1819, aged 
61. In his theological notions he was regarded 
as a Socinian. Some of his sermons were re 
markably deficient in perspicuity of style. For 
nearly twenty years he edited the Essex Register, 
a newspaper, which espoused the democratic side 
in politics. He was a great collector of books, 
and much conversant with ancient branches of 
learning, admitting of little practical application. 
His valuable library and cabinet he bequeathed 
cliiefly to the college at Meadville, Pennsylvania, 
and to the American Antiquarian society at Wor 
cester. An eulogy was pronounced by Prof. E. 
Everett. He published a sermon on Matt. 7: 
21, 1790; on the death of J. Gardiner, 1791 ; of 
Gen. Fiske, 1797 ; of B. Hodges, 1804 ; collec 
tion of psalms and hymns, 1795 ; three masonic 
addresses and a masonic charge, 1797-1799; at 
the artillery election, 1796 ; at ordination of J. 
Richardson, 1806 ; before the female charitable 
society ; at the election, 1807 ; a history of Salem 
in Historical Collections, vol. vn. 

BENTLEY, WILLIAM, an eminent Baptist 
minister, died at Weathersfield in Jan., 1856, aged 

BERKELEY, CARTER, M. D., died in Hano 
ver, Va., Nov. 3, 1739, aged 71, while feeling 




the pulse of a dying patient. He was a descend 
ant of Sir William B. ; a distinguished physician, 
a benevolent man and a Christian. 

BERKELEY, AVlLLlAM, governor of Virginia, 
was born of an ancient family near London and 
was educated at Merton college, in Oxford, of 
which he was afterwards a fellow. He was ad 
mitted master of arts in 1629. In 1630 he 
travelled in different parts of Europe. He is 
described as being in early life the perfect model 
of an elegant courtier and a high-minded cavalier. 
He succeeded Sir Francis Wyatt in the govern 
ment of Virginia in 1641. Some years after his 
arrival the Indians, irritated by encroachments 
on their territory, massacred about five hundred 
of the colonists. This massacre occurred about 
April 18, 1644, soon after, as Winthrop says, an 
act of persecution. Sir William with a company 
of horse surprised the aged Oppecancanough, and 
brought him prisoner to Jamestown. The Indian 
emperor was a man of dignified sentiments. One 
day, when there was a large crowd in his room 
gazing at him, he called for the governor, and 
said to him, " If it had been my fortune to have 
taken Sir William Berkeley prisoner, I should 
have disdained to have made a show of him to 
my people." About a fortnight after he was taken, 
a brutal soldier shot him through the back, of 
which wound the old man soon died. A firm 
peace was soon afterwards made with the Indians. 

During the civil Avar in England Gov. Berkeley 
took the side of the king, and Virginia was the 
last of the possessions of England, which ac 
knowledged the authority of Cromwell. Severe 
laws were made against the Puritans, though there 
were none in the colony; commerce was inter 
rupted; and the people were unable to supply 
themselves even with tools for agriculture. It 
was not till 1651, that Virginia was subdued. 
The parliament had sent a fleet to reduce Barba- 
does, and from this place a small squadron was 
detached under the command of Capt. Denm s. 
The Virginians, by the help of some Dutch vessels 
which were then in the port, made such resistance, 
that he was obliged to have recourse to other 
means besides force. He sent word to two of the 
members of the council, that he had on board a 
valuable cargo belonging to them, which they must 
lose, if the protector s authority was not imme 
diately acknowledged. Such dissensions now 
took place in the colony, that Sir William and his 
friends were obliged to submit on the terms of a 
general pardon. He however remained in the 
country, passing his time in retirement at his own 
plantation, and observing with satisfaction, that the 
parliament made a moderate use of its success, 
and that none of the Virginia royalists were per 
secuted for their resistance. 

After the death of Gov. Matthews, who was 
appointed by Cromwell, the people applied to Sir 

William to resume the government ; but he de 
clined complying with their request, unless they 
would submit themselves again to the authority 
of the king. Upon their consenting to do this, 
he resumed his former authority in January, 1659 ; 
i and King Charles II. was proclaimed in Virginia 
before his restoration to the throne of England. 
I The death of Cromwell, in the mean time, 
dissipated from the minds of the colonists the fear 
of the consequences of their boldness. After the 
restoration Gov. Berkeley received a new com 
mission and was permitted to go to England to 
pay his respects to his majesty. During his 
absence the deputy governor, whom he had ap 
pointed, in obedience to his orders collected the 
laws into one body. The church of England was 
made the established religion, parishes were regu 
lated, and, besides a parsonage house and glebe, a 
, yearly stipend in tobacco, to the value of eighty 
I pounds, was settled on the minister. In 1662 
! Gov. Berkeley returned to Virginia, and in the 
following year the laws were enforced against the 
dissenters from the establishment, by which a 
number of them were driven from the colony. 
In 1667, in consequence of his attempt to extend 
the influence of the council over certain measures 
of the assembly, he awakened the fears and in 
dignation of the latter body. From this period 
the governor s popularity declined. A change 
also was observed in his deportment, which lost 
its accustomed urbanity. His faithlessness and 
obstinacy may be regarded as the causes of 
Bacon s rebellion in 1076. The people earnestly 
desired, that Bacon might be appointed general in 
the Indian war ; and the governor promised to 
give him a commission, but broke his promise, 
and thus occasioned the rebellion. As his obsti 
nacy caused the rebellion, so his revengeful spirit, 
after it was suppressed, aggravated the evils of it 
by the severity of the punishments inflicted on 
Bacon s adherents. Though he had promised 
pardon and indemnity, " nothing was heard of 
but fines, executions, and confiscations." When 
the juries refused to aid his projects of vengeance, 
he resorted to the summary proceedings of 
martial law. The assembly at length restrained 
him by their remonstrances. Charles II. is said 
to have remarked concerning him, "The old fool 
has taken away more lives in that naked country, 
than I have taken for the murder of my father." 
After the rebellion, peace was preserved not so 
much by the removal of the grievances, which 
i awakened discontent, as by the arrival of a regi 
ment from England, which remained a long time 
in the country. 

In 1677 Sir William was induced, on account 
of his ill state of health, to return to England, 
leaving Col. Jeffreys deputy governor. He died 
soon after his arrival, and before he had seen the 
lung, after an administration of nearly forty 




years. He was buried at Twickenham July 13, 
1677. The following extract from his answer in 
June, 1671, to inquiries of the committee for the 
colonies, is a curious specimen of his loyalty : 
" We have forty-eight parishes and our ministers 
are well paid, and by my consent should be 
better, if they would pray oftener and preach less ; 
but, as of all other commodities, so of this, the 
worst are sent us, and we have few, that we can 
boast of, since the persecution in Cromwell s 
tyranny drove divers worthy men hither. Yet I 
thank God, there are no free schools, nor printing ; 
and I hope we shall not have these hundred 
years. For learning has brought disobedience, 
and heresy, and sects into the world, and printing 
has divulged them and libels against the best 
government." Thus Sir William, of a very differ 
ent spirit from the early governors of New Eng 
land, seems to have had much the same notion of 
education as the African governor, mentioned by 
Robert Southey in his colloquies. The black 
prince said, he would send his son to England, 
that he might learn " to read book and be rogue. 
More recently Mr. Giles of Virginia expressed 
his belief, that learning was become too general. 

He published the lost lady, a tragi-comedy, 
1639; a discourse and view of Virginia, pp. 12. 
1663. Keith s Hist. Virginia, 144-162 ; Wynne, 
II. 216-224; Holmes, I. 293, 311; Chalmers, I. 
336, 337; Wood s Athence Oxonienses, II. 5865 
Sav. Wintlirop, n. 159, 165. 

BERKELEY, GEOIIGE, bishop of Cloyne in 
Ireland, and a distinguished benefactor of Yale 
College, was born March 12, 1684, at Kilcrin in 
the county of Kilkenny, and was educated at 
Trinity college, Dublin. After publishing a num 
ber of his works, which gained him a high reputa 
tion, particularly liis theory of vision, he travelled 
four or five years upon the continent. He re 
turned in 1721, and a fortune was soon bequeathed 
him by Mrs. Vanhomrigh, a lady of Dublin, the 
"Vanessa" of Swift. In 1724 he was promoted 
to the deanery of Derry, worth 1 100 pounds per 
annum. Having for some time conceived the 
benevolent project of converting the savages of 
America to Christianity by means of a college to 
be erected in one of the isles of Bermuda, he 
published a proposal for this purpose at London 
in 1725. and offered to resign his own opulent 
preferment, and to dedicate the remainder of his 
life to the instruction of youth in America on the 
subsistence of 100 pounds a year. He obtained 
a grant of 10,000 pounds from the government 
of Great Britain, and immediately set sail for the 
field of his labors. He arrived at Newport, R. I., 
in Feb., 1729, with a view of settling a correspon 
dence there for supplying his college with such 
provisions as might be wanted from the northern 
colonies. Here he purchased a country seat and 
farm in the neighborhood of Newport, and 

resided about two years and a half. His house, 
which he called Whitehall, still remains, situated 
half a mile north-east from the state house. To 
the Episcopal church he gave an organ and a 
small library. His usual place of study was a 
cliff or crag near his dwelling. His residence in 
this country had some influence on the progress 
of Literature, particularly in Rhode Island and 
Connecticut. The presence and conversation of a 
man so illustrious for talents, learning, virtue, 
and social attractions could not fail of giving a 
spring to the literary diligence and ambition of 
many, who enjoyed his acquaintance. Finding, 
at length, that the promised aid of the ministry 
towards his new college would fail him, Dean 
Berkeley returned to England. At his departure 
he distributed the books, which he had brought 
with him, among the clergy of Rhode Island. 
He embarked at Boston in Sept., 1731. In the 
following year he published his minute philosopher, 
a work of great ingenuity and merit, which he 
wrote while at Newport. It was not long before 
he sent, as a gift to Yale college, a deed of the 
farm, which he held in Rhode Island ; the rents 
of which he directed to be appropriated to the 
maintenance of the three best classical scholars, 
who should reside at college at least nine months 
in a year in each of three years between their 
first and second degrees. All surplusages of 
money, arising from accidental vacancies, were to 
be distributed in Greek and Latin books to such 
undergraduates, as should make the best compo 
sition in the Latin tongue upon such a moral 
theme as should be given them. lie also made 
a present to the library of Yale college of nearly 
one thousand volumes. AVhcn it is considered, 
that he was warmly attached to the Episcopal 
church, and that he came to America for the 
express purpose of founding an Episcopal college, 
his munificence to an institution, under the exclu 
sive direction of a different denomination, must 
be thought worthy of high praise. It was in the 
year 1733 that he was made bishop of Cloyne ; 
and from this period he discharged with exemplary 
faithfulness the episcopal duties, and prosecuted 
his studies with unabating diligence. On the 
14th of January, 1753, he was suddenly seized at 
Oxford, whither he had removed in 1752, by a 
disorder called the palsy of the heart, and 
instantly expired, being nearly sixty-nine years of 
age. Pope ascribes 

" To Berkeley every virtue under heaven." 

His fine portrait by Smibert, with his family and 
the artist himself, will be contemplated with de 
light by all, who visit Yale college. Bishop 
Berkeley, while at Cloyne, constantly rose between 
three and four in the morning. His favorite 
author was Plato. His character, though marked 
by enthusiasm, was singularly excellent and amia- 


ble. lie was held by his acquaintance in the 
highest estimation. Bishop Atterbury, after be 
ing introduced to him, exclaimed, " so much un 
derstanding, so much knowledge, so much inno 
cence, and such humility I did not think had been 
the portion of any but angels, till I saw this gen 
tleman." It is well known, that Bishop Berkeley 
rejected the commonly received notion of the ex 
istence of matter, and contended, that what arc 
called sensible material objects are not external 
but exist in the mind, and are merely impressions 
made upon our mind by the immediate act of 
God. These peculiar sentiments he supported in 
his work, entitled, the principles of human knowl 
edge, 1710, and in the dialogues between Ily- 
las and Philonous, 1713. Besides these works, 
and the minute philosopher, in which he attacks 
the free thinker with great ingenuity and effect, 
he published, also, arithmetica absque algebra 
aut Euclide demonstrata, 1707; theory of vision, 
1709; de motu, 1721; an essay towards prevent 
ing the ruin of Great Britain, 1721 ; the analyst, 
1734 ; a defence of free thinking in mathematics, 
1735 ; the querist, 1735 ; discourse addressed to 
magistrates, 1736; on the virtues of tar water, 
1741; maxims concerning patriotism, 1750. 
Chandler s Life of Johnson, 47-60 ; Miller, II. 
349 ; fiees Cycl. ; Holmes, n. 53. 

BERKLEY, ALEXANDER, died at Lynchburg, 
Va., Oct. 25, 1825, aged 114: his wife died Jan. 
9, 1825, aged 111. 

BERKLEY, NORBORNE, baron de Botetourt, 
one of the last governors of Virginia while a 
British colony, obtained the peerage of Botetourt 
in 1764. In July, 1768, he was appointed gov 
ernor of Virginia in the place of Gen. Amherst. 
He died at Williamsburg Oct 15, 1770, aged 52. 
At his death the government, in consequence of 
tire resignation of John Blair, devolved upon 
William Nelson, until the appointment in Decem 
ber of Lord Dunmore, then governor of New 
York. Lord Botetourt seems to have been highly 
respected in Virginia. His exertions to promote 
the interests of William and Mary college were 
zealous and unremittcd. He instituted an annual 
contest among the students for two golden med- \ 
als of the value of five guineas ; one for the best 
Latin oration on a given subject, and the other for 
superiority in mathematical science. For a long 
time he sanctioned by his presence morning and 
evening prayers in the college. No company 
nor avocation prevented his attendance on this 
service. He was extremely fond of literary char 
acters. No one of this class, who had the least 
claims to respect, was ever presented to him 
without receiving his encouragement. Miller, 
II. 378; Boston Gazette, Nov. 12, 1770; Mar 
shall, IT. 130. 

BERNARD, FRANCIS, governor of Massachu 
setts, was the governor of New Jersey, after Gov. 



Belcher, in 1758. He succeeded Gov. Fownall 
of Massachusetts, in 1760. Arriving at Boston 
Aug. 2d, he continued at the head of the govern 
ment nine years. His administration was during 
one of the most interesting periods in American 
history. He had governed New Jersey two years 
in a manner very acceptable to that province, and 
the first part of his administration in Massachu 
setts was very agreeable to the general court. 
Soon after his arrival Canada was surrendered to 
Amherst. Besides voting a salary of 1300 pounds, 
they made to him at the first session a grant of Mt. 
Desert Island, which was confirmed by the king. 
Much harmony prevailed for two or three years ; 
but this prosperous and happy commencement 
did not continue. There had long been two par 
ties in the State, the advocates for the crown, and 
the defenders of the rights of the people. Gov. 
Bernard was soon classed with those, who were 
desirous of strengthening the royal authority in 
America ; the sons of liberty therefore stood 
forth uniformly in opposition to him. His indis 
cretion in appointing Mr. Ilutchinson chief jus 
tice, instead of giving that office to Col. Otis of 
Barnstable, to whom it had been promised by 
Shirley, proved very injurious to his cause. In 
consequence of this appointment he lost the influ 
ence of Col. Otis, and by yielding himself to Mr. 
Ilutchinson he drew upon him the hostility of 
James Otis, the son, a man of great talents, who 
soon became the leader on the popular side. The 
laws for the regulation of trade and the severities 
of the officers of customs were the first things 
which greatly agitated the public mind ; and af 
terwards the stamp act increased the energy of 
resistance to the schemes of tyranny. Gov. Ber 
nard possessed no talent for conciliating ; he was 
for accomplishing ministerial purposes by force ; 
and the spirit of freedom gathered strength from 
the open manner in which he attempted to crush 
it. His speech to the general court after the re 
peal of the stamp act was by no means calculated 
to assuage the angry passions which had lately 
been excited. He was the principal means of 
bringing the troops to Boston, that he might 
overawe the people ; and it was owing to him, 
that they were continued in the town. This 
measure had been proposed by him and Mr. 
Ilutchinson long before it was executed. While 
he professed himself a friend to the province, he 
was endeavoring to undermine its constitution, 
and to obtain an essential alteration in the char 
ter, by transferring from the general court to the 
crown the right of electing the council. His 
conduct, though it drew upon him the indigna 
tion of the province, was so pleasing to the min 
istry, that he was created a baronet March 20, 
1769. Sir Francis had too little command of his 
temper. He could not conceal his resentments, 
and he could not restrain his censures. One of 




his last public measures was to prorogue the gen 
eral court in July, in consequence of their refusing 
to make provision for the support of the troops. 
The general court, however, before they were pro 
rogued, embraced the opportunity of drawing up 
a petition to his majesty for the removal of the 
governor. It was found necessary to recall him, 
and he embarked Aug. 1, 1769, leaving Mr. 
Hutchinson, the lieutenant-governor, commander 
in chief. There were few who lamented his de 
parture. He died in England in June, 1779. 
His second son, Sir John B., who held public offi 
ces in Barbadoes and St. Vincent s, died in 1809; 
his third son, Sir Thomas B., was graduated at 
Harvard college in 1767, and marrying in Eng 
land a lady of fortune, the daughter of Patrick 
Adair, devoted much of his time to various benev 
olent institutions in London, so as to gain the 
reputation of a philanthropist ; he died July 1, 
1818 : his publications, chiefly designed to im 
prove the common people, were numerous. 

The newspapers were very free in the ridicule 
of the parsimony and domestic habits of Bernard. 
But he was temperate, a friend to literature, and 
a benefactor of Harvard college, exerting himself 
for its relief after the destruction of the library 
by fire. He was himself a man of erudition, be 
ing conversant with books, and retaining the 
striking passages in his strong memory. He 
said, that he could repeat the whole of Shak- 
speare. Believing the Christian religion, he 
attended habitually public worship. Though 
attached to the English church, when he resided 
at Roxbury, he often repaired to the nearest Con 
gregational meeting, that of Brookline. 

If a man of great address and wisdom had 
occupied the place of Sir Francis, it is very prob 
able, that the American Revolution would not 
have occurred so soon. But his arbitrary princi 
ples and his zeal for the authority of the crown 
enkindled the spirit of the people, while his rep 
resentations to the ministry excited them to those 
measures, which hastened the separation of the 
colonies from the mother country. 

From the letters of Gov. Bernard, which were 
obtained and transmitted to this country by Mr. 
Bollan, it appears, that he had very little regard 
to the interests of liberty. His select letters on 
the trade and government of America, written in 
Boston from 1763 to 1768, were published in 
London in 1774. His other letters, written home 
in confidence, were published in 1768 and 1769. 
He wrote several pieces in Greek and Latin in 
the collection made at Cambridge, styled, " Pietas 
et Gratulatio," 1761. Minofs Hist. Mass. i. 73- 
222; Gordon, I. 139, 272-274; Marshall, II. 
96, 114; Eliot. 

eral of U. S., died at Savannah Jan. 1, 1856 : he 

had been a senator. A speech of his is in Willis- 
ton s " Eloquence." 

BERRY, JOHN, died on Peterson s Creek, Va., 
in 1845, aged 101 : he was a soldier in various 

BETHUXE, DIVIE, an eminent philanthropist 
and Christian, was born at Dingwall, Rosshire, 
Scotland, in 1771. In early life he resided at 
Tobago, where his only brother was a physician. 
At the command of his pious mother he left the 
irreligious island and removed to the United 
States in 1792, and settled as a merchant in New 
York. He soon joined the church of Dr. Mason ; 
in 1802 became one of its elders. He died Sept. 
18, 1824. His wife was the daughter of Isabella 
Graham. Before a tract society was formed in 
this country Mr. Bethune printed ten thousand 
tracts at his own expense, and himself distributed 
many of them. He also imported Bibles for dis 
tribution. From 1803 to 1816 he was at the sole 
expense of one or more Sunday schools. The 
tenth of his gains he devoted to the service of 
his heavenly Master. In his last sickness he said : 
" I wish my friends to help me through the val 
ley by reading to me the word of God. I have 
not read much lately but the Bible : the Bible ! 
the Bible ! I want nothing but the Bible ! O, 
the light, that has shined into my soul through 
the Bible !" His end was peace. Such a bene 
factor of the human family is incomparably more 
worthy of remembrance, than the selfish philoso 
phers and the great warriors of the earth. 
N. Y. Observer ; Boston Recorder, Oct. 16. 

BETTS, THADDEUS, died at Norwalk, Conn., 
April 7, 1840. He was a graduate of Yale of 
1807, a lawyer of eminence, lieutenant-governor, 
and senator of the U. S. 

BEVERIDGE, JOHN, a poet, was a native of 
Scotland. In 1758 he was appointed professor of 
languages in the college and academy of Phila 
delphia. He published in 1765 a volume of 
Latin poems, entitled, " Epistokc familiares et 
alia quaedam miscellanea." In an address to John 
Pcnn he suggests, that a conveyance to him of 
some few acres of good land would be a proper 
return for the poetic mention of the Pcnn family. 
The Latin hint was lost upon the Englishman. 
The unrewarded poet continued to ply the birch 
in the vain attempt to govern seventy or eighty 
ungovernable boys. Mem. Hist. Soc. of Penn., 
I. 145. 

BEVERLY, ROBERT, a native of Virginia, 
died in 1716. He was clerk of the council about 
1697, when Andros was governor, with a salary of 
50 pounds and perquisites. Intimately associated 
with the government, his views of public measures 
were influenced by his situation. His book was 
written by a man in office. Peter Beverly was at 
the same time clerk of the house of burgesses. 




Mr. Beverly published a history of that colony, 
London, 1705, in .four parts, embracing the first 
settlement of Virginia and the government there 
of to the time when it was written ; the natural 
productions and conveniences of the country, 
suited to trade and improvement ; the native In 
dians, their religion, laws, and customs ; and the 
state of the country as to the policy of the gov 
ernment and the improvements of the land. 
Another edition was published with Gnbelin a 
cuts, Svo. 1722 ; and a French translation, with 
plates, Amsterd., 1707. This work in the histor 
ical narration is as concise and unsatisfactory, as 
the history of Stith is prolix and tedious. 

BEVERLY, CARTER, a distinguished Virgin 
ian, died at Fredericksburg Feb. 10, 1844, aged 

BIART, PIERRE, a Jesuit missionary, came 
from France to Port 1 loyal in June, 1611. Of 
his voyage and events at Acadia he made a rela 
tion, in which Charlcvoix confides more than in 
the memoirs used by De Laet to decry the 
Jesuits. Biart gave the name of Souriquois to 
the Indians afterwards called Micmacks. In 1G12 
he ascended the Kim bequi or Kennebec, and was 
well received by the Canibas, formerly called the 
Canibequi, a nation of the Abenaquis, from whom 
the name of the river is derived. This visit was 
soon after the attempted establishment of the 
English under Popham at the mouth of the Ken 
nebec. He was followed by Dreuillettes in 1640. 
Biart obtained provisions for Port Royal. In 
1613 he repaired to the Penobscot, to the settle 
ment called S. Sauveur. According to Charlcvoix 
he performed a miracle in healing by baptism a 
sick Malecite Indian child. But the miraculous 
powers of the Jesuit failed him on the arrival of 
Argall, who took him prisoner and carried him 
to Virginia and England. Ckarlec. l. 131; 
Maine Hist. Coll., I. 325. 

BIBB, WILLIAM W., governor of Alabama, 
was a representative from Georgia from 1813 to 
1815. He was appointed in 1817 governor of 
the territory of Alabama, and under the consti 
tution of the State was elected the first governor 
in 1819. He died at his residence near fort 
Jackson July 9, 1820, aged 39 years, and was suc 
ceeded by Israel Pickens. He was highly re 
spected for his talents and dignity as a states 
man ; and in private life was condescending, affa 
ble and kind. 

BIDDLE, NICHOLAS, a naval commander, was 
born in Philadelphia Sept. 10, 1750. In sailing 
to the West Indies in 1765 he was cast away. 
The long boat being lost and the yawl not being 
large enough to carry away all the crew, he and 
three others were left by lot two months in mis 
ery on an island, which was uninhabited. His 
many voyages made him a thorough seaman. In 
1770 he went to London and entered the British 

navy. When Capt. Phipps, afterwards Lord Mul- 
grave, was about to sail on his exploring expedi 
tion, Biddle, then a midshipman, absconded from 
his own ship and entered on board the Carcass 
before the mast. Horatio Nelson was on board 
the same vessel. After the commencement of the 
Revolution he returned to Philadelphia. Being 
appointed commander of the Andrew Doria, a 
brig of 14 guns and 130 men, he sailed under 
Com. Hopkins in the successful expedition against 
Xew Providence. After refitting at New London, 
he was ordered to proceed off the banks of New 
foundland. He captured in 1776, among other 
prizes, two ships from Scotland with four hundred 
Highland troops. Being appointed to the com 
mand of the Randolph, a frigate of thirty-two 
guns, he sailed from Philadelphia in Feb., 1777. 
lie soon carried into Charleston four valuable pri 
zes, one of them the True Briton of twenty guns. 
A little fleet was now fitted out under his com 
mand, with which he cruised in the West Indies. 
In an action with the British ship Yarmouth of 
sixty-four guns March 7, 1778, Capt. Biddle was 
wounded, and a few minutes afterwards, while he 
was under the hands of the surgeon, the Ran 
dolph with a crew of three hundred and fifteen 
blew up, and he and all his men, but four, per 
ished. The four men were tossed about four 
days on a piece of the wreck, before they were 
taken up. The other vessels escaped, from the 
disabled condition of the Yarmouth. Capt. Bid- 
die was but 27 years of age. He had displayed the 
qualities requisite for a naval commander, 
skill, coolness, self-possession, courage, together 
with humanity and magnanimity. His temper 
was cheerful. Believing the gospel, his religious 
impressions had a powerful influence upon his con 
duct. He was a brother of the late Judge Biddle. 
Rogers ; Biog. Americana. 

BIDDLE, THOMAS, was a captain of artillery 
in the campaigns on the Niagara in 1813 and 1814. 
He served under Gen. Scott at the capture of 
Fort George. In the battle of Lundy s lane he 
brought off a piece of the enemy s artillery. 
After the Avar, with the brevet rank of major, he 
removed to St. Louis, Missouri, and was paymas 
ter in the army. He was shot in a duel with 
Spencer Pettis, a member of congress, and died 
Aug. 29, 1831, at the age of 41. The history of 
this affair is the history of consummate folly, dis 
creditable pusillanimity, and hardened depravity. 
Political controversy was the origin of the duel. 
Biddle had anonymously abused Pettis in the 
newspapers ; tin s led to a retort of hard words. 
Next, Biddle assaulted Pettis when he was asleep, 
with a cowskiii. Bonds were imposed on Biddle 
for the preservation of the peace. At last the 
friends of Mr. Pettis urged him and constrained 
him to challenge his chastiser and to hazard his 
life and soul in the attempt of mutual murder. 



The distance chosen by Biddle, who was near 
sighted, was five feet, so that the pistols would 
overlap each other, making death apparently cer 
tain to both : accordingly both fell, Friday, Aug. 
26th, and soon their spirits went into eternity 
with the guilt of blood. Pettis died on Saturday 
and Biddle on [Monday. The promoters of this 
duel must be regarded as sharers in the guilt. 
Dean Swift remarked, "None but fools fight 
duels, and the sooner the world is rid of such 
folks, the better." It will be well for those, who 
call themselves men of honor, and well for their 
miserable families, if they shall learn to fear the 
judgment of God rather than the sneers of un 
principled men, and if they shall learn to abstain 
from calumny, to forgive injuries, and to love a 
brother. N. Y. Mercury, iv. 9. 

BIDDLE, NICHOLAS, died at Andalusia, near 
Philadelphia, Feb. 27, 1844, aged 58. He was 
the son of Charles Biddle of Philadelphia, a whig 
of the Revolution. At the age of 19 he was 
secretary to Armstrong in his mission to Paris. 
On his return he studied law and devoted himself 
much to literature, for a time editing the Port- 
Folio. In 1819 he was one of the directors of 
the bank of the United States, and in 1823 suc 
ceeded Mr. Cheves as president, a post which 
he filled sixteen years. Under his management 
and the hostility of Gen. Jackson the bank broke 
down. He wrote the commercial digest. 

BIDDLE, WILLIAM P., died at Newbern, 
N. C., Aug. 8, 1853, after a ministry cf nearly 
hah a century. Born in Virginia, he was a pion 
eer of the Baptists in North Carolina. 

BIDDLE, JAMES, commodore, died at Phila 
delphia Oct. 1, 1848, aged 65. Educated at the 
Pennsylvania university, he entered the navy in 
1800, and was engaged in various actions. He 
captured the Penguin. He signed the commer 
cial treaty with Turkey in 1832, and commanded 
a squadron in China in 1847. 

BIENVILLE, LE MOYNE De, governor of Lou 
isiana and founder of New Orleans, took the name 
of his brother, who was killed by the Iroquois in 
1691. While in command at Mobile, he mani 
fested his humanity by liberating the prisoners, 
which were brought from Carolina by the Indians, 
in the Indian war of 1715. In 17 14 he constructed 
a fort at Natchez, and in 1717, on a visit to the 
governor of Mobile, he obtained permission to 
lay the foundation of the city of New Orleans. 
In 1726, M. Perrier being nominated commandant 
of Louisiana in his place, he went to France; 
but in 1733 he returned with a new commission 
as governor. In 1740, with a large army of 
French, Indians, and negroes, he made a second 
expedition against the Chickasaws ; proceeding 
up the Mississippi, he encamped near their towns, 
and brought them to terms of peace. Ckarle- 
voix ; Holmes, I. 513; II. 16. 


BIGELOW, TIMOTHY, colonel, died at Wor 
cester March 31, 1790, aged 50. He was the son 
of Daniel ; and he had an eminent son of his own 
name. A blacksmith, he was the associate of the 
leading patriots of his day. On hearing of the 
battle of Lexington he marched at the head of 
minute-men ; he marched up the Kennebcc against 
Quebec, and was taken prisoner ; at the head of 
the fifteenth Mass, regiment he was at Saratoga, 
Rhode Island, Valley Forge, and West Point. 
He was an original grantor of Montpclier. As 
a benefactor of Leicester academy he is honored 
by its friends. With an ardent temperament he 
was dignified and graceful. Lincoln s Hist. 

BIGELOW, TIMOTHY, a lawyer, was born at 
Worcester, Ms., April 30, 1767, the son of Col. 
Timothy B., who served in Arnold s expedition to 
Quebec, and commanded the 16th regiment in 
the Revolutionary Avar, and probably a descendant 
of John Bigelow, who lived in Watertown in 
1642. After graduating at Harvard college in 
1786, he studied law, and in 1789 commenced 
the practice at Groton. For more than twenty 
years from 1790 he was a distinguished member 
of the legislature ; for eleven years he was the 
speaker of the house of representatives. In his 
politics he was ardently attached to the federal 
party. Of the Hartford convention in 1814 he 
was a member ; and grand master of masons. In 
1807 he removed to Mcdford and kept an office 
in Boston. He died May 18, 1821, aged 54. 
His wife was the daughter of Oliver Prescott ; 
one of his daughters married Abbott Lawrence. 
Mr. Bigelow was a learned, eloquent, and popular 
lawyer. It has been computed, that during a 
practice of thirty-two years he argued not less 
than fifteen thousand causes. His usual antag 
onist was Samuel Dana. Over the multitudinous 
assembly of six or seven hundred legislators of 
Massachusetts he presided with great dignity and 
energy. Of many literary and benevolent socie 
ties he was an active member ; and in private Hie 
was respected and beloved. He published an 
oraiion before the Phi Beta Kappa society, 1797. 
An extract of his eulogy on S. Dana is in the 
historical collections. Jennison; Maine Hist. 
Coll. I. 363, 388, 409 ; Mass. Hist. Coll S. S. II. 
235, 252. 

BIGELOW, LEWIS, died in Peoria, Illinois, 
Oct. 3, 1838, aged 53. He was a member of 
congress from Massachusetts in 1821, and the 
author of Digest of twelve vols. of Massachusetts 

BIGELOW, JONATHAN, died Jan. 26, 1854, 
aged 90. Born in Boylston, he graduated at 
Brown university in 1816, and was successively a 
minister at Lubec in 1821; at Rochester, Mass., 
for twenty years from 1828 ; at Euclid, Oliio, in 
1850, where his labors were greatly blessed. He 




was regarded as a scholar, and a faithful min 

BIGELOW, WILLIAM, died in Boston, Jan. 
12, 1844, aged 70, a graduate of Harvard in 
1794. He was a teacher, a wit, writer of po 
etry, editor of several periodicals, and author of a 
history of his native town, Natick, and of Sher- 
burne. Unhappily he did not hold the mastery 
over the appetites, which lead to a disregard of 
the laws of temperance. 

BIGOT, VINCENT, a Jesuit missionary, was em 
ployed in 1697 by Gen. De Denonville to collect 
a village of the Penobscot Indians, who had been 
dispersed, in order to counteract the designs of 
Gov. Andros. It would seem, that he had been 
a missionary among these Indians near Penta- 
goet, or Penobscot, for some years before, but 
had been driven off by the disputes with a com 
pany of fishermen. Bigot returned, says Den 
onville, " at my request, in order to keep the 
savages in our interest, which they had aban 
doned." Such was the worldly policy, which 
produced the Jesuit missions in Maine ; and the 
Jesuits, by their vows of obedience being subject 
to their superiors, were convenient instruments 
of politic governors and adventurous generals. 
Denonville, in a memoir which he prepared after 
his return to France, ascribes much of the good 
understanding which had been preserved with 
the Abenaki Indians, to the influence of the two 
father Bigots : the name of the younger was 
James. Vincent chiefly resided at St. Francois, 
among the Indians there assembled by the 
governor of Canada. In an expedition of the 
Abenakis against New England, Bigot accompa 
nied them, as is related by Charlevoix under the 
year 1721, from the lips of the missionary him 
self, and witnessed their heroism in a battle, in 
which at the odds of twenty English for one In 
dian they fought a whole day, and without the 
loss of a man strewed the field of battle with the 
dead and put the English to flight. In this 
story there is as much truth, as in father Biart s 
miracle on the Penobscot. There was no such 
battle in 1721, nor in any other year; though it 
is true, that in 1724 many Indians with father 
Rallc fell in battle at Norridgewock, Avithout the 
loss of one of the English. Mr. Southey says : 
" Let any person compare the relations of our Pro 
testant missionaries with those of the Jesuits, Dom- 
incians, Franciscans, or any other Ilomish order, 
and the difference, which he cannot fail to per 
ceive, between the plain truth of the one and the 
audacious and elaborate mendacity of the other, 
may lead him to a just inference concerning the 
two churches." Charlevoix, I. 531, 559; ill. 308; 
Southey s Coll. II. 374 ; Maine Hist. Col. I. 328. 

BIG WARRIOR, the principal chief of the 
Creek nation, died Feb. 9, 1825. With a colos 
sal body, he had a mind of great power. In 

November, 1824, he and Little Prince and other 
chiefs, signed the declaration of a council of the 
tribe, asserting their reluctance to sell any more 
land, and their claims to justice, and describing 
the progress made in the arts of civil life. They, 
who think the Indians incapable of civilization, 
may be surprised to learn, that the upper Creeks 
alone had manufactured thirty thousand yards of 
homespun. He had always been a friend of the 
whites, and fought for them in many a battle. 

BILLINGS, ASAIIEL, died at Hardwick July 
16, 1838, aged 100 ; an officer at the capture of 

BILLINGS, BENJAMIN, M. D., died at Mans 
field, Mass., Oct. 9, 1842, aged 82. He was a 
surgeon in the Revolutionary army. 

BINGHAM, WILLIAM, a senator of the United 
States, was graduated at the college of Philadel 
phia in 1768 ; he was agent for his country at 
Martinique in the period of the Revolution ; in 
1786 he was a delegate to congress from Pennsyl 
vania; in 1795 he succeeded Mr. Morris as sena 
tor. Of the measures of Mr. Adams adminis 
tration, he was a decided advocate. He died at 
Bath, England, Feb. 7, 1804, aged 52. He mar 
ried in 1780 Miss Willing of Philadelphia ; his 
son, William, married in Montreal in 1822 ; a 
daughter was married to a son of Sir Francis 
Baring. He purchased about the year 1793 more 
than two millions of acres of land in Maine, at an 
eighth of a dollar per acre, or for more than 
$250,000. In 1715 Mr. Greenleaf calculated the 
cost to have amounted to forty-nine cents per 
acre, when perhaps the average value might not 
exceed seventeen cents. Mr. B. published " a 
letter from an American on the subject of the re 
straining proclamation," with strictures on Lord 
Sheffield s pamphlets, 1784; description of cer 
tain tracts of land in the district of Maine, 1793. 

BINGHAM, CALEB, a bookseller of Boston, 
died April 6, 1817, aged 60. A native of Salis 
bury, Conn., he was the son of Daniel, and a de 
scendant of Thomas of Norwich. By his mother 
lie descended from R. Conant. He was gradu 
ated at Dartmouth in 1782. He was the preceptor 
of Moor s academy and afterwards for many years 
a teacher in one of the principal schools of Boston. 
Quitting the toils of instruction, he kept a large 
book shop in Cornhill, Boston, and compiled for 
the benefit of youth various books, some of which 
went through many editions. For several years 
he was a director of the State prison, in which 
capacity he made great efforts for the mental im 
provement of the younger criminals. In his pol 
itics he belonged to the school of Mr. Jefferson. 
He had a character of strict integrity and up 
rightness, and he was an exemplary professor of 
religion. A daughter, Sophia, married Col. Tow- 
son of the army. He published an interesting 
narrative, entitled, " the hunters ; " young lady s 




accidence, 1789; epistolary correspondence; the 
Columbian Orator, 1797; Atala, a translation from 
Chateaubriand. The sale of his school books in 
editions and copies was as follows : young lady s 
accidence, 20 eds., 100,000 : child s companion, 
20 eds., 180,000; American preceptor, 04 eds., 
640,000 ; Geographical catechism, 22 eds., 100,000 ; 
Columbian orator, 23 eds., 190,000 ; Juvenile let 
ters, 7 eds., 25,000. 

BIXGIIAM, JEREMIAH, died in Cornwall, Vt, 
in 1842, aged 94. Born in Norwich, Conn., he 
was a useful schoolmaster in Mass, and X. II. lie 
was the first settler in C. : through his efforts a 
church of eight persons was formed in 1785. 

BIXGIIAM, SIBYL M., wife of Rev. Hiram 
Bingham, died at Easthampton, Mass., in March, 
1848, aged 55. She was a missionary at the 
Sandwich Islands twenty years. 

BLXKLEY, ADAM, colonel, died in David 
son co., Tenn., Eeb. 28, 1837, aged 136. He 
served during the Revolutionary war ; then mar 
ried and had eleven children. 

BIXXEY, AMOS, colonel, died in Boston Jan. 
10, 1833, aged 60. Born at Hull, he never went 
to school one day ; yet was intelligent and capa 
ble. He was navy agent in Boston ; a Methodist, 
and a man of charity. 

BIKDSEYE, NATHAN, died Jan. 28, 1818, 
aged 103. He graduated at Yale college in 1736, 
and was ordained the fourth pastor of West Ha 
ven, Oct., 1742. His predecessors were Samuel 
Johnson, Jonathan Arnold, and Timothy Allen ; 
his successor was Xoah "VVilliston. After being 
in the ministry sixteen years, he was dismissed in 
June, 1758, and retired to his patrimonial estate 
at Oronoake in Stratford, where he resided sixty 
years, till his death. About a hundred of his pos 
terity were present at his funeral. The whole 
number of his descendants \vas two hundred and 
fifty-eight, of whom two hundred and six were 
living. His wife, with whom he had lived sixty- 
nine years, died at the age of 88. By her he had 
twelve children, alternately a boy and a girl ; he 
had seventy-six grandchildren ; one hundred and 
sixty-three great-grandchildren ; and seven of the 
fifth generation. Of all the branches of his numer 
ous family, scattered into various parts of the United 
States, not one of them had been reduced to 
want. Most of them were in prosperous, all in 
comfortable circumstances. In his last years he 
occasionally preached, and once at Stratford to 
great acceptance, after he was one hundred years 
old. At last he became blind and deaf; yet his 
retentive memory and sound judgment and excel 
lent temper gave an interest to liis conversation 
with his friends. He died without an enemy, in 
the hope of a happy immortality. According to 
his account of the Indians near Stratford, about 
the year 1700 there were sixty or eighty fighting 
men; in 1761 but three or four men were left. 

However, the race was not exterminated ; for of 
the emigrants there lived at Kent on the " Ous- 
tonnoc river" one hundred and twenty-seven souls. 
Mass. Hist. Coll. x. 111. 

BIRCH, THOMAS, died in Philadelphia Jan. 
14, 1851, aged 72 ; an artist. He was distin 
guished for landscape and marine painting, de 
lighting in coast and river scenes. 

BHICHARD, SOLOMON, M. D., an eminent 
physician, died at Baltimore Xov. 30, 1836, aged 

BIRD, ROBERT M., M. D., died at Philadel 
phia Jan. 23, 1854, aged 50. He was one of the 
editors and proprietors of the North American ; 
also a novel writer, author of Nick of the Woods 
and Peter Pilgrim. 

BISHOP, GEORGE, a Quaker, published " New 
England judged, not by man s but by the Spirit 
of the Lord, and the summe sealed up of New 
England s persecutions, being a brief relation of 
the sufferings of the Quakers in that part of 
America from the beginning of the 5th m. 1656, 
to the end of the 10th m. 1660 : wherein the 
cruel whippings and scourgings, bonds and im 
prisonments, &c., burning in the hand and cutting 
off of ears, banishment upon pain of death, and 
putting to death, &c., are shortly touched, 1661." 
He gives an account of the execution of Wm. 
Robinson, Marmaduke Stephcnson, Mary Dyer, 
and William Ledea, for returning after being 
banished as Quakers ; such was the bloody spirit 
of persecution in men, who sought liberty of con 
science in a wilderness. Among the banished 
was Mary Fisher, who travelled as far as Adrian- 
ople, and in the camp of the grand vizier delivered 
her message " from the great God to the great 
Turk." Ilutchinson remarks, " she fared better 
among the Turks, than among the Christians." 
Hutch, i. 180. 

BISHOP, ABRAHAM, died at New Haven April 
28, 1844, aged 81. He graduated in 1778. He 
was a zealous political writer on the democratic or 
republican side, and for twenty years collector of 
the port of New Haven. He published an oration, 
1800 ; proofs of a conspiracy, 1802. 

BISHOP, ROBERT II., D. D., died at College 
Hill, Ohio, April 29, 1855, aged 78. Boru in 
Scotland, he graduated at Edinburgh in 1794. 
Coming to this country in 1801, he was a teacher 
and professor in various seminaries, and president 
of Miami university. At his death he was a pro 
fessor in Farmer s college. 

BISSELL, JOSIAII, a generous philanthropist, 
died in April, 1831, aged 40. He was the son of 
Deacon Josiah Bissell. About the year 1814 or 
1815 he was one of a number of young men, who 
removed from Pittsfield, Mass., to the new town 
of Rochester, N. Y. The increase in the value of 
the land, which he had purchased, made him rich ; 
but his wealth he very liberally employed in pro- 




moting the various benevolent operations of the 
day. He expended many thousands of dollars. 
Were his example followed by the rich, the face 
of the world would soon be renewed. At great 
expense he was the principal promoter of the 
" Pioneer " line of stages, so called, which did not 
run on Sunday, and which was established for the 
sole purpose of preventing the desecration of the 
holy day. His piety was ardent ; his courage un 
shaken by the calumnies and rcvilings of men 
who preferred gain to godliness. As he had lived 
for Christ, he died in the triumphs of faith. 
When told that he would soon die, he said, " Why 
should I be afraid to die ? The Lord knows I 
have loved lu s cause more than all things eke ; I 
have wronged no man ; I possess no man s goods ; 
I am at peace with all men ; I have peace, and 
trust, and confidence ; I am ready, willing, yea 
anxious to depart." When told the next day that 
he was better, he said, " I desire to go : my face 
is set." " Tell my children to choose the Lord 
Jesus Christ for their portion, and to serve him 
better than I have done. Say to the church, go 
on gloriously. Say to impenitent sinners, if 
they wish to know the value of religion, look at a 
dying bed." 

BISSELL, EMERY, Dr., died in Xorwalk in 
1849, aged GO ; a highly respectable physician. 

BIXBY, SUSAX, the wife of M. II. Bixby, a 
Baptist missionary in Maulmain, Burmah, died at 
Burlington, Vt,, Aug. 18, 18,30, aged 26. She 
went out to Burmah in 1833. She believed, that 
more than one soul was won by her to God s ser 

BLACK, JOHN, D. D., died in Pittsburgh, 
Xov., 1849, aged 82 ; one of the early settlers of P. 

BLACKBU11X, SAMUEL, general, died in Bath 
county, Va., March 2, 1835, aged 77 ; an eminent 
lawyer and legislator. By his Mill he liberated 
forty-six slaves and provided for their transporta 
tion to Liberia. Did he misjudge in thinking it 
an act, required by humanity and justice, to re 
store freedom to his slaves ? 

BLACKBUHX, GIDEOX, D. D., died at Car- 
linvllle, 111., Aug. 23, 1838, an eloquent preacher 
for forty years. He organized some of the first 
churches in the west. From 1803 to 1809 he 
was for part of each year a missionary to the 
Cherokces, establishing a school at Ilywassee, un 
der the general assembly. He also set up a 
school in Tennessee in 1806. 

BLACK DOG, chief of the Osages,died March 
24, 1848. 

BLACK HAWK, an Indian chief, died Oct. 
3, 1838, at his camp on the river DCS Moincs, 
aged 73. His Indian name was Muck-ker-ta-me- 

BLACK HOOF, a chief of the Shawanese 
tribe of Indians, died at Wapaghkonnetta in Sept., 
1831, aged 114 years. In war he had been a 

formidable enemy, though the latter part of his 
warfaring life had been devoted to the American 
cause. He was at St. Clair s, Harmer s, and 
Crawford s defeats, and perhaps was the last sur 
vivor of those who were concerned in Braddock s 

BLACKMAX, ADAM, first minister of Strat 
ford, Conn., was a preacher in Liecestershire and 
Derbyshire, England. Mr. Goodwin writes the 
name Blakeman. After he came to this country, 
he preached a short time at Scituate, and then at 
Guilford ; in 1640 he was settled at Stratford, 
where he died in 1665. His successors were 
Israel Chauncey, Timothy Cutler, Ilczekiah Gould, 
Israliiah Wetmore, and Mr. Dutton, afterwards 
professor at Yale. Xotwithstanding his name, 
Mather represents him as for his holiness " purer 
than snow, whiter than milk." With almost the 
same name as Melancthon, he was a Melancthon 
among the reformers of Xew Haven, but with less 
occasion than the German, to complain, that " old 
Adam was too hard for his young namesake." 
Mr. Hooker so much admired the plainness and 
simplicity of his preaching, that he said, if he 
could have his choice, he should choose to live 
and die under his ministry. His son, Benjamin, 
a graduate of Harvard college in 1663, preached 
for a time at Maiden, but left that place in 1678; 
and afterwards at Scarborough : in 1683 he was a 
representative of Saco, in which town he was a 
large landholder, and owner of all the mill privi 
leges on the east side of the river. His wife died 
in 1715, in Boston. Magnalia, in. 94; Fol- 
sorri s Hist. Saco, 164. 

BLACKMAX, ELEAZER, died at Hanover, Pa., 
Xov. 4, 1845, aged 85 ; a respected citizen, the 
last survivor of the massacre of Wyoming. 

BLACKSTOXE, WILLIAM, an Episcopal min 
ister, and the first inhabitant of Boston, settled 
there as early as 1625 or 1626 ; and there he 
lived, when Gov. Winthrop arrived in the summer 
of 1630 at Charlestown, the records of which 
place say : " Mr. Blackstone, dwelling on the 
other side of Charles river, alone, at a place by 
the Indians called Shawmut, where he only had 
a cottage, at or not far off the place, called Black- 
stone s point, he came and acquainted the gover 
nor of an excellent spring there, withal inviting 
him and soliciting him thither ; whereupon, after 
the death of Mr. Johnson and divers others, the 
governor, with Mr. Wilson, and the greatest part 
of the church, removed thither." Though Mr. 
Blackstone had first occupied the peninsula, or 
Trimountain ; yet all the right of soil, which the 
charter could give, was held by the governor and 
company. In their regard to equity they at a 
court, April 1, 1633, agreed to give him fifty acres 
near his house in Boston to enjoy forever. In 
1634 he sold the company this estate, probably 
for thirty pounds, which was raised by an assess- 



ment of six shillings or more on each inhabitant. 
With the proceeds he purchased cattle, and re 
moved, probably in 1635, to Pawtucket river, now 
bearing his name, Blackstone river, a few miles 
north of Providence, near the southern part of 
the town of Cumberland. He was married July 
4, 1659, to widow Sarah Stephenson, who died 
June, 1673. He died May 26, 1675, having lived 
in New England fifty years. His residence was 
about two miles north of Pawtucket, on the east 
ern bank of the Blackstone river, and within a 
few rods of Whipple s bridge. From his house 
a long extent of the river could be seen to the 
south. The cellar and well are at this day recog 
nized. A small round eminence west of his house 
is called Study Hill, from its being his place of re 
tirement for study. His grave near his house was 
marked by a large round white stone. Holmes, 
I. 377; 2 Coll. Hist. Soc., x. 171; ix. 174; 
Savage s Winthrop, I. 44; Everett s Address, 
Second Cent., 29. 

BLAIR, JAMES, first president of William and 
Mary college, Virginia, and a learned divine, died 
Aug. 1, 1743, in a good old age. He was born 
and educated in Scotland, where he obtained a 
benefice in the Episcopal church. On account of 
the unsettled state of religion, which then existed 
in that kingdom, he quitted his preferments and 
went into England near the end of the reign of 
Charles II. The bishop of London prevailed on 
him to go to Virginia, as a missionary, about the 
year 1685 ; and in that colony by his exemplary 
conduct and unwearied labors in the work of the 
ministry he much promoted religion, and gained 
to himself esteem and reputation. In 1689 he 
was appointed by the bishop, ecclesiastical commis 
sary, the lu ghest office in the church which could 
be given him in the province. This appointment, 
however, did not induce him to relinquish the pas 
toral office, for it was his delight to preach the 
gospel of salvation. 

Perceiving that the want of schools and semi 
naries for literary and religious instruction would 
in a great degree defeat the exertions, which were 
making in order to propagate the gospel, he 
formed the design of establishing a college at 
Williamsburg. For this purpose he solicited 
benefactions in tin s country, and by direction of 
the assembly made a voyage to England in 1691 
to obtain the patronage of the government. A 
charter was procured in this year with liberal en 
dowments, and he was named in it as the first 
president ; but it does not appear that he entered 
on the duties of his office before the year 1729, 
from which period till 1742 he discharged them 
with faithfulness. The college however did not 
flourish very greatly during his presidency, nor 
for many years afterwards. The wealthy farmers 
were in the habit of sending their sons to Europe 
for their education. After a life of near sixty 


years in the ministry, he died, and went to enjoy 
;he glory for which he was destined. Mr. Blair 
was for some time president of the council of the 
:olony, and rector of Wiiliamsburg. He was a 
faithful laborer in the vineyard of his Master, and 
an ornament to his profession and to the several 
offices, which he sustained. He published : our 
Saviour s divine sermon on the mount, in divers 
sermons and discourses, 4 vol. 8vo., London, 
1742. Tlu s work is spoken of with high appro 
bation by Dr. Doddridge, and by Dr. Williams in 
his Christian preacher. Introduction to the 
above work ; Miller s Heir., II. 335, 336 ; New 
and Gen. Biog. Diet. ; Burnefs Hist, own limes, 
II. 129, 120. 

BLAIR, SAMUEL, a learned minister in Penn 
sylvania, died about 1751. He was a native of 
Ireland. He came to America very early in life, 
and was one of Mr. Tennent s pupils in his acad 
emy at Neshaminy. About the year 1745 he 
himself opened an academy at Fog s manor, 
Chester county, with particular reference to the 
study of theology as a science. He also took 
the pastoral charge of the church in that place; 
but such was his zeal to do good, that he did not 
confine himself to his own society, but often dis 
pensed the precious truths of heaven to destitute 
congregations. His brother succeeded him in the 
care of the church. 

Mr. Blair was one of the most learned and able, 
as well as pious, excellent, and venerable men of 
his day. He was a profound divine and a most 
solemn and impressive preacher. To his pupils 
he was himself an excellent model of pulpit elo 
quence. In his life he gave them an admirable 
example of Christian meekness, of ministerial 
diligence, of candor, and Catholicism, without a 
dereliction of principle. He was eminently ser 
viceable to the part of the country where he lived, 
not only as a minister of the gospel, but as a 
teacher of human knowledge. From his acad 
emy, that school of the prophets, as it was fre 
quently called, there issued forth many excellent 
pupils, who did honor to their instructor, both as 
scholars and Christian ministers. Among the 
distinguished characters, who received their classi 
cal and theological education at this seminary, 
were his nephew, Alexander Gumming, Samuel 
Davies, Dr. Rodgers of New York, and James 
Finley, Hugh Henry, and a number of other re 
spectable clergymen. Mr. Davies, after being 
informed of his sickness, wrote respecting him 
to a friend the following lines : 

" 0, had you not the mournful news divulg d, 
My mind had still the pleasing drc;im indulg d, 
Still fancied Blair with health and vigor biess d, 
With some grand purpose lab ring in his breast, 
In studious thought pursuing truth divine; 
Till the full demonstration round him shine; 
Or from the sacred desk proclaiming loud 
His master s message to the attentive crowd, 




While heavenly truth with bright conviction glares. 
And coward error shrinks and disappears, 
While quick remorse the hardy sinner feels, 
And Calvary s balm the bleeding conscience heals. 

lie published animadversions on the reasons of 
A. Creaghead for quitting the Presbyterian church, 
1742; a narrative of a revival of religion in sev 
eral parts of Pennsylvania, 1744. Miller s Rctr. 
n. 343 ; Mass. Miss. Magazine, in. 363 ; JJa- 
vics Life. 

BLAIR, JOHN, an eminent minister in Penn 
sylvania, was ordained to the pastoral charge of 
three congregations in Cumberland county as 
early as 1742. These were frontier settlements 
and exposed to depredations in the Indian wars, 
and he was obliged to remove. He accepted a 
call from Fog s manor in Chester county, in 1757. 
This congregation had been favored with the 
ministry of his brother, Samuel Blair ; and here 
he continued about nine years, besides discharging 
the duties of the ministry, superintending also a 
flourishing grammar school, and preparing many 
young men for the ministry. "When the presi 
dency of New Jersey college became vacant, he 
was chosen professor of divinity and had for some 
time the charge of that seminary before the arri 
val of Dr. Witherspoon. After this event he set 
tled at "Walkill in the State of New York. Here 
he labored a while with his usual faithfulness, and 
finished his earthly course Dec. 8, 1771, aged 
about 5 1 years. 

He was a judicious and persuasive preacher, 
and through his exertions sinners were converted 
and the children of God edified. Fully convinced 
of the doctrines of grace, he addressed immortal 
souls with that warmth and power, which left a 
witness in every bosom. Though he sometimes 
wrote his sermons in full, yet his common mode 
of preaching was by short notes, comprising the 
general outlines. His labors were too abundant 
to admit of more ; and no more was necessary to 
a mind so richly stored, and so constantly im 
pressed with the great truths of religion. For 
his large family he had amassed no fortune, but 
he left them what was infinitely better, a religious 
education, a holy example, and prayers, which 
have been remarkably answered. His disposition 
was uncommonly patient, placid, benevolent, dis 
interested, and cheerful. He was too mild to 
indulge bitterness or severity, and he thought that 
truth required little else than to be fairly stated 
and properly understood. Those, who could not 
relish the savor of his piety, loved lu m as an 
amiable, and revered him as a great man. In his 
last sickness he imparted his advice to the con 
gregation, and represented to his family the 
necessity of an interest in Christ. A few nights 
before he died he said, "Directly I am going 
to glory. My Master calls me ; I must be gone." 
He published a few occasional sermons and tracts 

in defence of important, truths. Evang. Intellig. 
I. 241-244. 

BLAIR, SAMUEL, minister of Boston, the son 
of Rev. Samuel Blair, died Sept. 24, 1818, aged 
77. He was born at Fog s manor in 1741. 
After being graduated at the college of New 
Jersey in 1760, he was a tutor in that seminary. 
He was settled as colleague with ] )r. Sewall over 
the old south church in Boston Nov. 26, 1766. 
He had been previously ordained as a Presbyte 
rian. In the next year he was chosen president 
of the college in New Jersey, as successor of 
Finlcy, but he declined the appointment, in con 
sequence of the ascertained willingness of Dr. 
Withcrspoon to accept the place, which at first 
he had rejected. By reason of ill health and 
some difficulty respecting the half-way covenant, 
Mr. Blair was dismissed Oct. 10, 1769. He never 
resumed a pastoral charge. During the last 
years of his life he resided at Germantown, where 
he died suddenly. lie was succeeded by Mr. 
Bacon and Mr. Hunt. Distinguished for talents 
and learning, he was in preaching, with a feeble 
voice, a master of the touching and pathetic. He 
married in 1769 a daughter of Dr. Shippcn, the 
elder, of Philadelphia : his daughter married 
Charles Pierce. He published an oration on the 
death of George II., 1761. Wisner s Hist. 0. S. 
CJntrcJi, 31 ; Green s Discourses, 392, 396. 

BLAIR, JOHN, one of the associate judges of 
the supreme court of the United States, died at 
Williamsburg in Virginia August 31, 1800, aged 
68. He was a judge of the court of appeals in 
Virginia in 1787, at which time the legislature 
of that State, finding the judiciary system incon 
venient, established circuit courts, the duties of 
which they directed the judges of the court of 
appeals to perform. These judges, among whose 
names are those of Blair, Pendleton, and Wythe, 
remonstrated and declared the act unconstitu 
tional. In the same year, he was a member of 
the general convention, which formed the con 
stitution of the United States. To that instrument 
the names of Blair and Madison arc affixed as 
the deputies from Virginia. In September, 1789, 
when the government, which he had assisted in 
establishing, had commenced its operation, he 
was appointed by Washington an associate judge 
of the supreme court, of which John Jay was 
chief justice. He was an amiable, accomplished, 
and truly virtuous man. He discharged with 
ability and integrity the duties of a number of 
the highest and most important public trusts; 
and in these, as well as in the relations of private 
life, his conduct was upright, and so blameless, 
that he seldom or never lost a friend or made 
an enemy. Through life he in a remarkable 
manner experienced the truth of our Saviour s 
declaration, "Blessed are the meek, for they shall 
inherit the earth ; " and at death lie illustrated 




the force of the exclamation, " Let me die the ! Lexington with the militia from Wrentham, and 

death of the righteous, and let my last end be i served in the war. 

like his." Claypoole s Adv., Sept. 12, 1800;; BLAKE, JAMES, died at Dorchester May 22, 

MarshaU,\. 216. 

BLAKE, JOSEPH, governor of South Carolina, 

1753, aged 65 ; the author of annals of Dor 

BLAKE, THOMAS DAWES, doctor, died in Farm- 

was a proprietary and a nephew of the famous 
Admiral Blake. He succeeded Gov. Thomas Smith ington, Me., Nov. 20, 1849, aged 81, an eminent 
in 1694, and Archdale in 1696, and was himself physician. He was a native of Boston, 
succeeded by James Moore in 1700. During j BLAKELEY, JOHXSTOX, a captain in the navy, 
Blake s administration a set of forty-one articles, [ ^-as born in Ireland in 1781. After lu s father s 
called " the last fundamental constitutions," was j removal to Wilmington, N. C., he passed a few 
sent from England by the Earl of Bath, the pala- j years in the university of that State. In the year 
tine, and other patentees ; but the change in the j igQO he obtained a midshipman s warrant. Ap- 
government was never confirmed by the Carolina | pointed to the command of the Wasp, in 1814 
assembly. Mr. Blake died in 1700. Although j he captured and burnt the Reindeer, after an 
a dissenter, yet with a highly honorable spirit of action of nineteen minutes, with the loss of twenty- 
liberality he prevailed on the assembly to settle one men ; the enemy lost sixty-seven. In an 

on the Episcopal minister of Charleston 150 
pounds a year, and to furnish him with a house, 
glebe, and two servants. A very different, an in 
tolerant and persecuting spirit was manifested 

action Sept. 1, 1814, the Avon struck to him, 
though the approach of other vessels prevented 
his taking possession of her. The last account 
of the Wasp is, that she was spoken off the West- 

towards the dissenters in the subsequent admin- ] ern Isles. In what manner Blakeley died is, 
istration of Johnson. Univ. Hist. XL. 427. j therefore, not known. His Avife and an infant 
BLAKE, JAMKS, a preacher, died Nov. 17, i daughter survived. The legislature of North 

1771, aged 21. He was a native of Dorchester, 
and was graduated at Harvard in 1769. In col 
lege he was distinguished by the sweetness of 
his temper and the purity of his morals. He 
conciliated the love of his fellow students, and 
the high approbation of his instructors. After 
pursuing for some time his theological studies 
under the care of Mr. Smith of Weymouth, he 
began with reluctance at a very early period the 

Carolina passed the resolution that this child " be 
educated at the expense of the State." 

BLAKEMAX, ADAM, first minister of Strat 
ford, died in 1665. His son Benjamin, a graduate 
of Harvard in 1663, was a preacher at Maiden. 
The catalogue has the name Blackman. 

BLANC, VIXCEXT LE, a traveller in Asia, Af 
rica, and America, from the age of twelve to sixty, 
gives an account of Canada in his book, entitled, 

important work of the ministry. A small volume Les Voyages fameux, &c.," 1648. Though his 
of his sermons, which was published by his friends j narrative is in some respects valuable, yet it is 
after his death, displays a strength of mind and j confused, with little regard to dates, and tolerant 
a knowledge of theoretical and practical divinity j towards fables. The author speaks of the giant 
very uncommon in a person so young. His ser- j stature of the Indians. Charlevoix, I. 4. 
mons also indicate a warmth of pious feeling, j BLANC, JEAX LE, chief of the Outaouais, or 
honorable to his character. P> ff- to his Serm. Ottaway Indians, called Lc Blanc, because his 

Coll. Hist. Soc. ix. 189. 

mother was as white as a French woman, was 

BLAKE, GEOUGE, died at Boston Oct. 6, 1841, a chief of talents, and difficult to be won by the 
aged 73. A graduate of 1789, he was a lawyer ! governor. He rescued the Father Constantin, 
of eminence, and United States attorney for Mas- -who had fallen into the hands of the Indians, 
sachusetts. He published an oration at Boston | In 1707 he appeared before the governor at Mont- 
July 4, 1795 ; masonic eulogy on Washington, real and excused his tribe for some disorders. 
1800. j This chief, whom Charlevoix denominates a bad 

BLAKE, FRAXCIS, brother of the preceding, I Christian and a great drunkard, was asked by 
a graduate of 1789, died at Worcester in 1817. j Frontenac, of what he supposed the water of 
He published orations, 1796 and 1812, and exam- j life, or rum, for which he was so greedy, was 

ination of embargo laws, 1808. 

composed; he replied, "It is an extract of 

BLAKE, JOHN, general, died in Bangor Jan. tongues and hearts ; for Avhen I have been drink- 
21, 1842, aged 89; a soldier of the Revolution. ing it, I fear nothing and talk marvellously." 

BLAKE, CALEB, minister of Westford forty- ! H c might have added, " It is the essence of folly 
five years, died May 11, 1847, aged 85. He was ! an d madness; for when I have swallowed it, I 
a graduate of Harvard in 1784. He published j play the part of a fool and a madman." Yet the 

a sermon before a charitable socictv, 1815. 

governor, De Callieres, was very careful never to 

BLAKE, ELEAZAR, deacon, died in Ilindgc in j send away a chief until after " regaling " him. 
Oct., 1852, aged 95. He was in the battle of j Thus, from policy and covetousness, have drunk- 




ards had the poison dealt out to them from age 
to age. Charlei-oix, II. 274, 311; m. 30G. 

BLAND, RICHARD, a political writer, died in 
1778. He was for some years a principal mem 
ber of the house of burgesses in Virginia. In 
17G8 he was one of the committee to remonstrate 
with parliament on the subject of taxation; in 
177.3 one of the committee of correspondence; 
in 1774 a delegate to Congress. He was again 
chosen a deputy to Congress Aug. 12, 1775 ; in 
returning thanks for this appointment he spoke 
of himself as " an old man, almost deprived of 
sight, whose great ambition had ever been to 
receive the plaudit of his country, whenever he 
should retire from the public stage of life." The 
honor, which cometh from God, would have been 
a higher aim. Though he declined the appoint 
ment from old age, he declared he should ever 
be animated " to support the glorious cause, in 
which America was engaged." Francis L. Lee 
was appointed in his place. Mr. Wirt speaks 
of him as " one of the most enlightened men in 
the colony ; a man of finished education and of 
the most unbending habits of application. His 
perfect mastery of every fact connected with the 
settlement and progress of the colony had given 
him the name of the Virginia antiquary. He was 
a politician of the first class, a profound logician, 
and was also considered as the first writer in the 
colony." He published in 1766 an inquiry into 
the rights of the British colonies, in answer to a 
pamphlet published in London in the preceding 
year, entitled, regulations lately made concerning 
the colonies, and taxes imposed on them, consid 
ered. This was one of the three productions of 
Virginia during the controversy with Great Britain ; 
the other writers were Arthur Lee and Jefferson. 
Rewrote also in 1758 on the controversy between 
the clergy and the assembly concerning the to 
bacco tax for the support of the clergy. Jeffer 
son s Notes, qu. 23 ; Wirt s Life of Henry, 46. 

BLAND, THEODORIC, a worthy patriot and 
statesman, died at New York while attending con 
gress, June 1, 1790, aged 48. He was a native 
of Virginia, and descended from an ancient and 
respectable family. He was bred to the science 
of physic; but upon the commencement of the 
American war he quitted the practice, and took 
an active part in the cause of his country. He 
soon rose to the rank of colonel, and had the 
command of a regiment of dragoons. While in 
the army he frequently signalized himself by bril 
liant actions. In the year 1780 he was elected 
to a seat in congress. He continued in that body 
three years, .the time allowed by the confedera 
tion. After the expiration of this term he again 
returned to Virginia, and was chosen a member 
of the State legislature. He opposed the adop 
tion of the constitution, believing it to be repugnant 
to the interests of his country, and was in the 


minority that voted against its ratification. But, 
when it was at length adopted, he submitted to 
the voice of the majority. He was chosen to rep 
resent the district in which he lived, in the first 
congress under the constitution. When the sub 
ject of the assumption of the State debts was 
debated in March, 1790, he made a speech in 
favor of the assumption, differing in respect to 
this measure from all his colleagues. In this 
speech he expressed his attachment to the con 
stitution as amended, though he wished for more 
amendments, and declared his dread of silent 
majorities on questions of great and general con 
cern. He was honest, open, candid; and his 
conduct was such in his intercourse with mankind, 
as to secure universal respect. Though a legis 
lator, he was not destitute of a genius for poetry. 
Gazette of the U. S., April 17 and June 5, 

BLAND, THEODORIC, died at Annapolis Nov. 
16, 1846, aged 69. For twenty-two years he was 
chancellor of Maryland. 

BLATCHFORD, SAMUEL, D. D., minister of 
Lansingburg, N. Y., died March 17, 1828, aged 
60. He was a native of Plymouth, England, 
w r here he was educated and became a dissenting 
minister. In 1795 he emigrated to the United 
States : after a residence of one year at Bedford, 
Westchester county, he succeeded Dr. Dwight 
at Greenfield ; subsequently he was the minister 
at Bridgeport, whence he was invited to Lansing- 
burg in 1804. His son, Henry Blatchford, who 
had been pastor of the Branch church, Salem, 
Mass., and thence removed to Lansingburg, died 
in Maryland Sept., 1822, aged 34. Dr. Blatch 
ford was a sound scholar and theologian, and as 
a pastor kind, persuasive, and often eloquent in 
his manner. He was endeared to his acquaint 
ance by his estimable virtues and his Christian 

BLATCHFORD, JOHN, D. D., the son of the 
preceding, died at the house of his son-in-law, M. 
Collins, in St. Louis, April 8, 1855, aged 56. He 
was for some years the minister of the Presbyte 
rian church in Chicago. His last residence was 
at Quincy, Illinois. 

BLAUVELT, ISAAC, a minister, died in New 
Rochelle April, 1841, aged 90, in the peace and 
hope of the gospel. 

BLEDSOE, JESSE, died in Kentucky June 30, 
1837. He may be held up as a beacon and a 
warning to others. A lawyer, a senator of the 
United States in 1813, professor of law in the 
university, chief justice of the supreme court of 
Kentucky ; of talents, eloquence, and unequalled 
influence for a time, he yet in consequence of 
intemperance became a miserable outcast and 

BLEECKER, ANN ELIZA, a lady of some liter 
ary celebrity in New York, died Nov. 23, 1783, 




aged 31. She was the daughter of Mr. Brandt 
Schuylcr, and was born in October, 1 752. From 
early life she was passionately fond of books. In 
1769 she was married to John I. Bleecker, Esq., 
of New Ilochelle, and removed to Poughkeepsie, 
and shortly afterwards to Tomhanic, a beautiful, 
solitary village, eighteen miles above Albany, 
where she lived a number of years in great tran 
quillity and happiness. But the approach of Bur- 
goync s army in 1777 drove her from her retreat 
in circumstances of terror. She fled on foot with 
her two little daughters, and obtained shelter for 
the night at Stone Arabia. In a few days she 
lost the youngest of her children. This affliction 
cast a gloom over her mind ; and possessing an 
excessive sensibility, though not unacquainted 
with religious consolations, she was unable to sup 
port the Aveight of her troubles. After the peace 
she revisited New York to awaken afresh the 
scenes of her childhood ; but the dispersion of 
her friends, and the desolation, which everywhere 
presented itself to her sight, overwhelmed her. 
She returned to her cottage, where she died. She 
was the friend of the aged and infirm, and her 
kindness and benevolence to the poor of the vil 
lage, where she lived, caused her death to be deeply 
lamented. After her death, some of her writings 
were collected and published, in 1793, under 
the title of the posthumous works of Ann Eliza 
Bleecker, in prose and verse. To this work are 
prefixed memoirs of her life, written by her 
daughter, Margaretta V. Faugeres. There is 
also added to the volume a collection of Mrs. 
Faugeres essays. Hardies Biog. Diet. ; Spec. 
Amer. Poetry, I. 211-220. 

BLEECKER, ANTHONY, a poet, was born about 
the year 1778 and educated at Columbia college 
in the city of New York. The circumstances of 
his family constrained him to study law, though 
he never succeeded as an advocate in consequence 
of an unconquerable diffidence, a somewhat rare 
failing in a lawyer. Yet was he respected in his 
profession for his learning and integrity. After 
a short illness he died in the spring of 1827, 
aged 49 years. For tlu rty years the periodical 
literature of New York and Philadelphia was 
constantly indebted to his fancy and good taste. 
Spec. Amer. Poetry, n. 381-386. 

BLEECKER, HARMANUS, died in Albany in 
July, 1849, aged 70. lie was the son of Jacob 
B., a respected merchant, and a descendant of 
John Jansen B. As a lawyer he was associated 
with Theodore Sedgwick. As a member of con 
gress he opposed the war of 1812. Mr. Van 
Buren appointed him minister to Holland. With 
the Dutch language he was perfectly acquainted ; 
in Holland he married a Dutch lady of beauty 
and accomplishments. He was himself of pleas 
ing manners and great dignity : and he had a 
deep sense of justice and an unfailing regard to it. 

island of Guernsey, in 1831, aged 63. His widow, 
Margaret, died in New York in utter poverty in 
1842. He was an Englishman of wealth and 
well educated, who came to Marietta in 1797. 
He bought a plantation of one hundred and seventy 
acres on a beautiful island in. the Ohio, fourteen 
miles below the Muskingum, in Virginia, now 
known by his name. His mansion and improve 
ments cost 40,000 dollars. He was a man of 
science and taste, and his wife was most beautiful 
and accomplished, skilled in French and Italian. 
His home was a scene of enchantment. But now, 
in 1806, came the destroyer, Aaron Burr, and 
persuaded him to engage in his projects. In con 
sequence he fled from the island; was tried for 
treason; and had heavy debts to pay, contracted 
for Burr. He next lived ten years in Mississippi, 
and thence removed to Montreal and England. 
Dr. Hildreth has published the Deserted Isle, 
being verses written by his wife. He thinks the 
unhappy man was an Infidel, and " lacked one thing, 
without which no man can be happy : a firm be 
lief in the overruling providence of God." 
Hildreth s Biog. Memoirs. 

BLINMAN, RICHARD, first minister of New 
London, Connecticut, was a native of Great Britain, 
and was minister at Chepstow in Monmouthshire. 
On his arrival in this country in 1642 it was his 
intention to settle with his friends, who accom 
panied him, at Green s harbor, or Marshfield, near 
Plymouth. But some difficulty arising in that 
place, he removed to Cape Ann, which the general 
court in the year above mentioned established a 
plantation and called Gloucester. He removed 
to New London in 1648. Here he continued in 
the ministry about ten years, and was then suc 
ceeded by GershomBulklcy. In 1658 he removed 
to New Haven, and after a short stay in that 
town returned to England. On his way he stop 
ped in 1659 at Newfoundland, where he declined 
to settle. Johnson wrote his name Blindman; 
Trumbull, Blynman. Having lived to a good 
old age, he happily concluded at the city of Bris 
tol a life spent in doing good. A short time be 
fore his death he published in answer to Mr. 
Danvers a book entitled, an essay tending to issue 
the controversy about infant baptism, 18mo., 1674. 
Nonconform. Memor. in. 177; Coll. Hist. Soc. 
ix. 39 ; Savage s Wintlirop, II. 64 ; TrumbulVs 
Conn. I. 293/310, 314, 522. 

BLISS, JAMES C., M. D., died in New York 
July 31, 1855, aged 64. Born in Bennington, he 
graduated at the college of physicians in New 
York in 1815, and then commenced his practice 
of forty years. As a physician and Christian he 
was eminent ; in the families of ministers and of 
the poor his services were gratuitous. He was a 
member of the south Dutch church, then an elder 
in the Bleecker street church. He joined the 


young men s missionary society ; was correspond 
ing secretary of the New York religious tract 
society, for which he prepared in one year seventy- 
five religious tracts ; and was one of the founders 
of the American tract society, and one of the 
executive committee, most diligent for thirty years. 
His last tear fell in hearing his daughter repeat 
the text, " Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard," 
&C. N. T. Observer, Aug. 16, 1855. 

BLISS, JOHX, colonel, an officer of the Revo 
lution, died in Springfield in 1804, descended from 
Thomas Bliss of Hartford, who died in 1640, and 
from Nathaniel of Springfield. He was a sen 
ator and a judge of the court of common pleas. 
His daughter was the mother of Judge Oliver B. 
Morris of Springfield. 

BLISS, GEORGE, LL. D., died at Springfield 
March 8, 1830, aged 65. He was a son of Moses 
B. of S. and Abigail Mctcalf, a daughter of Wil 
liam M. of Lebanon. His father died July 4, 
1814, aged 78. G. Bliss s three wives were Han 
nah, daughter of Dr. John Clark of Lebanon; 
Mary Lathrop of New Haven, and Abigail, daugh 
ter of Rev. David S. Rowland. He had four 
children by his first wife and four by his third. 
His brother Moses died in S. in 1849, aged 75. 
He had ten children. 

BLISS, JOHN, colonel, died at St. Augustine Nov. 
22, 1854, aged G6. A graduate of Cambridge in 
1808, he was an officer, wounded at Niagara falls 
in 1814 ; he was an instructor and commander of 
cadets at West Point from 1813 to 1819. His 
military office he resigned in 1837 ; he lived at 

BLODGET, SAMUEL, remarkable for enter 
prise, died in Aug., 1807, aged 84. He was born 
at Woburn, Mass., and resided many years at 
Haverhill. Before the Revolution he was a judge 
of the court of common pleas for the county of 
Hillsborough, N. II. He was engaged in the ex 
pedition against Louisbourg in 1745. Having 
raised in 1783, by a machine of his invention, a 
valuable cargo from a ship sunk near Plymouth, 
he was induced to go to Europe for the purpose 
of recovering from the deep the treasures buried 
therein. In Spain he met with discouragement. 
His project for raising the Royal George was no 
better received in England. After his return he 
set up a duck manufactory in 1791 ; and in 1793 
he removed to N. II. and commenced the canal, 
which bears his name, around Amoskcag falls. 
He expended much money without completing the 
work, became embarrassed, and for a time suf 
fered imprisonment for debt. Judge B. was rig 
idly temperate. At all seasons he slept in a 
large room, with open windows. He intended to 
live, in consequence of the course he pursued, 
until he was ajt least 100 years old ; but he died 
of a consumption, occasioned by his exposure in 
travelling from Boston to Haverhill in a cold 



night. His projects for public improvements un 
happily involved him in great pecuniary losses. 
He wanted more skill. Mass. Hist. Coll., n. s. 
IV. 158. 

BLOOMFIELI), JOSEPH, governor of New 
Jersey, was probably a descendant of Thomas 
Bloomfield, who lived at Ncwbury, Mass., in 
1638 and afterwards removed to New Jersey. 
He was a soldier of the Revolution. He suc 
ceeded Richard Howell as governor in 1801, and 
was succeeded in that office by Aaron Ogdcn in 
1812. In the war, which commenced in this year, 
he was a brigadier-general. He died at Burling 
ton Oct. 3, 1823. Gen. Bloomfield was a firm 
republican in politics ; in congress a sound legis 
lator ; a brave soldier in the field ; and in private 
life an excellent man. Farmer s Collect., n. 
App. 91. 

BLOUNT, WILLIAM, governor of the territory 
south of the Ohio, was appointed to that office 
in 1790. The first governor of Tennessee under 
the constitution in 1796 was John Sevier. While 
a member of the senate of the U. S. from Ten 
nessee, Mr. Blount was expelled from that body 
in July, 1797, for being concerned in a project of 
the British to conquer the Spanish territories, and 
instigating the Creeks and Cherokees to lend their 
aid. He died at Knoxvillc March 26, 1800, 
aged 56. 

BLOUNT, WILLIE, governor of Tenn. from 
1809 to 1815, died at Nashville Sept. 10, 1835, 
aged 68. 

BLOWERS, THOMAS, minister in Beverly, 
Massachusetts, died June 17, 1729, aged 51. He 
was bom at Cambridge Aug. 1, 1677. His 
mother was the sister of Andrew Belcher. He 
was graduated at Harvard college in 1695, and 
was ordained pastor of the first church in Beverly 
Oct. 29, 1701. He was a good scholar, and an 
excellent minister ; of sincere and ardent piety ; 
of great meekness and sweetness of temper ; of 
uncommon stability in his principles and steadi 
ness in his conduct. He was a vigilant, prudent 
pastor, and a close, pathetic preacher. He pub 
lished a sermon on the death of Rev. Joseph Green 
of Salem village, 1715. A 7 . E. Weekly Journal, 
June 23, 1729 ; Foxcrqft s Funeral Sermon. 

fax, N. S., Oct. 25, 1842, aged 100 years and 6 
months. A graduate of Harvard in 1763, he 
survived all who graduated before him. Born in 
Boston, he studied law under Gov. Hutchinson. 
In 1770 he was counsel with Adams and Quincy 
in the trial of the British soldiers. As a tory he 
was sent to Halifax. He was raised to the su 
preme bench in 1795, and was presiding judge 
from 1801 to 1833. His name was in the pro 
scribing act of Mass, in 1778. 

BOARDMAX, GEORGE D., an eminent Bap 
tist missionary to Burmah, died Feb. 11, 1831. 




BOGARDUS, EYERARDUS, the first minister 
of the Reformed Dutch church in New York, 
came early to this country, though the exact time 
of his arrival is not known. The records of this 
church begin with the year 1639. He was or 
dained and sent forth, it is believed, by the classis 
of Amsterdam, which had for a number of years 
the superintendence of the Dutch churches in 
New Netherlands, or the province of New York. 
The tradition is, that Mr. Bogardus became blind 
and returned to Holland some time before the sur 
render of the colony to the British in 1664. lie 
was succeeded by John and Samuel Megapolen- 
sis. Christian s Mag. N. Y. I. 368. 

BOGARDUS, ROBERT, general, nearly fifty 
years at the bar of New York, died Sept. 12, 
1841, aged 70. He was a State senator. 

BOGART, ABRAHAM, died in the poor-house 
in Maury county, Tenn., June 14, 1833, aged 118 
years, a native of Delaware. He never drank 
spirits and he never was sick. 

BOLLAN, WILLIAM, agent of Massachusetts 
in Great Britain, died in England in 1776. He 
was born in England, and came to this country 
about the year 1740. In 1743 he married a most 
amiable and accomplished lady, the daughter of 
Gov. Shirley, who died at the age of 25. Mr. 
Bollan was a lawyer of eminence, in profitable 
business, was advocate general, and had just re 
ceived the appointment of collector of customs 
for Salem and Marblehead, Avhen he was sent to 
England in 1745 as agent to solicit a reimburse 
ment of the expenses in the expedition against 
Cape Breton. It was a difficult, toilsome agency 
of three years ; but he conducted it with great 
skill and fidelity, and obtained at last a full repay 
ment of the expenditure, being 183,649 pounds 
sterling. He arrived at Boston Sept. 19, 1748, 
with 653,000 ounces of silver and ten tons of cop 
per, reckoned at 175,000 pounds sterling, or 
nearly 800,000 dollars. He was again sent to 
England as the agent : but it appears from a let 
ter, which he wrote in 1752 to the secretary of 
Massachusetts, that for his three years services 
the colony, after seven years from his appoint 
ment, voted him the sum of only 1500 pounds 
sterling. He had supported his family, and ad 
vanced of his money in the agency business as 
much as fifteen hundred pounds ; he had aban 
doned a profitable business, which would have 
yielded him double the amount voted him ; and 
besides this he had passed his years in the degra 
dation of " a continual state of attendance and 
dependence on the motions and pleasures of the 
great," standing alone too without any support or 
assistance. After Gov. Shirley was superseded, 
attempts were made to displace Mr. Bollan, not 
withstanding his address and talents, and his 
long, faithful, and important services. His con 

nection with Shirley and his attachment to the 
Episcopal form of worship awakened prejudices. 
Dissatisfaction had also been occasioned by his 
making some deductions from the money, granted 
in 1759, as a reimbursement to the province, and 
his neglecting to correspond with the general 
court. He was dismissed in 1762, and Jasper 
Mauduit, whose learning; and talents were not ad 
equate to the office, was appointed in his place. 
i In 1768 or 1769 he obtained from Alderman 
Bcckford copies of thirty-three letters of Gov. 
Bernard, which he sent to Massachusetts, being 
employed as agent by the council, though not by 
the general court. For this act Lord North ex 
claimed against him in parliament ; but it restored 
his lost popularity. Mr. Hancock declared in 
the house of representatives, that there Avas no 
man, to whom the colonies were more indebted. 
In 1775 he exerted himself in recommending to 
the mother country conciliatory measures. Sev 
eral of his letters and writings are in the Mass. 
Historical Collections, vols. I. and Yl. In one of 
them he maintains, that the boundary of Nova 
Scotia to the north is the river of Canada. He 
published a number of political tracts, among 
which are the following : importance of Cape Bre 
ton truly illustrated, Lond., 1746; colonioc Angli- 
canaB illustratae, 1762 ; the ancient right of the 
English nation to the American fishery examined 
and stated, 1764 ; the : .utual interests of Great 
Britain and the American colonies considered, 
1765 ; freedom of speech and writing upon public 
affairs considered, 1766 ; the importance of the 
colonies in North America and the interests of 
Great Britain with regard to them considered, 
1766 ; epistle from Timoleon, 1768 ; continued 
corruption of standing armies, 1768 ; the free 
Briton s memorial, in defence of the right of elec 
tion, 1769 ; a supplemental memorial, on the ori 
gin of parliaments, &c., 1770 ; a petition to the 
king in council Jan. 26, 1774, with illustrations 
intended to promote the harmony of Great Brit- 
ian and her colonies. This petition he offered as 
agent for the council of the province of Massa 
chusetts. Ilutchinson s Mass. II. 436 ; Minofs 
Contin. II. 109, 110; Eliot. 

BOLLES, Lucius, D. D., died in Boston Jan. 
5, 1844, aged 64. He had been pastor of the 
first Baptist church, Salem, and was many years 
secretary of the Baptist board of foreign missions. 
He published a sermon before the association, 

BOLLMAN, ERICH, M. D., was born at Hoya, 
in Hanover, in Europe, and was well educated, 
receiving his medical degree at Gottingen. He 
settled as a physician at Paris. In 1794 he engaged 
in the project of releasing La Fayette from the prison 
of Olmutz. His coadjutor was Francis Iluger, 
an American, son of Col. Hugcr of South Caro- 



I O l 

lina. He found means through the surgeon to 
communicate with the prisoner. As La Fayctte 
was riding out for his health, Nov. 8, the guard 
was attacked and overcome : the prisoner and his 
deliverers galloped off, but missing the way, were 
soon captured. Dr. Bollman was confined twelve 
months and then banished. After ho came to the 
United States, he was implicated in the conspir 
acy of Burr. On his return from South America 
he died at Jamaica of the yellow fever Dec. 9, 
1821. He published paragraphs on banks, 1810 ; 
improved system of the money concerns of the 
union, 1816 ; strictures on the theories of Mr. 
Kicardo. Jennison. 

BOMFORD, GEORGE, colonel, died in Boston, 
March 25, 1828. He was distinguished in the 
war with Great Britain. He perfected the ord 
nance department. 

BOMMASEEN, an Indian chief, signed the 
treaty of Pcmaquid in Maine Aug. 11, 1693, with 
Madockawondo and other sagamores. It was one 
part of the agreement that, as the French had 
instigated wars, the Indians should abandon the 
French interest. The treaty is given at length 
by Mather. The next year, after various barbari 
ties at Kittery and elsewhere, in which he was 
suspected to have been concerned, Bommaseen 
presented himself with two other Indians at 
Pcmaquid, " as loving as bears and as harmless 
as tigers," pretending to have just come from 
Canada ; when Capt. March made him prisoner 
Nov. 19, and sent him to Boston, where he was 
kept a year or two in gaol. In 1696 one of the 
ministers of Boston visited Bommaseen at his re 
quest in prison, when the savage inquired, whether 
it was true, as the French had taught him, that 
the Virgin Mary was a French lady, and that it 
was the English who murdered Jesus Christ, and 
whether he required his disciples " to revenge 
Ins quarrel upon the English ? " The minister 
gave him suitable religious instruction, and taught 
him how to obtain the pardon of sins from God, 
Avithout paying beaver skins for it to a priest ; 
which instruction was received with strong ex 
pressions of gratitude. This is the serious nar 
rative of Cotton Mather. Unless the Indian 
invented the story, what a proof is here furnished 
of the depravity of the French teachers of the 
savages ! After his liberation Bommaseen mani 
fested his humanity by saving the life of Rebecca 
Taylor, a captive, whom her master was endeav 
oring to hang with his belt near Montreal in 
1696. Ilulchinson, II. 149 ; Magnal. VII. 22. 

BOND, THOMAS, M. D., a distinguished physi 
cian and surgeon, died March 26, 1784, aged 72. 
He was born in Maryland in 1712. After study 
ing with Dr. Hamilton, he spent a considerable 
time in Paris. On his return he commenced the 
practice of medicine at Philadelphia about the 

year 1734. With his brother, Dr. Phineas Bond, 
he attended the Pennsylvania hospital, in which 
the first clinical lectures were delivered by him. 
He assisted in founding the college and academy. 
Of a literary society, composed of Franklin, Bar- 
tram, Godfrey, and others, he was a member in 
1743, and an officer of the philosophical society 
from its establishment. The annual address be 
fore the society was delivered by him in 1782, on 
the rank of man in the scale of being. For half 
a century he had the first practice in Philadel 
phia. Though disposed to pulmonary consumption, 
by attention to diet, and guarding against the 
changes of the weather, and the obstruction of 
blood when his lungs were affected, he lived to a 
good old age. His daughter, married to Thomas 
Lawrence, died in 177 1. His brother, Dr. Phineas 
Bond, who studied at Leyden, Paris, Edinburgh, 
and London, and was an eminent practitioner in 
Philadelphia, died in June, 1773, aged 56. lie 
published in the London Medical Inquiries and 
Observations, vol. I., an account of a worm in the 
liver, 1754; on the use of Peruvian bark in 
scrofula, vol. II. Thacher s Med. Biog. ; Ham- 
say s Rev. Med. 37 ; Miller I. 312. 

BOND, THOMAS F,, I). D., editor of the New 
York Christian Advocate and Journal, died March 
19, 1856, aged 74. A native of Maryland, he 
joined the Methodist church in Baltimore in 1805 ; 
and there he lived many years in various offices 
of trust. He was respected and beloved. 

BONNYCASTLE, CHARLES, died in Oct., 1840, 
aged 48, the son of John B. of England, He was 
the author of algebra ; professor of mathematics 
in the university of Virginia ; and published a 
work on inductive geometry. 

BONYTHON, RICHARD, captain, died before 
1653. He was one of the first settlers of Saco, 
had a grant of one hundred and twenty acres in 
Saco, 1629. He was one of the commissioners 
under Gorges for the government of the province 
of Maine, then called New Somersetshire, in 1636. 
The first meeting was held at Saco March 25, 
which was the first day of the year. When 
Gorges had obtained from the king a new charter 
of the province, Bonython was named one of the 
council, with Vines, Jocelyn, and others, in 1640. 
The last court under under this authority was 
held at Wells in 1646. He lived in a house on 
the left bank of the Saco, just below the falls. 
His name is written Benython by Sullivan and 
Bonighton by Farmer and Willis. He was an 
upright and worthy magistrate ; even against his 
own son he once entered a complaint. This son 
was John Bonython, who was outlawed for con 
temning the summons of court and was guilty of 
various outrages ; he died in 1684. His ungov 
ernable temper procured him the title of the 
sagamore of Saco in the couplet proposed for his 



gravestone, which represents him as having gone 
to the evil spirit of the Indians : 

" Here lies Bonython, the sagamore of Saco ; 
He lived a rogue and died a knave and went to Ilobomocko." 

Although he left many children, yet his name is 
extinct in Maine and probably in New England. 
Folsom s Hist. Saco, 113, 115; Sullivan, 368. 

BOOGE, PUBLICS V., died in Oneida co., Xew 
York, Sept. 28, 1836, aged 72 ; the oldest minister 
in the presbytery of O. A graduate of Yale in 
1787, he preached much in New England. 

BOONE, DAXIEL, colonel, one of the first set 
tlers of Kentucky, died in Missouri Sept. 26, 1820, 
aged nearly 90. While he was young, his parents, 
who came from Bridgeworth, Eng., removed from 
Pennsylvania or Virginia to the Yadkin river in 
North Carolina. He was early addicted to hunt 
ing in the woods ; in the militia he attained to 
the rank of colonel. In 1769, in consequence of 
the representation of John Finley, who had pen 
etrated into the wilderness of Kentucky, he was 
induced to accompany him in a journey to that 
country. He had four other companions, John 
Stuart, Joseph Holden, James Money, and William 
Cool, with whom he set out May 1. On the 7th 
of June they arrived at the Red river, a branch 
of the Kentucky ; and here from the top of a 
hill they had a view of the fertile plains, of which 
they were in pursuit. They encamped and re 
mained in this place till Dec. 22, when Boone 
and Stuart were captured by the Indians near 
Kentucky river. In about a week they made 
their escape ; but on returning to their camp, they 
found it plundered, and deserted by their com 
panions, who had gone back to Carolina. Stuart 
was soon killed by the Indians ; but Boone was 
joined by his brother, and they remained and 
prosecuted the business of hunting during the 
winter, without further molestation. His brother 
going home for supplies in May 1770, he re 
mained alone in the deep solitude of the western 
wilderness until his return with ammunition and 
horses July 27th. During this period this wild 
man of the woods, though greeted every night 
with the howlings of wolves, was delighted in 
his excursions with the survey of the beauties of 
the country, and found greater pleasure in the 
solitude of wild nature, than he could have found 
amid the hum of the most elegant city. With 
his brother he traversed the country to Cumber 
land river. It was not until March, 1771, that 
he returned to his family, resolved to conduct 
them to the paradise which he had explored. 

Having sold his farm, he set out with his own 
and five other families Sept. 25, 1773, and was 
joined in Powell s valley by forty men. After 
passing over two mountains, called Powell s and 
Walden s, through which, as they ranged from 
the northeast to the southwest, passes were found, 


and approaching the Cumberland, the rear of the 
company was attacked by the Indians on the 10th 
of October, when six men Avere killed, among 
whom was the eldest son of Col. Boone. One 
man was also wounded, and the cattle were scat 
tered. This disaster induced them to retreat 
about forty miles to the settlement on Clinch 
river, where he remained with his family, until 
June 6, 1774, when, at the request of governor 
Dunmore, he conducted a number of surveyors to 
the falls of Ohio. On this tour of eight hundred 
miles he was absent two months. After this he 
was intrusted by the governor, during the cam 
paign against the Shawanese, with the command 
of three forts. Early in 1775, at the request of 
a company in North Carolina, he attended a treaty 
with the Cherokee Indians at Wataga, in order 
to make of them the purchase of lands on the 
south side of the Tennessee river. After perform 
ing this service, he was employed to mark out a 
road from the settlements on the Holston to the 
Kentucky river. While thus employed, at the 
distance of about fifteen miles from what is now 
Boonesborough, the party was attacked by the 
Indians, who killed four and wounded five. In 
April, at a salt-lick, on the southern bank of the 
Kentucky, in what is now Boonesborough, a few 
miles from Lexington, he began to erect a fort, con 
sisting of a block house and several cabins, enclosed 
with palisades. On the 14th of June he returned 
to his family in order to remove them to the fort. 
His wife and daughters were the first white wo 
men who stood on the banks of the Kentucky 
river. July 14, 1776, when all the settlements 
were attacked, two of Col. Calway s daughters 
and one of his own were taken prisoners ; Boone 
pursued with eighteen men, and in two days 
overtook the Indians, killed two of them, and re 
covered the captives. The Indians made repeated 
attacks upon Boonesborough ; Nov. 15, 1777, 
with one hundred men, and July 4, with two 
hundred men. On both sides several were killed 
and wounded ; but the enemy were repulsed ; as 
they were also July 19, from Logan s Fort of 
fifteen men, which was besieged by two hundred. 
The arrival of twenty-five men from Carolina and 
in August of one hundred from Virginia gave a 
new aspect to affairs, and taught the savages the 
superiority of " the long knives," as they called 
the Virginians. Jan. 1, 1778, he went with thirty 
men to the blue licks on the Licking river to 
make salt for the garrison. Feb. 7, being alone, 
he was captured by a party of one hundred and 
two Indians and two Frenchmen ; he capitulated 
for his men, and they were all carried to Chilli- 
cothe on the Little Miami, whence he and ten men 
were conducted to Detroit, where he arrived March 
30. The governor, Hamilton, treated him with 
much humanity, and offered 100 pounds for his 
redemption. But the savages refused the offer 




from affection to their captive. Being carried 
back to Chillicothe in April, he was adopted as a 
son in an Indian family. He assumed the appear 
ance of cheerfulness ; but his thoughts were on 
his wife and children. Aware of the envy of the 
Indians, he was careful not to exhibit his skill in 
shooting. In June he went to the salt springs on 
the Scioto. On his return to Chillicothe he ascer 
tained that four hundred and fifty warriors were 
preparing to proceed against Boonesborough. lie 
escaped June 16, and arrived at the fort June 20th, 
having travelled one hundred and sixty miles in 
four days, with but one meal. His wife had re 
turned to her father s. Great efforts were made 
to repair the fort in order to meet the expected 
attack. August 1, he went out with nineteen men 
to surprise Point Creek town on the Scioto ; 
meeting with thirty Indians, he put them to flight, 
and captured their baggage. At last, Aug. 8, 
the Indian army of four hundred and forty-four 
men, led by Captain Dugnesne and eleven other 
Frenchmen, and their own chiefs, with British 
colors flying, summoned the fort to surrender. 
The next day Boone, having a garrison of only 
fifty men, announced his resolution to defend the 
fort, while a man was alive. They then proposed 
that nine men should be sent out sixty yards from 
the fort to enter into a treaty ; and when the 
articles were agreed upon and signed, they said 
it was customary on such occasions, as a token 
of sincere friendship, for two Indians to shake 
every white man by the hand. Accordingly two 
Indians approached each of the nine white men, 
and grappled with the intent of making him a 
prisoner ; but the object being perceived, the men 
broke away and re-entered the fort. An attempt 
was now made to undermine it ; but a counter 
trench defeated that purpose. At last, on the 
20th, the enemy raised the siege, having lost 
thirty-seven men. Of Boone s men two were 
killed and four wounded. " We picked up," said 
he, " one hundred and twenty-five pounds of bul 
lets, besides what stuck in the logs of our fort, 
which certainly is a great proof of their industry." 
In 1779, when Boone was absent, revisiting his 
family in Carolina, Col. Bowman with one hundred 
and sixty men fought the Shawanese Indians at 
old Chillicothe. In his retreat the Indians pur 
sued him for thirty miles, when in another 
engagement Col. Ilarrod suggested the successful 
project of mounting a number of horses and 
breaking the Indian line. Of the Kentuckians 
nine were killed. June 22, 1780, about six hun 
dred Indians and Canadians under Col. Bird 
attacked Kiddie s and Martin s stations and the 
forks of Licking river with six pieces of artillery, 
and carried away all as captives. Gen. Clarke, 
commanding at the falls of Ohio, marched with 
his regiment and troops against Keccaway, the 

principal Shawanese town, on a branch of the 
Miami, and burned the town, with the loss of 
seventeen on each side. About this time Boone 
returned to Kentucky with his family. In Oct., 
1780, soon after he was settled again at Boones 
borough, he went with his brother to the Blue 
Licks, and as they were returning the latter was 
slain by a party of Indians, and he was pursued 
by them by the aid of a dog. By shooting him 
Boone escaped. The severity of the ensuing 
winter was attended with great distress, the enemy 
having destroyed most of the corn. The people 
subsisted chiefly on buffalo s flesh. In May, 1782, 
the Indians having killed a man at Ashton s sta 
tion, Captain A. pursued with twenty-five men, 
but in an attack upon the enemy he was killed 
with twelve of his men. August 10 two boys 
were carried off from Maj. Hay s station. Capt. 
llolden pursued with seventeen men ; but he also 
was defeated, with the loss of four men. In a 
field near Lexington an Indian shot a man, and 
running to scalp him, was himself shot from the 
fort and fell dead upon his victim. On the 15th 
August five hundred Indians attacked Briant s 
station, five miles from Lexington, and destroyed 
all the cattle; but they were repulsed on the 
third day, having about thirty killed, Avhile of the 
garrison four were killed and three wounded. 
Boone, with Cols. Todd and Trigg and Maj. liar- 
land, collected one hundred and seventy-six men 
and pursued on the 18th. They overtook the 
enemy the next day a mile beyond the Blue Licks, 
about forty miles from Lexington, at a remarka 
ble bend of a branch of Licking river. A battle 
ensued, the enemy having a line formed across 
from one bend to the other, but the Kentuckians 
were defeated with the great loss of sixty killed, 
among whom were Cols. Todd and Trigg, and 
Maj. Ilarland, and Boone s second son. Many- 
were the widows made in Lexington on that fatal 
day. The Indians having four more killed, four 
of the prisoners were given up to the young war 
riors to be put to death in the most barbarous 
manner. Gen. Clarke, accompanied by Boone, 
immediately marched into the Indian country and 
desolated it, burning old Chillicothe, Peccaway, 
new Chillicothe, Willis Town, and Chillicothe. 
With the loss of four men he took seven prison 
ers and five scalps, or killed five Indians. In Oc 
tober the Indians attacked Crab Orchard. One 
of the Indians having entered a house, in which 
were a woman and a negro, and being thrown to 
the ground by the negro, the woman cut off his 
head. From this period to the peace with Great 
Britain the Indians did no harm. " Two darling 
sons and a brother," said Boone, " have I lost by 
savage hands, which have also taken from me forty 
valuable horses and abundance of cattle. Many 
dark and sleepless nights have I spent, separated 




from the cheerful society of men, scorched by the 
summer s sun and pinched by the Avinter s cold, 
an instrument ordained to settle the wilderness." 
From this period he resided in Kentucky and 
Virginia till 1798, when in consequence of an im 
perfect legal title to the lands, which he had settled, 
he found himself dispossessed of his property. 
In his indignation he fled from the delightful re 
gion, which he had explored, when a wilderness, 
and which now had a population of half a million. 
With his rifle he crossed the Ohio and plunged 
into the immense country of the Missouri. In 
1799 he settled on the Fcmme Osage river with 
numerous followers. In 1800 he discovered the 
Boone s Lick country, now a fine settlement : in 
the same year he visited the head waters of the 
Grand Osage river and spent the winter upon the 
head waters of the Arkansas. At the age of 80, 
in company with a white man and a black man, 
laid under strict injunctions to carry him back to 
his family, dead or alive, he made a hunting trip 
to the head waters of the Great Osage, and was 
successful in trapping beaver and other game. In 
Jan., 1812, he addressed a memorial to the legis 
lature of Kentucky, stating that he owned not an 
acre of land in the region, which he first settled ; 
that in 1794 he passed over into the Spanish 
province of Louisiana, under an assurance from 
the governor, who resided at St. Louis, that land 
should be given him ; that accordingly ten thou 
sand acres were given him on the Missouri and he 
became Sjudic or chief of the district of St. 
Charles ; but that on the acquisition of Louisiana 
by the United States his claims were rejected by 
the commissioners of land, because he did not ac 
tually reside ; and that thus at the age of 80 he was 
a wanderer, having no spot of his own whereon to 
lay his bones. The legislature instructed their del 
egates to congress to solicit a confirmation of this 
grant. He retained, it is believed, 2,000 acres. 
In his old age he pursued his accustomed course 
of life, trapping bears and hunting with his rifle. 
He died at the house of his son, Maj. A. Boone, 
at Charette. He left sons and daughters in Mis 
souri. In consequence of his death the legisla 
ture of Missouri voted to wear a badge of mourn 
ing for twenty days. A brother died in Missis 
sippi, Oct., 1808, aged 81. Col. Boone was of 
common stature, of amiable disposition, and hon 
orable integrity. In lu s last years he might have 
been seen by the traveller at the door of his house, 
with his rifle on his knee and his faithful dog at 
his side, lamenting the departed \igor of his 
limbs, and meditating on the scenes of his past 
life. Whether he also meditated on the approach 
ing scenes of eternity, and his dim eyes ever kindled 
up with the glorious hopes of the Christian is not 
mentioned in the accounts of him, which have 
been examined. But of all objects an irreligious 
old man, dead as to worldly joy and dead as to 

celestial hope, is the most pitiable. An account 
of his adventures, drawn up by himself, was pub 
lished in Filson s supplement to Imlay s descrip 
tion of the western territory, 1793. Riles 
Weekly Register, March 13, 1813. 

BOOTH, CHAUNCEY, minister of Coventry, 
Conn., died May 24, 1851, aged 68. He was set 
tled in 1815 and dismissed in 1844: he toiled in 
six revivals. 

BOOTT, KIRK, died at Lowell, April 11, 1837, 
aged 46. Born in Boston, educated in England, 
he served as an officer in Spain under the Duke 
of Wellington. During tAvo years at Woolwich, 
he acquired skill as a draftsman and engineer. 
He superintended the erection of the Lowell 
manufacturing establishments, and was a man of 
energy, and generous and liberal. 

BORDLEY, JOHN BEALE, a writer on agri 
culture, died at Philadelphia Jan. 25, 1804, aged 
76. In the former part of his life he was an in 
habitant of Md. He was of the profession of the 
law, and before the Itevolution was a judge of 
the superior court and court of appeals of Mary 
land. He had also a seat at the executive council 
of the province. But he was not allured by this 
office from his duty to his country. He found 
our Revolution necessary to our freedom, and he 
rejoiced in its accomplishment. His habitual and 
most pleasing employment was husbandry ; which 
he practised extensively upon his own estate on 
Wye Island in the bay of Chesapeake. As he 
readily tried every suggested improvement, and 
adopted such as were confirmed by lu s experi 
ments, and as he added to his example frequent 
essays upon agricultural subjects, he was greatly 
instrumental in diffusing the best knowledge of 
the best of all arts. He was cheerful in his tem 
per, and was respected and beloved. In religion 
he was of the most liberal or free system within 
the pale of revelation. In his political principles 
he was attached to that republican form of gov 
ernment, in which the public authority is founded 
on the people, but guarded against the sudden 
fluctuations of their will. He published Forsyth s 
treatise on fruit trees with notes ; sketches on ro 
tations of crops, 1792; essays and notes on hus 
bandry and rural affairs, with plates, 1799 and 
1801 ; a view of the courses of crops in England 
and Maryland, 1804. U. S. Gazette, Feb. 1. 

BORK, CHRISTIAN, minister of the Dutch Re 
formed church in Franklin street, N. Y., died 
about 1825 or 1830, at an advanced age, and was 
succeeded by George Dubois. In the Revolution 
ary war he was a soldier in the British army, lie 
studied with Dr. Livingston, and was first settled 
near Albany. Once in ministering, by way of 
exchange at Stcphcntown to an English congrega 
tion, he made a part of the prayer in Dutch and 
German, lie preached without notes and was 
fervent and eminently useful. If it be true, as 


reported, that, having a yoke-fellow not of the 
sweetest temper, she once locked him in his 
study at the moment for going to the church ; it 
is altogether probable, from his own energy of 
character, that this little obstacle was instantly re 

BOSTWICK, DAVID, an eminent minister in 
New York, was of Scotch extraction, and was 
born about the year 1720. He was first settled 
at Jamaica on Long Island, where he continued 
till 1756, when the synod translated him to the 
Presbyterian society of New York. In this 
charge he continued till Nov. 12, 1703, when he 
died, aged 43. He was of a mild, catholic dispo 
sition, of great piety and zeal ; and he confined 
himself entirely to the proper business of his of 
fice. He abhorred the frequent mixture of divin 
ity and politics, and much more the turpitude of 
making the former subservient to the latter. His 
thoughts were occupied by things, which are above, 
and he wished to withdraw the minds of his peo 
ple more from the concerns of this world. He 
was deeply grieved, when some of his flock be 
came, not fervent Christians, but furious politi 
cians. He preached the gospel, and as liis life 
corresponded with his preaching, he Avas respected 
by good men of all denominations. His doctrines 
he derived from the scriptures, and he understood 
them in accordance with the public confessions of 
the reformed churches. His discourses were me 
thodical, sound, and pathetic, rich in sentiment, 
and ornamented in diction. With a strong, com 
manding voice, his pronunciation was clear, dis 
tinct, and deliberate. He preached without notes, 
with great ease and fluency ; but he always studied 
his sermons with great care. With a lively imag 
ination and a heart deeply affected by the truths 
of religion, he was enabled to address his hearers 
with solemnity and energy. Few men described 
the hideous deformity of sin, the misery of man s 
apostasy from God, the wonders of redeeming 
love, and the glory and riches of divine grace in 
so distinct and affecting a manner. He knew the ! 
worth of the soul and the deceitfulness of the hu- j 
man heart ; and he preached with plainness, more 
intent to impress sinners with their guilt and to 
teach them the truths of God, than to attract 
their attention to himself. Though he was re 
markable for his gentleness and prudence, yet in 
preaching the gospel he feared no man. He 
knew whose servant he was, and with all boldness 
and impartiality he deliveied his message, pro 
claiming the terrors of the divine law to every 
transgressor, however elevated, and displaying the 
mild glories of the gospel for the comfort and re 
freshment of every penitent believer. A few 
months before his death his mind was greatly dis 
tressed by apprehensions respecting the interests 
of his family, when he should be taken from them. 
But God was pleased to give him such views of 




his power and goodness, and such cheerful reli 
ance upon the wisdom and rectitude of his gov 
ernment, as restored to him peace and calmness. 
He was willing to cast himself and all that was 
dear to him, upon the providence of his heavenly 
Father. In this temper he continued to his last 
moment, when he placidly resigned his soul into 
the hands of his Saviour. Such is the serenity, 
frequently imparted to Christians in the solemn 
hour of dissolution. 

He published a sermon, preached May 25, 
1758, entitled, self disclaimed and Christ exalted. 
It received the warm recommendation of Gilbert 
Tennent. He published also an account of the 
life, character, and death of Pres. Davies, pre 
fixed to Davies sermon on the death of George 
II., 1761. After his decease there was published 
from his manuscripts a vindication of the right of 
infants to the ordinance of baptism, being the 
substance of several discourses from Acts II. 39. 
Middleton s Biog. Evan. iv. 414-418; New 
and Gen. Biog. Diet. ; Smith s New York, 193 ; 
Pref. to Bostwick s Vindication. 

BOUCHER, PIERRE, governor of Trois Riv- 
ieres in Canada, died at the age of nearly 100 
years, having lived to see numerous descendants, 
some of the fifth generation. He was sent to 
France to represent the temporal and spiritual 
wants of the colony ; and published in 1664 an 
account of Canada, entitled, Histoire veritable et 
naturelle des moeurs et productions, &c. 

BOUCHER, JONATHAN, a learned archaeolo 
gist, was a native of Cumberland, the northern 
county of England, the country of lakes, the abode 
of the poets Wordsworth and Southey, and the 
resort of " the lakers," but came to America 
at the age of 16. After receiving Episcopal or 
dination, he was appointed rector of Hanover and 
then of St. Mary, Va. Gov. Eden gave him also 
the rectory of St. Anne, Annapolis, and of 
Queen Anne, in Prince George s county. These 
are indeed saintly and princely names for a Pro 
testant, republican country. However, Mr. Bou 
cher was a loyalist, unshaken by the mighty dem 
ocratic movements around him. In his farewell 
sermon, at the beginning of the Revolution in 
1775, he declared that, as long as he lived, he 
would say with Zadock, the priest, and Nathan, 
the prophet, " God save the king ! " Returning to 
England, he Avas appointed vicar of Epsom ; and 
there he spent the remainder of his life. He 
died April 27, 1804, aged 67. He was esteemed 
one of the best preachers of his time. During 
the last fourteen years of his life he was em 
ployed in preparing a glossary of provincial and 
archaeological words, intended as a supplement 
to Dr. Johnson s Dictionary. The manuscripts 
of Mr. Boucher were purchased of his family in 
1831 by the proprietors of the English edition of 
Dr. Webster s Dictionary, who proposed to pub- 




lish them as a supplement to Webster. He pub 
lished in 1799 a view of the causes and conse 
quences of the American Revolution in fifteen 
discourses, preached in N. America between 1703 
and 1775, dedicated to Washington, containing 
many anecdotes illustrative of political events ; 
also, two sermons before the grand juries of 
Surrey and Cumberland, 1799. 

BOUCHER, CHARLES, died at Berthier, Can 
ada East, May, 1852, aged 106. 

BOUCIIETTE, JOSEPH, colonel, surveyor-gen 
eral of Lower Canada, died April 8, 1841, aged 
67, with only a few minutes illness. He pub 
lished a description of Lower Canada, 4to., 1815. 

BOUDIXOT, ELIAS, L.L. D., first president 
of the American Bible society, died in Burling 
ton, N. J., Oct. 24, 1821, aged 81. He was born 
in Philadelphia May 2, 1740. His great-grand 
father, Elias, was a Protestant in France, who 
fled from his country on the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes ; his father, Elias, died in 1770 ; 
his mother, Catherine Williams, was of a Welsh 
family. After a classical education he studied 
law under Richard Stockton, whose eldest sister 
he married. Soon after commencing the prac 
tice of law in New Jersey, he rose to distinction. 
He early espoused the cause of his country. In 
1777 congress appointed him commissary-general 
of prisoners ; and in the same year he was elected 
a delegate to congress, of which body he was 
elected the president in Nov., 1782. In that ca 
pacity he put his signature to the treaty of peace. 
He returned to the profession of the law ; but 
was again elected to congress under the new con 
stitution, in 1789, and was continued a member 
of the house six years. In 1796 Washington ap 
pointed him the director of the mint of the 
United States, as the successor of Rittenhouse : 
in this office he continued till 1805, when he re 
signed it, and retiring from Philadelphia passed 
the remainder of his life at Burlington, N. J. 
He lost his wife about the year 1808. His 
daughter married Wm. Bradford. His brother, 
Elisha Boudinot, died at Newark Oct. 17, 1819, 
aged 71. After the establishment in 1816 of the 
Bible society which he assisted in creating, he 
was elected its first president; and he made 
to it the munificent donation of 10,000 dollars. 
He afterwards contributed liberally towards the 
erection of its depository. In 1812 he was 
elected a member of the American board of com 
missioners for foreign missions, to which he pre 
sented the next year a donation of 100 pounds ster 
ling. When three Cherokee youth were brought 
to the foreign mission school in 1818, one of 
them by his permission took his name, for he was 
deeply interested in every attempt to meliorate 
the condition of the American Indians. His 
house was the seat of hospitality and his days 
were spent in the pursuits of biblical literature, 

in the exercise of the loveliest charities of life, 
and the performance of the highest Christian du 
ties. He was a trustee of Princeton college, in 
which he founded in 1805 the cabinet of natural 
history, which cost 3,000 dollars. He was a 
member of a Presbyterian church. By the relig 
ion which he professed he was supported and 
cheered as he went down to the grave. His pa 
tience was unexhausted ; his faith was strong and 
triumphant. Exhorting those around him to rest 
in Jesus Christ as the only ground of trust, and 
commending his daughter and only child to the 
care of his friends, he expressed his desire to de 
part in peace to the bosom of his Father in 
heaven, and his last prayer was, " Lord Jesus, re 
ceive my spirit." 

By his last will Dr. Boudinot bequeathed his 
large estate principally to charitable uses ; 200 
dollars for ten poor widows ; 200 to the New 
Jersey Bible society to purchase spectacles for the 
aged poor, to enable them to read the Bible ; 
2,000 dollars to the Moravians at Bethlehem for 
the instruction of the Indians ; 4,000 acres of 
land to the society for the benefit of the Jews ; 
to the Magdalen societies of New York and Phil 
adelphia 500 dollars each ; three houses in Phil 
adelphia to the trustees of the general assembly 
for the purchase of books for ministers ; also, 
5,000 dollars to the general assembly for the sup 
port of a missionary in Philadelphia and New 
York; 4,080 acres of land for theological stu 
dents at Princeton ; 4,000 acres to the college of 
New Jersey for the establishment of fellowships ; 
4,542 acres to the American board of commis 
sioners for foreign missions, with special reference 
to the benefit of the Indians ; 3,270 acres to the 
hospital at Philadelphia, for the benefit of for 
eigners ; 4,589 acres to the American Bible soci 
ety ; 13,000 acres to the mayor and corporation 
of Philadelphia, to supply the poor with wood on 
low terms ; also, after the decease of his daughter, 
5,000 dollars to the college and 5,000 to the the 
ological seminary of Princeton, and 5,000 to the 
A. B. of commissioners for foreign missions, and 
the remainder of his estate to the general assem 
bly of the Presbyterian church. How benevo 
lent, honorable, and useful is such a charitable 
disposition of the property, which God intrusts 
to a Christian, compared with the selfish and nar 
row appropriation of it to the enrichment of 
family relatives, without any reference to the dif 
fusion of truth and holiness in the earth ? For 
such deeds of charity the names of Boudinot, and 
Burr, and Abbot, and Norris, and Phillips will be 
held in lasting, most honorable remembrance. 
Dr. Boudinot published the age of revelation, or 
the age of reason an age of infidelity, 1790, also 
1801 ; an oration before the society of the Cin 
cinnati, 1793 ; second advent of the Messiah, 
1815; star in the west, or an attempt to discover 




the long lost tribes of Israel, preparatory to their 
return to their beloved city, Jerusalem, 8vo. 1816. 
Like Mr. Adair, he regards the Indians as the 
lost tribes. Panoplist 17: 399; 18: 25; Green s 
Disc. UTS. 

BOUDINOT, ELIAS, a Cherokee Indian, died 
June 10, 1839, being murdered by Indians west 
of the Mississippi. lie was a man of education, 
talent^, and inlluence. 

BOUDINOT, ADRIANA, died at Hanover, N. H., 
in Sept., 1855, aged 78, the widow of Tobias B. 
of New Jersey, the nephew of Elias B. Born in 
the West Indies, she was of Huguenot descent 
from Mr. Lasalle of St. Thomas, whose daughter 
married Mr. Malleville : their son Thomas, gov 
ernor of the Danish Islands, was the father of 
Maria Malleville. She first married Gov. Suhm, 
who was the father of Maria Wheelock, and next 
Mr. Von Beverhoudt, who removed to N. J., to 
Beverwyck, in Parsippany, and was the father of 
Mrs. Boudinot. She died in Christian peace. 
Her father s house was honored with the visits 
of Washington and his wife while the army was 
at Morris. 

BOUGHTON, BENJAMIN, died in Fredericks- 
burgh, Va., in 1842, bequeathing 2,000 dollars 
to the Bible society, the same to the tract society, 
with a legacy to Sunday schools. 

BOULDIN, THOMAS T., judge, died in Wash 
ington Feb. 11, 1834, a member of congress from 
Va. Having been blamed for not speaking of 
the death of his predecessor, Randolph, he rose 
to reply, sank down into a chair, and died. 

BOUND, EPHRAIM, first minister of the sec 
ond Baptist church in Boston, was ordained in 
1743 and died in 1765 : he was useful and re 

BOUQUET, HENRY, a brave officer, was ap 
pointed lieutenant colonel in the British army in 
1756. In the year 1763 he was sent by General 
Amherst from Canada with military stores and 
provisions for the relief of Fort Pitt. While on 
his way he was attacked by a powerful body of 
Indians on the 5th and 6th of August, but by a 
skilful manipuvre, supported by the determined 
bravery of his troops, he defeated them, and 
reached the fort in four days from the action. In 
the following year he was sent from Canada on an 
expedition against the Ohio Indians, and in Octo 
ber he reduced a body of the Shawanese, Dcla- 
wares, and other Indians to the necessity of making 
terms of peace at Tuscarawas. I Ic died at Pen- 
sacola in February, 1766, being then a brigadier 
general. Thomas Ilutchins published at Phila 
delphia in 1765 an historical account of the 
expedition against the Ohio Indians in 1764, with 
a maj> and plates. Annual Iteyister for 1763, 
p. 27-31 ; for 1764, p. 181; for 1766, p. 62. 

BOURNE, RICHARD, a missionary among the 
Indi-.ns at Marshree, died at Sandwich about the 

year 1685. He was one of the first emigrants 
from England, who settled at Sandwich. Being a 
religious man, he officiated publicly on the Lord s 
day, until a minister, Mr. Smith, was settled ; he 
then turned his attention to the Indians at the 
southward and eastward, and resolved to bring 
them to an acquaintance with the gospel. He 
went to Marshpee, not many miles to the south. 
The first account of him is in 1658, when he was 
in that town, assisting in the settlement of a boun 
dary between the Indians and the proprietors of 
Barn stable. Having obtained a competent knowl 
edge of the Indian language he entered on the 
missionary service with activity and ardor. On 
the 17th of August, 1670, he was ordained pastor 
of an Indian church at Marshpee, constituted by 
his own disciples and converts ; which solemnity 
was performed by the famous Eliot and Cotton. 
He left no successor in the ministry but an Indian, 
named Simon Popmonet. Mr. Bourne is deserv 
ing of honorable remembrance not only for his 
zealous exertions to make known to the Indians 
the glad tidings of salvation, but for his regard to 
their temporal interests. He wisely considered 
that it would be hi vain to attempt to propagate 
Christian knowledge among them, unless they had 
a territory, where they might remain in peace, and 
have a fixed habitation. He therefore, at his own 
expense, not long after the year 1660, obtained a 
deed of Marshpee from Quachatisset and others 
to the South Sea Indians, as his people were 
called. This territory, in the opinion of Mr. 
Hawley, was perfectly adapted for an Indian town, 
being situated on the Sound, in sight of Martha s 
Vineyard, cut into necks of land, and well watered. 
After the death of Mr. Bourne, his son, Shcarja- 
shub Bourne, Esq., succeeded him in the Marshpee 
inheritance, where he lived till his death in 1719. 
He procured from the court at Plymouth a ratifica 
tion of the Indian deeds, so that no parcel of the 
lands could be bought by any white person or per 
sons without the consent of all the said Indians, 
not even with the consent of the general court. 
Thus did the son promote the designs of the 
father, watching over the interests of the aborig 
ines. A letter of Mr. Bourne, giving an account 
of the Indians in Plymouth* county and upon the 

j Cape, is preserved in Gookin. Mather s Mag. 

I ill. 199; Coll. Hist. Soc. I. 172, 196-199, 218: 

| in. 188-190 ; VIII. 170. 

BOURNE, EZRA, chief justice of the court of 
common pleas for Barnstable county, died at 
Marshpee in Sept., 1764, aged 87. lie was the 
youngest son of Shearjashub Bourne, who died at 
Sandwich, March 7, 1719, aged 75. lie succeeded 
his father in the superintendence of the Indians, 
over whom he had great influence. He married 
a sister of Rev. Thomas Prince. His son, Shear- 

ijashub, a graduate of Harvard college in 1743, 
died at Bristol, R. I., Feb. 9, 1781. His grandson, 




Shearjashub, a graduate of 1764, a representative 
in congress and chief justice of the common pleas 
for Suffolk, died in 1806. His grandson, Benja 
min, L.L. 1)., a graduate of 1775, a member of 
congress, and appointed a judge of the circuit 
court of Rhode Island in 1801, died Sept. 17, 
1808. Coll. Hist. Soc. III. 190. 

BOURNE, JOSEPH, missionary to the Indians, 
was the son of the preceding and graduated in 
1722 at Harvard college, in the catalogue of which 
his name is erroneously given Bourn. He was 
ordained at Marshpee as successor to Simon Pop- 
monet Nov. 26, 1729. He resigned his mission in 
1742, complaining much of the ill treatment 
which the Indians received, and of the neglect of 
the commissioners with regard to his support. 
He was succeeded by an Indian, named Solomon 
Briant ; but he still took an interest in the cause, 
in which he was once particularly engaged, and 
much encouraged and assisted the missionary, 
Mr. Hawley. Mr. Bourne died in 1767. Coll. 
Hist. Soc. in. 190-191. 

BOURS, PETER, Episcopal minister in Marble- 
head, died in 1762, aged 36. He was a native of 
Newport, and was graduated at Harvard college 
in 1747. After his settlement at Marblehead, he 
discharged with faithfulness the duties of his 
office nine years, enforcing the doctrines of the 
gospel with fervency, and illustrating the truth of 
what he taught by his life. His predecessors 
were Mousam, Pigot, Malcolm ; his successors, 
Weeks, Harris, Bowers. His dying words were 
" O Lamb of God, receive my spirit." Whit- 
welVs Ser. on Death of Barnard ; Coll. Hist. Soc. 
vin. 77. 

BOUTELLE, TIMOTHY, L.L. I)., diedinWater- 
ville, Me., Nov. 12, 1855, aged 77. Born in 
Leominster, he graduated at Harvard in 1800. 
He devoted his life to the legal profession in 
Watervillc, but sometimes occupied public sta 
tions. The cause of internal improvement and of 
education was dear to him. Boston Advertiser, 
July 16, 1856. 

BOWDEN, JOHN, D. D., professor of belles- 
lettres and moral philosophy in Columbia college, 
N. Y., was an Episcopal clergyman more than forty 
years. In 1787 he was rector of Norwalk. He 
was elected bishop of Connecticut, but, as he de 
clined, Mr. Jarvis was appointed. He died at 
Ballston July 31, 1817, aged 65. He published a 
letter to E. Stiles, occasioned by his ordination 
sermon at New London, 1787 ; the apostolic ori 
gin of episcopacy, in a series of letters to Dr. 
Miller, 2 vols. 8vo. 1808. Jennison. 

president of the American academy, died at Bos 
ton March 16, 1838, aged nearly 65, being born 
at Salem March 26, 1773. The son of a ship 
master, he had little education. From 1795 he 
spent nine years in a seafaring life. He was 

president of a marine insurance company from 
1804 to 1823, Avhen he became actuary for the 
rest of his life of the Massachusetts Hospital 
Life Insurance Co. By his extraordinary genius 
and industry he became acquainted with Latin, 
Greek, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and 
German, and was one of the most eminent of 
mathematicians and astronomers. About to die, 
with his children arranged in the order of age at 
his bedside, he said, " Lord, now lettest thou thy 
servant depart in peace, according to thy word." 
He published Practical Navigator in 1802, and 
various communications in the Memoirs of the 
American Academy ; and at his own expense, a 
translation of the Mecanique Celeste of La Place, 
with a commentary in four large quarto vols. 

BOWDOIN, JAMES, L.L. I)., Governor of 
Massachusetts, and a philosopher and statesman, 
died Nov. 6, 1790, aged 63. He was born in 
Boston August 8, 1727, and was the son of 
James Bowdoin, an eminent merchant. His 
grandfather, Peter Bowdoin, or Pierre Baudouin, 
was a physician of Rochelle, in France. On the 
revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685, he fled 
with a multitude of Protestants, and went first to 
Ireland, and came to Falmouth, noAv Portland, in 
Casco Bay, Maine, as early as April, 1687. He 
owned several tracts of land, one tract of twenty- 
three acres extending across the Neck,where South 
street now is. In about three years he removed 
to Boston. The day after his departure the In 
dians attacked, May 15, 1690, and in a few days 
destroyed Casco. The time of his death is not 
ascertained; his will is dated in 1704, but was not 
proved till 1719. He had two sons and two 
daughters. His eldest son, James, the father of 
Gov. B., by his industry, enterprise and economy 
having acquired a great estate and laid the foun 
dation of the eminence of his family, died Sept. 
4, 1747, aged 71; he also left two sons, James 
and William, the latter by his second wife. 

Mr. Bowdoin was graduated at Harvard college 
in 1745. During his residence at the university 
he was distinguished by his genius and umvearied 
application to his studies, while his modesty, po 
liteness, and benevolence gave his friends assurance 
that liis talents would not be prostituted, nor his 
future eminence employed for the promotion of 
unworthy ends. When he arrived at the age of 
twenty-one years, he came in possession of an 
ample fortune, left him by his father, who died 
Sept. 4, 1747. He was now in a situation the 
most threatening to his literary and moral im 
provement, for one great motive, which impels 
men to exertion, could have no influence upon 
him, and his great wealth put it completely in his 
power to gratify the giddy desires of youth. But 
his h fe had hitherto been regular, and he now 
with the maturity of wisdom adopted a system 
which was most rational, pleasing, and useful. He 




determined to combine with the enjoyments of 
domestic and social life a course of study which 
should enlarge and perfect the powers of his 
mind. At the age of twenty-two years he mar 
ried a daughter of John Erving, and commenced 
a system of literary and scientific research, to 
which he adhered through life. 

In the year 1753 the citizens of Boston elected 
him one of their representatives in the general 
court, where his learning and eloquence soon ren 
dered him conspicuous. He continued in this 
station until 1736, when he was chosen into the 
council, in which body he was long known and 
respected. With uniform ability and patriotism 
he advocated the cause of his country. In the 
disputes which laid the foundation of the Ameri 
can revolution, his writings and exertions were 
eminently useful. Governors Bernard and Hutch- 
inson were constrained to confess, in their confi 
dential letters to the British ministry, the weight 
of his opposition to their measures. In 1769 
Bernard negatived him, when he was chosen a 
member of the council, in consequence of which 
the inhabitants of Boston again elected him their 
representative in 1770. Hutchinson, who in this 
year succeeded to the governor s chair, permitted 
him to take a seat at the council board, because, 
said he, " his opposition to our measures will be 
less injurious in the council, than in the house of 
representatives." He w r as chosen a delegate to 
the first congress, but the illness of Mrs. Bowdoin 
prevented him from attending with the other del 
egates. In the year 1775, a year most critical 
and important to America, he was chosen pres 
ident of the council of Massachusetts, and he 
continued in that office the greater part of the 
time till the adoption of the State constitution in 
1780. lie was president of the convention which 
formed it ; and some of its important articles are 
the result of his knowledge of government. 

In the year 1785, after the resignation of Han 
cock, he was chosen governor of Massachusetts, 
and was re-elected the following year. In this 
office his wisdom, firmness, and inflexible integrity 
were conspicuous. He was placed at the head 
of the government at the most unfortunate period 
after the revolution. The sudden influx of foreign 
luxuries had exhausted the country of its specie, 
while the heavy taxes of the war yet burthened 
the people. This state of suffering awakened 
discontent, and the spirit of disorder was cher 
ished by unlicensed conventions, wliich were arrayed 
against the legislature. One great subject of 
complaint was the administration of justice. 
Against lawyers and courts the strongest resent 
ments were manifested. In many instances the 
judges were restrained by mobs from proceeding 
in the execution of their duty. As the insurgents 
became more audacious from the lenient measures 
of the government and were organizing them 

selves for the subversion of the constitution, it be 
came necessary to suppress by force the spirit of 
insurrection. Gov. Bowdoin accordingly ordered 
into service upwards of four thousand of the 
militia, who were placed under the command of 
the veteran Lincoln. As the public treasury did 
not afford the means of putting the troops in 
motion, some of the citizens of Boston with the 
governor at the head of the list subscribed in a 
few hours a sufficient sum to carry on the proposed 
expedition. This decisive step rescued the gov 
ernment from the contempt into which it was 
sinking, and was the means of saving the com 
monwealth. The dangerous insurrection of Shays 
was thus completely quelled. 

In the year 1787 Gov. Bowdoin was succeeded 
by Hancock, in consequence of the exertions of 
the discontented, who might hope for greater 
clemency from another chief magistrate. He 
died in Boston, after a distressing sickness of 
three months. His wife, Elizabeth Erving, died 
in May, 1803, aged 72. He left two children, 
James, and a daughter who married Sir John 
Temple, consul-general of Great Britain in the 
United States, and died Oct. 26, 1809. 

Gov. Bowdoin was a learned man, and a con 
stant and generous friend of literature. He 
subscribed liberally for the restoration of the 
library of Harvard college in the year 1764, when 
it was consumed by fire, lie was chosen a fellow 
of the corporation in the year 1779; but the 
pressure of more important duties induced him 
to resign this office in 1784. lie ever felt, how 
ever, an affectionate regard for the interests of 
the college, and bequeathed to it four hundred 
pounds, the interest of which was to be applied 
to the distribution of premiums among the stu 
dents for the encouragement of useful and polite 
literature. The American academy of arts and 
sciences, incorporated at Boston May 4, 1780, at 
a time when our country was in the deepest dis 
tress, was formed under his influence, and was an 
object of his constant attention. He was chosen 
its first president, and he continued in that office 
till his death. He was regarded by its members 
as the pride and ornament of their institution. 
To this body he bequeathed one hundred pounds 
and his valuable library, consisting of upwards of 
twelve hundred volumes upon every branch of 
science. He was also one of the founders and 
the president of the Massachusetts bank, and of 
the humane society of Massachusetts. The lit 
erary character of Gov. Bowdoin gained him 
those honors, which are usually conferred on men 
distinguished for their literary attainments. He 
was constituted doctor of IBAVS by the university 
of Edinburgh, and was elected a member of the 
royal societies of London and Dublin. 

He was deeply convinced of the truth and ex 
cellence of Christianity, and it had a constant 



effect upon his life. He was for more than thirty 
years an exemplary member of the church in 
Brattle street, to the poor of which congregation 
he bequeathed a hundred pounds. His charities 
were abundant. He respected the injunctions of 
the gospel of Jesus Christ, which he professed. 
He knew the pleasures and advantages of family 
devotion, and he conscientiously observed the 
Christian sabbath, presenting himself habitually 
in the holy temple, that he might be instructed 
in religious duty, and might unite with the wor 
shippers of God. In his dying addresses to his 
family and servants he recommended the Chris 
tian religion to them as of transcendent importance, 
and assured them, that it was the only founda 
tion of peace and happiness in life and death. 
As the hour of his departure approached, he 
expressed his satisfaction in the thought of 
going to the full enjoyment of God and his Re 

Gov. Bowdoin was the author of a poetic "Par 
aphrase of the Economy of Human Life," dated 
March 28, 1759. He also published a philo 
sophical discourse, publicly addressed to the 
American academy of arts and sciences in Boston 
Nov. 8, 1780, when he was inducted into the office 
of president. This is prefixed to the first volume 
of the society s memoirs. In this work he pub 
lished several other productions, which manifest 
no common taste and talents in astronomical in 
quiries. The following are the titles of them : 
Observations upon an hypothesis for solving the 
phenomena of light, with incidental observations 
tending to show the hcterogeneousness of light, 
and of the electric fluid, by their union with each 
other ; Observations on light and the waste of 
matter in the sun and fixed stars occasioned by 
the constant efflux of light from them; Obser 
vations tending to prove by phenomena and 
scripture the existence of an orb, which surrounds 
the whole material system, and which may be 
necessary to preserve it from the ruin, to which, 
without such a counterbalance, it seems liable by 
that universal principle in matter, gravitation. 
He supposes, that the blue expanse of the sky is 
a real concave body encompassing all visible na 
ture ; that the milky way and the lucid spots in 
the heavens are gaps in this orb, through which 
the light of exterior orbs reaches us; and that 
thus an intimation may be given of orbs on orbs 
and systems on systems innumerable and incon 
ceivably grand. Thacher s Fun. Ser. ; Lowell s 
Eulogy ; Mass. Mag. III. 5-8, 304, 305, 372 ; 
Univer. Asyl. I. 73-70 ; Miller, II. ; Minofs Hist. 
Insur. ; Rldrsltall, v. 121; Amer. Quar. Rev., II. 
505 ; Maine Hist. Coll. 184 ; Eliot. 

BOWDOIX, JAMES, the son of the preceding, 
died Oct. 11, 1811, aged 58. He was born 
Sept. 22, 1752. After he graduated at Harvard 
college in 1771, he proceeded to England, where 


he prosecuted the study of the law nearly a 
year at the university of Oxford. After revis 
iting his native country he sailed again for Eu 
rope, and travelled in Italy, Holland, and Eng 
land. On hearing ot the battle of Lexington he 
returned home. The anxieties of his father pre 
vented him from engaging in military service, to 
which he was inclined. Before the close of the 
war he married the daughter of Mr. William 
Bowdoin, the half brother of his father. Devoting 
much of his time to literary pursuits at his resi 
dence in Dorchester, he yet sustained succes 
sively the public offices of representative, senator, 
and councillor. 

Soon after the incorporation of the college, 
which bears the name of Bowdoin, he made to it 
a donation of one thousand acres of land and 
more than eleven hundred pounds. About this 
time he was chosen a fellow, or elected into the 
corporation of Harvard college, and retained the 
office seven years. Having received a commission 
from Mr. Jefferson, the President of the United 
States, as minister plenipotentiary to the court of 
Madrid, he sailed May 10, 1805, and was abroad 
until April 18, 1808. The objects of his mission, 
which related to the settlement of the limits of 
Louisiana, the purchase of Florida, and the pro 
curing of compensation for repeated spoliations of 
American commerce, were not accomplished. 
During his absence he spent two years in Paris, 
where he purchased many books, a collection of 
well arranged minerals, and fine models of crys 
tallography, which he afterwards presented to 
Bowdoin college. After his return much of his 
time was spent upon his family estate, the valuable 
island of Naushaun, near Martha s Vineyard. 
At this time his translation of Danbenton s "Ad 
vice to Shepherds " was published for the benefit 
of the owners of sheep. lie had previously pub 
lished, anonymously, " Opinions respecting the 
commercial intercourse between the United States 
and Great Britain." In July, 1811, he executed 
a deed to Bowdoin college of six thousand acres 
in the town of Lisbon. By his last will he be 
queathed to the college several articles of philo 
sophical apparatus, a costly collection of seventy 
fine paintings, and the reversion of Naushaun 
island on the failure of issue male of the dcvis:ecs. 
The college claims are now settled. 

After a long period of infirmity and of painful 
attacks of disease he died without children. His 
widow married Gen. Henry Dearborn. At her 
decease she left a sum of money and a number of 
valuable family portraits to the college. The 
name of James Bowdoin was borne by one of the 
heirs of his estate, the son of his niece who 
married Thomas L. Winthrop, the lieutenant gov 
ernor of Massachusetts. Jcnk.J Eulogy. 

BOWDOIN, JAMES, of Boston, died in Havana 
March 6, 1833, aged 38; a graduate of Bowdoin 



college in 1814. He was the son of Lieut. Gov. 
Winthrop. He took the name of his grandfather 
Bowdoin and received a competent fortune. Re 
linquishing the practice of the law, he devoted 
himself to literature, especially to history. The 
chronological index of the ten vols. of second 
series of the Historical Society was made out by 
him, and he performed other useful labors for the 
society. A brief memoir is in Hist. Cull. 3d series, 
vol. IX. 

BOWEX, JAEEZ, L .L. D., lieut. governor of 
Rhode Island, was born in Providence, graduated 
at Yale college in 17.57, and died May 7, 1815, 
aged 75 years. For thirty years he was the chan 
cellor of the college at Providence as the successor 
of Gov. Hopkins. During the Pie volution ary war 
he was devoted to the cause of his country, and 
was a member of the board of war, judge of the 
supreme court, and lieut. governor. Of the na 
tional convention at Annapolis and of the State 
convention to consider the constitution he was a 
member. During the administration of Wash 
ington he was commissioner of loans for Rhode 
Island. Of the Bible society of It. I. he was the 
president. In the maturity of his years he be 
came a member of the first Congregational church. 
His great capacity for public business, joined to his 
unquestioned integrity, gave him an elevated char 
acter and great influence in society. A gentleman 
of the same name was a judge of the superior 
court in Georgia ; having in an elegant charge, 
delivered at Savannah, made some imprudent 
remarks concerning the colored population, the 
grand jury presented his charge, in consequence 
of which he sent them all to prison, lie was 
removed from office, and, it is said, died insane at 

BOWEX, PARDON, M. I)., a distinguished phy 
sician, died Oct. 25, 1826, aged G9. He was born 
in Providence March 22, 1757. Richard Bowcn 
is said to have been his ancestor ; perhaps it was 
Griffeth Bowcn, who lived in Boston in 1639. His 
father was Dr. Ephraim Bowen, an eminent phy 
sician of Providence, who died Oct. 21, 1812, 
aged 96 years. After graduating at the college 
of Rhode Island in 1775, he studied Avith his 
brother, Dr. William Bowcn, and embarked as 
surgeon in a privateer in 1779. Though captured 
and imprisoned seven months at Halifax, he was 
not deterred from engaging repeatedly in similar 
enterprises, resulting in new imprisonments. In 
1782 he reached home and Avas content to remain 
on shore. In 1783 he repaired to Philadelphia 
for his improvement in his profession at the med 
ical school. After his return it was but gradually 
that he obtained practice. At length his success 
was ample ; his eminence in medicine and surgery 
were undisputed. During the prevalence of the 
yellow fever he shrank not from the peril ; more 
than once was he attacked by that disease. For 

much of his success he was indebted to his study 
of idiosyncrasy, or of the peculiarities, moral, in 
tellectual and physical, of his patients. In 1820 
he experienced an attack of the palsy, which ter 
minated his professional labors, in consequence of 
which he retired to the residence of his son-in-law, 
Franklin Greene, at Potowomut (Warwick), where 
he passed years of suffering, sometimes amount 
ing to agony. In the life-giving energy of the 
doctrines, precepts, and promises of the Bible he 
found the only adequate support and solace. 
His wife, who survived him, was the daughter of 
Henry Ward, secretary of Rhode Island. Dr. 
Bowen sustained an excellent character ; he was 
modest, upright, afTable ; free from covetousness 
and ambition ; beneficent ; and in his last days an 
example of Christian holiness. He published an 
elaborate account of the yellow fever of Provi 
dence in 1805 in Hosack s medical register, vol. 
IV. Tit uclicr s Med. Ling. 

BOWEX, WILLIAM C., M. D., professor of 
chemistry in Brown university, received this ap 
pointment in 1812, and died April 23, 1815, aged 
29. He was the only son of Dr. AYilliam Bowen, 
who was an eminent practitioner at the age of 
80 years, and was born June 2, 1785. After 
graduating at Union college in 1703, he studied 
medicine with Dr. Pardon Bowen ; also at Edin 
burgh and Paris, and at London as the private 
pupil of Sir Astley Cooper. lie did not return 
till Aug. 1811. Experiments to discover the 
composition of the bleaching liquor, just brought 
into use in England, laid the foundation of the 
disease which terminated his life. He married a 
daughter of Col. Olney. Though his labors on 
chlorine impaired his property and destroyed his 
life, they led to the creation of the valuable 
bleaching establishments of Rhode Island. 
ThacJter s Med. Biog. 

BOWEX, NATHANIEL, D. D., bishop of South 
Carolina, died Aug. 25., 1839, aged 59. 

BOWEX, CHARLES, died Dec. 19, 1845, aged 
38, drowned with his wife and oldest child by the 
sinking of the steamer Belle Zane in the M issis- 
sippi, by striking a snag, five hundred miles above 
Xew Orleans. He lived in Zanesville, Ohio, but 
was a native of Charlestown, and in Boston pub 
lished for several years the Xorth American Re 
view, Amer. Almanac, Token, and other works. 

BOWIE, ROBEKT, general, governor of Mary 
land, succeeded John F. Mercer as governor in 
1803, and was succeeded by Robert Wright in 
1805. He was again governor in 1811, but the 
next year was succeeded by Levin Winder. He 
died at Xottingham in Jan., 1818, aged 64. He 
was an officer of the Revolution, and presents one 
of the multitude of instances in America of the 
success of patriotism, integrity, and benevolence, 
unassisted by the advantages of wealth or of a 
learned education. 




BOWLES, WILLIAM A., an Indian agent, died 
Dec. 23, 1805. He was born in Frederic county, 
the son of a schoolmaster in Maryland, who Avas 
an Englishman and brother of Carington B., 
keeper of the famous print-shop, Ludgate hill, 
London. At the age of thirteen Bowles privately 
left his parents and joined the British army at 
Philadelphia. Afterwards he entered the service 
of the Creek Indians and married an Indian wo 
man. Ferocious like the savages, he instigated 
them to many of their excesses. The British re 
warded him for his exertions. After the peace he 
went to England. On his return his influence 
with the Indians was so disastrous, that the Span 
iards offered six thousand dollars for his appre 
hension. He was entrapped in Feb., 1792, and 
sent a prisoner to Madrid and thence to Manilla 
in 179,3. Having leave to go to Europe, he re 
paired to the Creeks and commenced his depre 
dations anew ; but being again betrayed in 1804 
into the hands of the Spaniards, he was confined 
in the Moro castle, Havana, where he died. Such 
is the miserable end of most of the unprincipled 
adventurers, of whom there is any account. A 
memoir of him was published in London, 1791, in 
which he is called ambassador from the united 
nations of Creeks and Cherokees. Jennison. 

BOYD, THOMAS, a soldier, who perished by the 
hands of the Indians, was a private soldier be 
longing to Capt. Matthew Smith s Pennsylvania 
rifle company, in Arnold s expedition through the 
wilderness of Maine to Quebec in 1775. lie was 
the largest and strongest man in the company. 
He was taken prisoner in the assault, Dec. 31. 
After being exchanged he was a lieutenant in the 
first Pennsylvania regiment, and accompanied Gen. 
Sullivan in his expedition against the Indians in 
the Seneca country, New York, in Aug. and 
Sept., 1779. When the army had marched be 
yond Canandaigua, and was near the Gcnesee 
town on the Genesee river, Boyd was sent out in 
the evening of Sept. 12 to reconnoitre the town 
six miles distant. He took twenty-six men, with 
an Oneida chief, named Han-Jost. The guides 
mistook the road, and led him to a castle six 
miles higher up the river than Genesee. Here a 
few Indians were discovered, of whom two were 
killed and scalped. On his return Boyd was in 
tercepted by several hundred Indians and rangers 
under Butler. His flanking parties escaped; but 
he and fourteen men with the Oneida chief were 
encircled. Itesorting to a small grove of trees, 
surrounded with a cleared space, he fought des 
perately till all his men but one were killed and 
he himself was shot through the body. The next 
day his body and that of his companion, Michael 
Parker, were found at Genesee, barbarously muti 
lated. The Indians had cruelly whipped him; 
stabbed him with spears ; pulled out his nails ; 
plucked out an eye, and cut out his tongue. His 

head was cut off. Simpson, afterwards general, 
his companion at Quebec, decently buried him. 
His scalp, hooped and painted, found in one of 
the wigwams, was recognized by Simpson by its 
long, brown, silky hair. Maine Hist. Coll. I. 
416 ; American Remembrancer, 1780, 1G2. 

BOYD, WILLIAM, minister of Lamington in 
New Jersey, died May 15, 1808. He was de 
scended from Scottish ancestors, who emigrated 
to Pennsylvania. He was born in Franklin county, 
1758. At the age of fifteen he lost his father, but 
about the same time it pleased the Father of 
mercies to turn him from darkness to light. His 
collegial education was completed at Princeton in 
1778, under the presidency of Dr. Witherspoon. 
After pursuing the study of theology with Dr. 
Allison, of Baltimore, he commenced preaching 
the gospel. His popularity and talents would 
have procured him a conspicuous situation ; but 
he was destitute of ambition. He preferred a 
retired situation, and accepted the call of Laming 
ton. Here he continued till his death. A lively 
faith in the Iledccmer gave him hope and triumph. 
He was a man of unfeigned humility, amiable in 
the various relations of life, and remarkable for 
prudence and moderation in all his deportment. 
He was a preacher of peculiar excellence. Deeply 
penetrated himself with a sense of the total de 
pravity of the human heart, and of the inability 
of man to perform anything acceptable to God 
without the influence of the Holy Spirit, he en 
deavored to impress these truths on others. He 
dwelt upon the necessity of a Divine atonement, 
and of faith in the Piedeemer, in order to justifica 
tion ; upon the riches of Divine grace and the 
encouragements of the gospel to the humble and 
contrite ; upon the dangers of self-deception and 
the false refuges of the wicked. He was remark 
able for a natural facility and perspicuity of 
expression. For a few years he wrote his ser 
mons and committed them to memory; but for 
the remainder of his life he depended, after hav 
ing digested his subject, upon the vigor of his 
powers. A penetrating eye, natural gestures, a 
sweet and commanding voice, and an irreproacha 
ble character, gave weight and authority to his 
words. But his labors, like those of many other 
good men, were attended with only a gradual in 
crease of the church committed to his care. 

He was formed no less for society than for the 
pulpit, having a friendly disposition, being ani 
mated in conversation, accommodating himself to 
the tempers of others, and mingling condescen 
sion with dignity. Evany. Intellig. May, 1808. 

BOYD, JOHN P., brigadier-general in the army 
of the United States, died at Boston Oct. 4, 1830, 
aged 02. He commanded the detachment of 
fifteen hundred men of Wilh amson s army, which 
fought the battle of Williamsburg, Upper Canada, 
with eighteen hundred of the enemy, the garri- 




sons of Kingston and Prescott, Nov. 11, 1813. j the year 1692, it had proved destructive to the 
In this severe action brigadier-general Covington I lives of many, though it was much less mortal 
was killed ; the American loss was three hundred than when it appeared in the year 1678. On its 
thirty-nine ; the British one hundred eighty-one, re-appearance, Dr. Cotton Mather, who had read 
This British force being in the rear, and the co- I in a volume of the philosophical transactions, put 

operation of Hampton having failed, the proposed 
descent to Montreal was abandoned, and the 
American army recrossed the St. Lawrence and 
went into winter quarters at French Mills. Gen. 
Boyd was a good officer ; his early military career 
was in India. But this service was of a peculiar 

into his hands by Dr. Douglass, two communica 
tions from the east, the one from Timoni at 
Constantinople, and the other from Pylarini, the 
Venetian consul at Smyrna, giving an account of 
the practice of inoculation for the small pox, con 
ceived the idea of introducing this practice in 

kind. He organized three battalions, each of I Boston. He accordingly, June 6, addressed a 

about five hundred men, and had also a small ir 
regular force. He had six cannon, three or four 
elephants, and as many English officers, lie 
hired his men and his officers at a certain number 
of rupees a month. This corps, as regarded arms 
and equipments, was his sole property ; and in 
the command of it he entered the service of any 
of the Indian princes who would give him the 
best pay. Once he was in the pay of Holkar ; 
afterwards in the Peshwas service ; then, quitting 
the Mahratta territory, he was hired for the ser 
vice of Nizam Ally Khan. Then he marched to 
Poona, and, having no eligible offer of employ 
ment, he sold out his elephants, guns, arms, and 
equipments, to Col. Felose, a Neapolitan partisan, 
who acquired the implements, elephantine and 
human, for carrying on the same trade of hired 
ruffianship. In 1808 he was in Paris. After the 
war he received the appointment of naval officer 
for the port of Boston, lie published documents 
and facts relative to military events during the late 
war, 1816. Boston Weekly Messenger, vm. 774. 

BOYD, WILLIAM, died in 1800, a graduate of 
Harvard in 1796. He wrote a poem on Woman, 
and other pieces. 

BOYLE, JOHN, chief justice of Kentucky, died 
Jan. 28, 1834. He had been a judge of the cir- 

letter to the physicians of Boston, inclosing an 
abridgment of those communications, and re 
questing them to meet and take the subject into 
consideration. As this request was treated with 
neglect, he wrote to Dr. Boylston separately, June 
24, and sent him all the information which he 
had collected, in the hope that he would be per 
suaded to embrace a new and favorable means for 
the preservation of human life. Dr. Boylston 
happily was a man of benevolence and courage. 
When there was before him a promising opportu 
nity for diminishing the evils of human life, he 
was not afraid to struggle with prejudice, nor 
unwilling to encounter abuse. The practice would 
be entirely new in America, and it was not known 
that it had been introduced into Europe. Yet 
he determined to venture upon it. He first in 
oculated, June 26th, his son Thomas, of the age 
of six years, and two of his servants. Encour 
aged by the success of this experiment, he began 
to enlarge his practice. The other physicians 
gave their unanimous opinion against inoculation, 
as it would infuse a malignity into the blood ; 
and the selectmen of Boston forbade it in July. 
But these discouragements did not quench the 
zeal and benevolence, which were now excited; 
though prejudice might have triumphed over an 

cuit court of the United States, and Avas able and | enlightened practice, if the clergy had not step- 
distinguished, i ped in to aid the project. Six venerable ministers 

BOYLSTON, ZABDIEL, F. R. S., an eminent 
physician, who first introduced the inoculation of 
the small pox in America, died at Boston March 
1, 1766, aged 86. He was born of respectable 
parents at Brookline, Mass., in 1680. His father 
was Peter B., the son of Doctor Thomas B., who 
received his medical degree at Oxford, and came 
to tin s country and settled in Brookline in 1635. 
After a good private education, he studied physic 
under the care of Dr. John Cutler, an eminent 
physician and surgeon of Boston, and in a few 
years arrived at great distinction in his profession, 
and accumulated a handsome fortune. He was 
remarkable for his skill, his humanity, and his 
close attention to his patients. In the year 1721 
the small pox prevailed in Boston, and being 
fatal, like the plague, it carried with it the utmost 
terror. This calamity had not visited the town 
since the year 1702, in winch year, as well as in 

of Boston gave their whole influence in its favor; 
and the weight of their character, the confidence 
which was reposed in their wisdom, and the deep 
reverence inspired by their piety, were hardly 
sufficient to preserve the growing light from ex 
tinction. They were abused, but they triumphed. 
July 17, Dr. Boylston inoculated his son John, 
who was older than Thomas, and Aug. 23, his 
son Zabdiel, aged 14. During the year* 1721 
and the beginning of 1722 he inoculated two 
hundred and forty-seven persons in Boston and 
the neighboring towns. Thirty-nine were inocu 
lated by other physicians, making in the whole 
two hundred and eighty-six, of whom only six 
died. During the same period, of five thousand 
seven hundred and fifty-nine persons, who had 
the small pox in the natural way, eight hundred 
and forty-four died. The utility of the practice 
was now established beyond dispute, and its sue- 




cess encouraged its more general introduction in 
England, in which country it had been tried upon 
a few persons, most or all of whom were convicts. 
In the prosecution of his good work Dr. Boylston 
was obliged to meet not only the most virulent, 
but the most dangerous opposition. Dr. Law 
rence Dalhonde, a French physician in Boston, 
gave his deposition concerning the pernicious 
effects of inoculation, which he had witnessed in 
Europe. The deposition, dated July 22, was pub 
lished by the selectmen, the rulers of the town, 
in their zeal against the practice. Dr. Douglass, 
a Scotchman, violent in his prejudices, and bitter 
and outrageous in his conduct, bent his whole 
force to annihilate the practice, which had been 
introduced. One argument, which he brought 
against it, was that it was a crime, which came 
under the description of poisoning and spreading 
infection, which were made penal by the laws of 
England. In the pamphlets, which were pub 
lished in 1721 and 1722, various kinds of reason 
ing are found. The following extracts will give 
some idea of the spirit of them. " To spread 
abroad a moral contagion, what is it but to cast 
abroad arrows and death ? If a man should wil 
fully throw a bomb into a town, burn a house, or 
kill a man, ought he not to die ? I do not see 
how we can be excused from great impiety 
herein, when ministers and people, with loud and 
strong cries, made supplications to almighty God 
to avert the judgment of the small pox, and at 
the same time some have been carrying about 
instruments of inoculation and bottles of the 
poisonous humor, to infect all who were willing 
to submit to it, whereby we might as naturally 
expect the infection to spread, as a man to break 
his bones by casting himself headlong from the 
highest pinnacle. Can any man infect a family 
in the town in the morning, and pray to God in 
the evening, that the distemper may not spread?" 
It was contended, that, as the small pox was a 
judgment from God for the sins of the people, 
to endeavor to avert the stroke would but provoke 
him the more ; that inoculation was an encroach 
ment upon the prerogatives of Jehovah, whose 
right it was to wound and to smite ; and that, as 
there was an appointed time to man upon earth, 
it would be useless to attempt to stay the ap 
proach of death. 

The people became so exasperated, that it was 
unsafe for Dr. Boylston to travel in the evening. 
They even paraded the streets with halters and 
threatened to hang liim. But his cool and deter 
mined spirit, supported by his trust in God, 
enabled him to persevere. As he believed him 
self to be in the way of his duty, he did not trem 
ble at the apprehension of the evils which might 
come upon him. "NVhen his family were alarmed 
for his safety, he expressed to them his resigna 
tion to the will of heaven. To such a height was 

the popular fury raised, that a lighted gran ado 
was thrown in the night into the chamber of Mr. 
Walter, minister of lloxbury, who had been pri 
vately inoculated in the house of his uncle, Dr. 
Mather of Boston. The shell, however, was not 
filled with powder, but with a mixture of brim 
stone and bituminous matter. 

Had Dr. Boylston gone at this time to Eng 
land, he might have accumulated a fortune by 
his skill in treating the small pox. lie did not 
however visit that country till 1725, when inocu 
lation was common. He was then received with 
the most flattering attention. He was chosen a 
member of the royal society, though he was not, 
as Dr. Thacher supposes, the first American thus 
honored, for Dr. Cotton Mather was elected in 
1713. He enjoyed the friendship of some of the 
most distinguished characters of the nation. Of 
these he used to mention with great respect and 
affection Dr. Watts, with whom he corresponded. 
After his return to his native country he continued 
at the head of his profession, and engaged in a 
number of literary pursuits. His communications 
to the royal society were ingenious and useful. 
After a long period of eminence and skill in his 
profession, his age and infirmities induced him to 
retire to his patrimonial estate in Brookline, where 
he passed the remainder of his days. He had 
the pleasure of seeing inoculation universally 
practised, and of knowing, that he was himself 
considered as one of the benefactors of mankind. 
Occupied in his last days in agricultural pursuits, 
he bestowed much care on the improvement of 
the breed of horses. Those of his own farm 
were celebrated. It seems that he had a vigor 
ous old age, notwithstanding the asthma, which 
afflicted him forty years, for he was seen at the 
age of 84, in the streets of Boston, riding a colt, 
which, as an excellent horseman, he was breaking 
to the bit. He died saying to his friends, " my 
work in this world is done, and my hopes of futu 
rity are brightening." His wife, who died before 
him, was Jerusha Minot of Boston. His second 
son, John, a merchant, died at Bath, England, 
Jan. 17, 1795, aged 80, bequeathing much to his 
native town. The inscription upon his tomb rep 
resents, that through a life of extensive benefi 
cence he was always faithful to his word, just in 
his dealings, afl able in his manners, and that after 
a long sickness, in which he was exemplary for 
his patience and resignation to his Maker, he 
quitted this mortal life in a just expectation of 
a blessed immortality. 

Dr. Boylston published some account of what 
is said of inoculating or transplanting the small 
pox by the learned Dr. Emanucl Timonius and 
Jacobus Pylarinus, 1721; an historical account of 
the small pox inoculated in New England, with 
some account of the nature of the infection, and 
some short directions to the inexperienced, dedi- 




catcd to the princess of Wales, London, 1726, 
and Boston, 1730; and several communications 
in the philosophical transactions. Muss. Mag., 
Dec., 1789, 177G-1779; Pierce s Cen. Discourse ; 
Holmes, II. 148 ; Boylston s Hist. Account ; 
HiiMtin.wu, II. 273-270 ; Thacher s Med. Bioy. 

BOYLSTOX, NICHOLAS, a benefactor of Har 
vard college, died in Boston Aug. 18, 1771, aged 
5,3. His portrait, which is an admirable paint 
ing, is in the philosophy chamber of the college. 
He had been an eminent merchant, and was 
about to retire from business to enjoy the fruit 
of his industry, when he was removed from the 
earth. He was honest in his dealings, and re 
markable for his sincerity, having a peculiar 
abhorrence of all dissimulation. He bequeathed 
to the university at Cambridge 1500 pounds for 
laying the foundation of a professorship of rhet- 
eric and oratory. This sum was paid into the 
college treasury by his executors Feb. 11, 1772; 
and the fund became accumulated to 23,200 dol 
lars before any appropriation was made. John 
Quincy Adams, then a senator of the United 
States, was installed the first professor, June 12, 
1806, with the title of "The Boylston professor 
of rhetoric and oratory in Harvard college." 
Holmes, II. 179. 

medical science, was the son of the preceding, 
and died at his seat in Roxbury, Mass., Jan. 
7, 1828, aged 78 years. In the year 1800 he gave 
to the medical school of Harvard college a valu 
able collection of medical and anatomical books 
and engravings, making also an arrangement for 
its perpetual enlargement. Bartleifs Prog. 
Med. Science. 

BORMAX, JOHN L., died near Oxford, Mary 
land, April 20, 1823, aged 64, a profound lawyer. 
He published a sketch of the history of Maryland 
during the three first years, 1811. 

Bit ACE, JONATHAN, judge, died at Hartford 
Aug. 26, 1837, aged 83. He was a member of 
Congress in 1798, judge of county court and of 
probate, and a highly respected citizen. 

BRACE, LUCY COLLINS, wife of Rev. Dr. J. 
Brace, died at Xewington, Conn., Nov. 16, 1854, 
aged 72. It had been proposed to celebrate in a 
few weeks, the fiftieth year of her husband s set 
tlement and of their marriage. For many years 
she met every Sunday a Bible class of her own 
age and a missionary society ; she was an example 
of the various excellences exhibited in the lives 
of a multitude of pastor s wives in our countrv. 

BRACKEN, JOHN, bishop in Virginia, died at 
Williamsburg July 15, 1818. He had been for 
many years not only a bishop, but president of 
William and Mary college. 

of the supreme court of Pennsylvania, died at 
Carlisle June 25, 1816, aged 67. He was born 

about 1749, and graduated at Princeton in 1771, 
in the class with James Madison. He was the 
master of an academy in Maryland before the 
Revolution. In 1781 he settled at Piltsburg, 
which he deemed favorably situated for becoming 
a large town ; and in its improvement he en 
gaged with zeal. He wrote for the newspapers 
many essays in prose and poetry. His pieces 
were generally satirical; one of them ridiculed 
the society of the Cincinnati. In 1789 he was 
appointed judge. In 1798 political partisans re 
proached him for his partiality to Mr. Gallatin. 
A few years before his death he removed to Car 
lisle. His wife, whom he married in 1790, was 
Sabina Wolf, a young lady of German origin, 
whose parents lived on the banks of the Ohio 
river. He published a poem on the rising 
glory of America, 1774; eulogium of the brave 
men who fell in the contest with Great Britain, 
1779 ; modern chivalry, the adventures of Capt. 
Farrago, etc., 1792 ; 2d edit. 2 vols., 1808 ; ora 
tion July 4, 1793 ; incidents of the insurrection 
in 1794 in Pennsylvania, 1795; gazette publica 
tions, collected, 1806 ; law of miscellanies, con 
taining instructions for the study of the law, 1814. 
BRACKETT, ANTHONY, captain, an early set 
tler at Casco, or Falmouth, as Portland, Maine, 
was at first called, was lulled by the Indians Sept. 
21, 1689. He was the son of Anthony B., of 
Greenland, N. II., then a. part of Portsmouth. 
He lived at Casco as early as 1662, and was one 
of the settlers around the back cove. His farm 
consisted of four hundred acres. The Indians, 
led by Simon, whp escaped from prison at Dover, 
and was familiar at Brackett s, took him, his wife, 
and five children, and a negro servant prisoners 
Aug. 11, 1676. Michael Mitton, the brother of 
his wife, was killed. At Presumpscot also the 
party killed and captured several persons. Thomas 
Brackett, his brother, who lived at Clark s point, 
on the neck, was shot down and his wife and three 
children taken ; Megunnaway, an Indian, " a no 
torious rogue," being concerned in his murder. 
In all thirty-four persons were killed and carried 
into captivity. The prisoners were conveyed to 
Arrousic Island, of which the Indians had recently 
gained possession, killing Capt, Lake and wound 
ing Davis. Being left there in Xovember while 
the Indians proceeded on an expedition, Brackett 
escaped in an old leaky birch canoe, which his 
wife had repaired with a needle and thread, found 
in a deserted house; and crossed over to Black 
point with his family, and got on board a vessel 
bound to Piscataqua. After the peace of Casco, 
April 12, 1678, he returned, and in 1682 was in 
trusted with the command of fort Loyall at Port 
land. In 1688 he was put in command of the 
three forts, erected by Andros. In 1679 lie mar 
ried for his second wife Susannah Drake of Hamp 
ton, covenanting with her father, that one half 




of his estate should be her jointure and descend 
to her male children. A dispute between the 
children of the two marriages respecting this 
property was adjusted by an amicable division. 
His sons were Anthony and Scth : the latter was 
killed at the capture of Saco, May 20, 1G90, and 
the former taken prisoner. His posterity still 
remain at Casco. Thomas Brackett s wife, the 
sister of M. Mitton, died in captivity; his son 
Joshua afterwards lived in Greenland, where he 
died, being the father of Anthony and Joshua of 
Portland. Willis Hist, of Portland, in Maine 
Hist. Coll., I. 94, 200, 207,^143-156. 

BRACKET!, JOSHUA, M. 1)., a distinguished 
physician, died July 17, 1802, aged 09. He was 
born in Greenland, New Hampshire, in May, 1733, 
and after graduating at Harvard college in 1752, 
studied theology at the request of his parents, 
and became a preacher ; but the science of medi 
cine had for him greater attractions. He studied 
with Dr. Clement Jackson, then the principal 
physician in Portsmouth, and established himself 
in that town, in which he continued during the 
remainder of his life. His wife, Hannah Whip- 
pie of Kittery, died in May, 1805, aged 70, be 
queathing to the Xew Hampshire medical society, 
of which her husband had been president, 500 
dollars. She was skilful in botany, having a 
garden of rare plants. 

Dr. Brackett was a skilful, faithful, benevolent 
physician, particularly successful in obstetrical 
practice ; mild, amiable, unassuming, affable ; 
warm in friendship, an enemy to flattery, a despiser 
of popular applause. It is stated that he never 
made a charge for his professional services to the 
poor, with whom he thought the payment would 
occasion any embarrassment. In his religious 
sentiments he was a Universalist. He took a deep 
interest in the promotion of natural history at 
Cambridge, and requested his wife to appropriate 
1500 dollars towards the professorship of that 
science in Harvard college. She complied with 
his request and added to the amount. Dr. Brack 
ett was a zealous whig in the Revolution ; during 
which he was appointed judge of the maritime 
court of Xew r Hampshire, and honorably sustained 
the office, till its duties were transferred to the 
district court. He was a benefactor of the New 
Hampshire medical society, of which he was presi 
dent from 1793 to 1799, presenting to it, at its 
establishment, one hundred and forty-three vols. 
of valuable medical books. Adams Ann. Ports 
mouth, 321 ; Thacher s Med. Bioy. ; Med. Repos. 
s. h., I. 211. 

BRACKETT, JAMES, died at Rock Island, 111., 
May 19, 1852, aged 70. A graduate of Dart 
mouth in 1805, he was a lawyer of Otsego. He 
was a literary man and published several ad 

BRADBURY, TiiEomiLUS, a judge of the 

superior court of Massachusetts, died Sept. 6, 
1803, aged 03. He was a graduate at Harvard 
college in 1757. His early days were devoted 
with diligence and success to the profession of 
the law. He resigned the emoluments arising 
from his practice for the appointment of a judge, 
in which station he was intelligent and faithful in 
executing the laws. A sudden attack of disease 
at length rendered him incapable of discharging 
the duties of his office. Columb. Centinel,Sc\)t. 
11, 1803. 

BRADDOCK, EDWARD, major-general, and 
commander in chief of the British forces in 
America, died July 13, 1775. He arrived in Vir 
ginia with two regiments from Ireland in Feb 
ruary, 1755. The plan of military operations 
having been settled in April, by a convention of 
the several governors at Alexandria, he undertook 
to conduct in person the expedition against 
Fort I)u Qucsne, now Pittsburg. Meeting with 
much delay from the necessity of opening roads, 
the general determined to advance with rapidity 
at the head of twelve hundred men, leaving the 
heavy baggage to the care of Colonel Dunbar, 
who was to follow by slow and easy marches. 
He reached the Monongahela July 8th. The 
succeeding day he expected to invest the fort. 
He accordingly made his dispositions in the morn 
ing. He was advised to advance the provincial 
companies in the front for the purpose of scouring 
the woods, and discovering any ambuscade, which 
might be formed for him. But he held both his 
enemy and the provincials in too much contempt 
to follow this salutary counsel. Three hundred 
British regulars composed his van, which was sud 
denly attacked, at the distance of about seven 
miles from the fort, by an invisible enemy, con 
cealed by the high grass. The whole army was 
soon thrown into confusion. The brave general 
exerted his utmost powers to form his broken 
troops under a galling fire upon the very ground 
where they were first attacked; but his efforts 
were fruitless. With such an enemy, in such a 
situation, it was necessary either to advance or 
retreat. All his officers on horseback, excepting 
his aid, the late General Washington, were killed 
or wounded; and after losing three horses he 
received a mortal wound through his right arm 
into his lungs. The defeated army fled precipi 
tately to the camp of Dunbar, near forty miles 
distant, where Braddock, who was brought off the 
ground in a tumbril, expired of his wounds. 
Sixty-four out of eighty-five officers, and about 
half his privates were killed and wounded, making 
in the whole a loss of about seven hundred men. 
Of the killed were William Shirley of the staff, 
and Col. Sir Peter Halket ; and among the 
wounded, Robert Orme, Roger Morris, Sir John 
St. Clair and others of the staff; and Lieut.-Cols. 
Gage and Burton. Though Mante defends the 




conduct of Bradclock, yet this disaster obviously 
resulted from the contempt of good advice. 
Marshall, I. 384, 390-393 ; II. 14-19 ; Holmes, 
II. GO ; Coll. Hist. Soc. vil. 89-94 ; s. s. Till. 
153; Wynne, II. 37-42; Mante, 17, 21,26. 

BRADFORD, WILLIAM, governor of Ply 
mouth, died May 9, 1657, aged G7. The names 
of Bradford and Brewster, who were driven from 
England into exile by ecclesiastical bigotry and 
intolerance, are names among the most honorable 
and memorable in the history of the world. lie 
was governor in 1621, and in all thirty-one years. 
lie was a first settler, one of the hundred Pilgrims 
in the Mayflower in 1620. He was born in March, 
1590, in Austerfield, a little village in the southern 
border of Yorkshire, in England. His grand 
father, William B., and John Hanson lived in Aus 
terfield in 1575, and were the only persons of prop 
erty in the townlet. Alice, the daughter of Mr. 
Hanson and Mary Gresham, was his mother. 
His father, William, died in 1591 ; his grandfather, 
William, in 1596. He had a good patrimony. 
He was left to the care of his uncle Robert. 
Scrooby, in Nottinghamshire, the residence of 
Brewster, was only four or five miles distant from 
Austerfield, to the south. At Brewster s house, 
the manor, was formed a new church in 1606 or 
1607, most of the members of which had proba 
bly belonged to the church of Mr. Clifton at Bab- 
worth, only a mile or two south of Scrooby : 
Clifton was the minister, Brewster the elder. Mr. 
Bradford was one of the founders of this church. 
At the age of 12 or 13 years his mind was seri 
ously impressed by divine truth in reading the 
Scriptures, and an illness of long continuance 
conspired to preserve him from the follies of 
youth. His good impressions were confirmed by 
attending upon the ministry of Mr. Richard Clif 
ton, and by his union with the Puritan company, 
which met at Mr. Brewster s in Scrooby. As he 
advanced in years he was stigmatized as a Separ 
atist ; but such was his firmness, that he cheerfully 
bore the frowns of his relatives and the scoff s of 
his neighbors, and connected himself with the 
church over which Mr. Clifton and Mr. Robinson 
presided, fearless of the persecution, which he 
foresaw this act would draw upon him. Believing 
that many practices of the established church of 
England were repugnant to the directions of the 
word of God, he was fully resolved to prefer the 
purity of Christian worship to any temporal ad 
vantages, which might arise from bending his 
conscience to the opinions of others. 

In the autumn of 1607, when he was seventeen 
years of age, he was one of the company of Dis 
senters who made an attempt to go over to 
Holland, where a commercial spirit had estab 
lished a free toleration of religious opinions ; but 
the master of the vessel betrayed them, and they 
were thrown into prison at Boston in Lincoln 

shire. In the spring of the next year he made 
another unsuccessful attempt. At length he 
effected his favorite object and joined his brethren 
at Amsterdam. Here he put himself an appren 
tice to a French Protestant, who taught him the 
art of silk-dying. When he reached the age of 
twenty-one years, and came in possession of his 
estate in England, he converted it into money, 
and engaged in commerce, in which he was not 

Mr. Bradford, after a residence of about ten 
years in Holland, engaged with zeal in the plan 
of removal to America, which was formed by the 
English church at Leyden under the care of Mr. 
Robinson. He accordingly embarked for England, 
July 22, 1620, and on the sixth of September set 
sail from Plymouth with the first company. 
While the ship in November lay in the harbor of 
Cape Cod, he was one of the foremost in the sev 
eral hazardous attempts to find a proper place for 
the seat of the colony. Before a suitable spot was 
agreed upon, his wife fell into the sea and was 
drowned. Soon after the death of Governor 
Carver at Plymouth, April 5, 1621, Mr. Bradford 
was elected governor in his place. He was at 
this time in the thirty-third year of his age, and 
was most conspicuous for wisdom, fortitude, piety, 
and benevolence. The people appointed Isaac 
Allerton his assistant, not because they could re 
pose less confidence in him than in Carver, who 
had been alone in the command, but chiefly on 
account of his precarious health. One of the first 
acts of his administration was to send an embassy 
to Massasoit, for the purpose of confirming the 
league with the Indian sachem, of procuring seed 
corn for the next season, and of exploring the 
country. It was well for the colony that the 
friendship of Massasoit was thus secured, for his 
influence was extensive. In consequence of his 
regard for the new settlers, nine sachems in Sep 
tember went to Plymouth, and acknowledged 
themselves loyal subjects of King James. In the 
same month a party was sent out to explore the 
Bay of Massachusetts. They landed under a cliff, 
supposed to be Copp s Hill, in Boston, where they 
were received with kindness by Obbatinewa, who 
gave them a promise of his assistance against the 
squaw sachem. On their return they carried with 
them so good a report of the country, that the 
people lamented that they had established them 
selves at Plymouth ; but it was not now in their 
power to remove. 

In the beginning of 1622 the colony began to 
experience a distressing famine, occasioned by the 
arrival of new settlers, who came unfurnished with 
provisions. In the height of their distress a 
threatening message was received from Canonicus, 
sachem of Narragansett, expressed by the present 
of a bundle of arrows, bound with the skin of a 
serpent. The governor sent back the skin filled 




with powder and ball. This prompt and ingenious 
reply terminated the correspondence. The Xarra- 
gansetts were so terrified, that they even returned 
the serpent s skin without inspecting its contents. 
It was however judged necessary to fortify the 
town ; and this work was performed by the people 
while they were suffering the extremity of famine. 
For some time they subsisted entirely upon fish. 
In this exigency Governor Bradford found the 
advantage of his friendly intercourse with the In 
dians. He made several excursions among them, 
and procured corn and beans, making a fair pur 
chase by means of goods which were brought by 
two ships in August, and received by the planters 
in exchange for beaver. The whole quantity of 
corn and beans thus purchased amounted to 
twenty-eight hogsheads. But still more important 
benefits soon resulted from the disposition of 
Governor Bradford to preserve the friendship of 
the natives. During the illness of Massasoit in 
the spring of 1623, Mr. "Winslow was sent to him 
with cordials, which contributed to his recovery. 
In return for this benevolent attention the grateful 
sachem disclosed a dangerous conspiracy, then in 
agitation among the Indians, for the purpose of 
totally extirpating the English. This plot did not 
originate in savage malignity, but was occasioned 
by the injustice and indiscretion of some settlers 
in the Bay of Massachusetts. As the most effect 
ual means of suppressing the conspiracy, Massasoit 
advised that the chief conspirators, whom he 
named, should be seized and put to death. This 
melancholy work was accordingly performed by 
Captain Standish, and the colony was relieved 
from apprehension. When the report of this 
transaction was carried to Holland, Mr. Robinson, 
in his next letter to the governor, expressed his 
deep concern at the event. "O that you had 
converted some," said he, " before you had killed 

The scarcity, which had been experienced by 
the planters, was in part owing to the impolicy of 
laboring in common and putting the fruit of their 
labor into the public store. To stimulate industry 
by the prospect of individual acquisition, and thus 
to promote the general good by removing the re 
straints upon selfishness, it was agreed, in the 
spring of 1G23, that every family should plant for 
themselves, on such ground as should be assigned 
them by lot. After this agreement the governor 
was not again obliged to traffic with the Indians 
in order to procure the means of subsistence for 
the colony. Thus have failed the common-stock 
projects of various enthusiasts. 

The original government of Plymouth was 
founded entirely upon mutual compact, entered 
into by the planters before they landed, and was 
intended to continue no longer than till they 
could obtain legal authority from their sovereign. 
The first patent was obtained for the colony in the 

name of John Pierce ; but another patent of 
larger extent was obtained of the council for New 
England, January 13, 1630, in the name of Wil 
liam Bradford, his heirs, associates, and assigns, 
which confirmed the title of the colonists to a 
large tract of land, and gave them power to make 
all laws, not repugnant to the laws of England. 
In the year 1640, when the number of people was 
increased, and new townships were erected, the 
general court requested Governor Bradford to 
surrender the patent into their hands. With this 
request he cheerfully complied, reserving for him 
self no more than his proportion, as settled by a 
previous agreement. After this surrender the 
patent was immediately delivered again into his 
custody. For several of the first years after the 
first settlement of Plymouth, the legislative, ex 
ecutive, and judicial business was performed by 
the whole body of freemen in assembly. In 1634 
the governor s assistants, the number of whom, at 
the request of Mr. Bradford, had been increased 
to five in 1624, and to seven in 1633, were con 
stituted a judicial court, and afterwards the 
supreme judicature. Petty offences were tried by 
the selectmen of each town, with liberty of appeal 
to the next court of assistants. The first assembly 
of representatives was held in 1639, when two 
deputies were sent from each town, excepting 
Plymouth, which sent four. In 1649 this ine 
quality Avas done away. 

Such was the reputation of Mr. Bradford, 
acquired by his piety, wisdom, and integrity, that 
he was annually chosen governor, as long as he 
lived, excepting in the years 1633, 1636, and 1644, 
when Mr. Winslow was appointed, and the years 
1634 and 1638, when Mr. Prince was elected chief 
magistrate. At these times it was by his own 
request that the people did not re-elect him. 
Governor Winthrop mentions the election of Mr. 
Winslow in 1633, and adds, " Mr. Bradford hav 
ing been governor about ten years, and now by 
importunity got off." What a lesson for the am 
bitious, who bend their whole influence to gain and 
secure the high offices of State ! Mr. Bradford 
strongly recommended a rotation in the election 
of governor. " If this appointment," he pleaded, 
" was any honor or benefit, others beside himself 
should partake of it ; if it was a burden, others 
beside himself should help to bear it." But the 
people were so much attached to him, that for 
thirty years they placed him at the head of the 
government, and in the five years when others 
were chosen, he was first in the list of assistants, 
which gave him the rank of deputy governor. 
After an infirm and declining state of health for a 
number of months, he was suddenly seized by an 
acute disease in May, 16(37. In the night, his mind 
was so enraptured by contemplations upon relig 
ious truth and the hopes of futurity, that he said 
to his friends in the morning, " the good Spirit of 




God has given me a pledge of my happiness in 
another world, and the first fruits of eternal 
glory." The next day, May 9, 1657, he was re 
moved from the present state of existence, greatly 
lamented by the people not only in Plymouth, but 
in the neighboring colonies. Ilubbard makes the 
day of his death June o ; but the lines given by 
Morton are doubtless good, at least for the date : 

" The ninth of May, about nine of the clock, 
A precious one God out of Plymouth took : 
Governor Bradford then expired his breath." 

His sister, Alice, married to George Morton, 
who died in 1624, survived her brother. 

The seal which Gov. B. used was a double eagle. 
His wife, Dorothy May, was drowned at Cape Cod, 
Dec. 7, 1620, so that she never reached Plymouth. 
llis second wife was Alice Southworth, the widow 
of Edward Southworth, whom he married in 1623. 
His son, John, was born of his first wife ; William, 
Mercy, and Joseph were his cliildren by Alice 
Southworth. John died without children. Wil 
liam had fifteen children, and Joseph had seven ; 
from these have descended the Bradfords of New 
England and many beyond its bounds. 

In the X. E. Register of Jan. and July, 1850, is 
published a genealogy, containing the names of 
four hundred and fourteen of his descendants, be 
sides many of their cliildren, living chiefly in Mas 
sachusetts. Besides the bearers of the name of 
Bradford, there are families bearing other names, 
whose children are his descendants, some of which 
names are the following : Adams, Allen, Allyn, 
Baker, Barnes, Brewster, Chandler, Child, Chip- 
man, Church, Collins, Cook, Delano, Drew, I) wight, 
Elliot, Ensign, Fessenden, Finney, Fitch, Fowler, 
Frazer, Freeman, Gay, Gilbert, Gridley, Ham 
mond, llobart, Holmes, Hopkins, Hunt, Lane, 
Lawrence, Le Baron, Lee, Loring, Metcalf, Mitch 
ell, Paddock, Partridge, Prince, Riplcy, Robbins, 
Rockwell, Sampson, Skinner, Smith, Soule, Spoon- 
er, Stanford, Steel, Stirling, Sylvester, Wadsworth, 
Waring, Weston, Whiting, Wiswall. The sup 
posed honor of descent from such a man as Brad 
ford will be only disgrace, unless there be caught 
from the record of his life something of his inde 
pendence of thought, something of his unswerving 
adherence to the right, something of his self-sac 
rificing spirit, something of his zealous toils, his 
benevolence, and his piety. 

Governor Bradford, though not favored with a 
learned education, possessed a strong mind, a 
sound judgment, and a good memory. In the 
office of chief magistrate he was prudent, tem 
perate, and firm. He would sufier no person to 
trample on the laws or to disturb the peace of 
the colony. Some young men, who were unwil 
ling to comply with the order for laboring on the 
public account, excused themselves on a Christmas 
day, under pretence that it was against their con 

science to work. But not long afterwards, finding 
them at play in the street, he commanded the 
instruments of their game to be taken from them, 
and told them that it was against his conscience 
to suffer them to play, while others were at work, 
and that, if they had any religious regard to the 
day, they should show it in the exercise of devo 
tion at home. This gentle reproof had the desired 
effect. On other occasions his conduct was equally 
moderate and determined. Suspecting John Ly- 
ford, who had imposed himself upon the colony 
as a minister, of factious designs, and observing 
that he had put a great number of letters on board 
a ship for England, the governor in a boat fol 
lowed the ship to sea, and examined the letters. 
As satisfactory evidence against Lyford was thus 
obtained, a convenient time was afterwards taken 
for bringing him to trial, and he was banished. 

Though he never enjoyed great literary advan 
tages, Governor Bradford was much inclined to 
literary pursuits. He was familiar with the 
French and Dutch languages, and attained con 
siderable knowledge of the Latin and Greek; 
but he more assiduously studied the Hebrew, be 
cause, as he said, " he would see with his own 
eyes the ancient oracles of God in their native 
beauty." He had read much of history and phi 
losophy ; but theology was his favorite study. 
Dr. Mather represents him as an irrefragable dis 
putant, especially against the Anabaptists. Yet 
he was by no means severe or intolerant. He 
wished rather to convince the erroneous, than to 
suppress their opinions by violence. His dispo 
sition was gentle and condescending. Though he 
was attached to the discipline of the Congrega 
tional churches, yet he was not a rigid Separatist. 
He perceived that the reformed churches differed 
among themselves in the modes of discipline, and 
he did not look for a perfect uniformity. His life 
was exemplary and useful. He was watchful 
against sin, a man of prayer, and conspicuous for 
holiness. His son, William Bradford, was deputy 
governor of the colony after his father s death, 
and died at Plymouth at the age of seventy-nine. 
Several of his descendants were members of the 
council of Massachusetts, and one of them was a 
deputy governor of Rhode Island and a senator 
in the congress of the United States. 

Governor Bradford wrote a history of Plymouth 
people and colony, beginning with the first for 
mation of the church in 1602 and ending with 
1647. It was contained in a folio volume of two 
hundred seventy pages. Morton s memorial is an 
abridgment of it. Prince and Hutchinson had 
the use of it, and the manuscript was deposited 
with Mr. Prince s valuable collection of papers in 
the library of the old south church in Boston. In 
the year I77o it shared the fate of many other 
manuscripts in that place. It was carried away 
by the barbarians of the British army, who con- 




verted the old south church into a riding school. 
This invaluable work, after having been lost eighty 
years, has just been recovered and printed entire. 
For this recovery the American public is indebted 
to Rev. John S. Barry, who, in writing his History 
of Massachusetts, had occasion, in 1855, to con 
sult an English book, in which he noticed a refer 
ence to a manuscript history of Plymouth in the 
Fulham library, with quotations, which satisfied 
him that it was Bradford s lost MS. This was 
found to be the case by Mr. Charles Deane, 
through the agency of Rev. Joseph Hunter of 
London. An exact copy was obtained, retaining 
the ancient spelling, and was printed by the Mass. 
Historical Society in 1856, with a preface and 
notes by Mr. Deane, chairman of the publishing 
committee of the society. 

This manuscript was used in their historical 
writings by Morton, Prince, and Hutchinson. A 
portion of the work, taken from the church records 
of Plymouth, but not recorded as Bradford s writ 
ing, was published by Dr. Young in his chronicles 
of the pilgrims in 1841, most of which had been 
previously printed by Hazard as a Avork of Mor 
ton. Of the way, by which the manuscript reached 
the Fulham library, no information has been ob 
tained. In this primitive book Mr. Deane has 
inserted a page of a fac simile of the handwriting 
of Bradford ; and he has annexed Gov. B. slist of 
the passengers in the Mayflower, from which he 
concludes that the number of passengers was one 
hundred and two, instead of one hundred, the usu 
ally-reckoned number. But in this perhaps he falls 
into an error, for two, whom he counts, were hired 
seamen for one year, when they returned, and 
could not be considered among " the first begin 
ners," who laid the foundation of all the colonies, 
any more than any other seamen. Mr. D. also 
mistakes in making Gov. B. sixty-eight years old. 

Gov. B. had a large book of copies of letters 
relative to the affairs of the colony, which is lost. 
A fragment of it, however, found in a grocer s 
shop at Halifax, was published by the Massachu 
setts Historical Society, to which is subjoined a 
descriptive and historical account of New England 
in verse. If this production is somewhat deficient 
in the beauties of poetry, it has the more sub 
stantial graces of piety and truth. He published 
some pieces for the confutation of the errors of 
the times, particularly of the Anabaptists. Bel- 
knap s Amer. Biog. II. 217-251; Mather s Ma g- 
nalia, n. 2-5 ; Davis 1 Morton, 269 ; NeaVs New 
England, I. 99, 316 ; Prince s Annals, Pref. VI, 

IX. 196 ; Coll. Hist. Soc. III. 27, 77 ; VI. s. s. 555 ; 

X. 67 ; Bradford s Hist. ; Thacher s Plymouth ; 
N. E. Memorial, I. 81 ; N. E. Register, 1850. 

BRADFORD, ALICE, the wife of Gov. B., died 
at Plymouth March 27, 1670, aged 80, having 
survived her husband nearly thirteen years. Born 
in England, she first married Edward Southworth, 

living with him seven years in Nottinghamshire, 
near the residence of Mr. Bradford, who well 
knew her, and, as report says, had early sought 
her hand. Her name was Alice Carpenter. 
Being left a widow, Gov. Bradford renewed his 
offer to her two years after the death of his first 
wife, Dorothy May. She was now of the age of 
thirty-three. Waiving her riyht to demand a 
personal visit, which would call away the governor 
from his important duties to the colony in the 
wilderness, she generously listened to his request, 
and came over in the ship Ann, which arrived 
Aug. 1, 1623. She was accompanied by the gov 
ernor s brother-in-law, George Morton, by her 
sister, Bridget Fuller, and by two daughters of 
Elder Brewster. Her two sons, Thomas and Con 
stant Southworth, were brought over in 1629 or 
1630. She was married Aug. 14, and lived with 
her husband nearly thirty years. She brought 
with her considerable property. She was well 
educated, and of extraordinary capacity and great 
worth. She incessantly toiled for the literary 
improvement and the refinement of the youth at 
Plymouth. If she ever felt honored in being 
married to Mr. Southworth, who was descended 
in the tenth generation from Sir Gilbert S., 
knight of Lancaster, yet she must have felt more 
happy in being the companion of him who laid 
the foundation of civil and religious freedom in a 
new world, and whose name would be held illus 
trious by the generations to come of their de 
scendants and others, down to the end of time. 
Her sister, Mary Carpenter, an old maid, a mem 
ber of the church of Duxbury, died at Plymouth 
March 20, 1667, aged ninety. Other sisters were 
Bridget, who married Samuel Fuller, and gave to 
the church the lot of ground on which the par 
sonage stood ; Priscilla, the wife of William 
Wright ; and the wives of John Cooper and Rev. 
Mr. Reyner. At the end of Bradford s History 
are published two pages of memorial lines by N. 
Morton, " Upon the life and death of that godly 
matron, Mistris Alice Bradford," from which it 
appears that she and her father belonged to the 
Puritan Separatists of the north of England, who 
fled to Holland when she was seventeen years 
old. He is called a confessor ; and it is added : 

" And shee with him and other in her youth 
Left tlieire own native country for the truth, 
And in successe of time she marryed was 
To one whose grace and vertue did surpusse, 
I mean good Edward Southworth, vrhoe not long 
Continued in this world the saints ainouge." 

After mentioning the death of her last husband, 
the writer says : 

" E r since that time in widdowhood shee hath 
Lived a life in holynes and faith 
In reading of Gods word and contemplation, 
Which healped her to assurance of salvation 
Through Gods good sperit workeing with the same, 
Forever praised be his holy name." 




" Tis sad to see our houses disposessd 
Of holy saints whose memory is blessd; 
When they decease and closed are in tombe, 
Thercs few or none that rises in their rome, 
Thats like to them in holines and grace." 

The same writer says of her husband : 

" It is enough to name 
The name of Bradford fresh in memory, 
Which smcles with odoriforus fragrancye." 

TJiacher s Pli/m.116 , Bradford s Hist. 460. 

BRADFORD, JOHN, the eldest son of the 
preceding by his first wife, was born in England, 
and came over with Alice Southworth in 1623. 
He lived in Duxbury in 1615, and in 1652 was 
deputy to the general court. He married Martha 
Bourne, of Marshfield. In 1653 he removed to 
Norwich, Conn., where he died without offspring 
in 1678, aged about 61. His widow married 
Thomas Tracy. 

BRADFORD, WILLIAM, major, son of the 
preceding, deputy governor of Plymouth colony, 
was born June 17, 1624, and died Feb. 20, 1704, 
aged 79. He was buried at his request by the 
side of his father. These homely lines are on Ins 
monument : 

" He lived long but still was doing good, 
And in his country s service lost much blood. 
After a life well spent he s now at rest ; 
His very name and memory is blest." 

In King Philip s war he commanded the Ply 
mouth troops, and in the Xarragansett fort fight, 
Dec. 19, 1675, at East Kingston, when the fort 
was taken, he received a ball in his body, which 
he bore during the remainder of his life. In his 
last will he provided for fifteen children, nine sons 
and six daughters ; and then- very numerous de 
scendants in New England can of course all trace 
their ancestry to Gov. Bradford. His descendants 
are of the oldest line of the Bradfords, for his 
elder brother John had no children. His resi 
dence was on the north side of Jones river, in 
what is now Kingston. His first Avife Avas Alice, 
daughter of Thomas Richards, of Weymouth ; 
his second Avas AvidoAV WisAvall ; his third Avas 
Mary, the widoAV of ReA r . J. Holmes, of Dux- 

BRADFORD, JOSEPH, the third son of Gov 
ernor Bradford, Avas born in 1630, and died in 
1715, aged 84. His Avife was Jacl, the daughter 
of Rev. Peter Hobart, of Hingham. His sons 
were John, Samuel, and William ; his daughters 
Alice or Olive, Abigail, Mercy, and Priscilla, 
Avhose husbands were as folloAvs : Alice or Olive 
married Edward Mitchell and Joshua Hersey ; 
Abigail married Gideon Sampson ; Mercy mar 
ried Jonathan Freeman and Isaac Cushman ; 
and Priscilla married Seth Chipman. Farmer 
says he left a son Elisha. 

BRADFORD, GAMALIEL, colonel, died at Dux- 
bury, Jan. 9, 1807, aged 75. He Avas an officer 


in the French Avars and in the army of the RCA T O- 
lution, and a judge. His father, Gamaliel, died 
in 1778, aged 73, the son of Samuel, the son of 
Major William. His daughter, Sophia, died Feb. 
2, 1855, aged 93. Alden B. Avas his son ; and 
Dr. Gamaliel B., of Boston, his grandson. 

BRADFORD, WILLIAM, a senator of the Unit 
ed States, the son of Samuel B., and a descendant 
in the fourth generation from Gov. Bradford, died 
July 6, 1808, aged 78. He Avas born at Plymp- 
ton, Mass., in Nov., 1729. Having studied physic 
Avith Dr. E. Ilerscy, he commenced the practice 
in Warren, R. I., and Avas skilful and successful. 
In a few years he removed to Bristol, and built a 
house on that romantic and A enerable spot, Mount 
Hope, Avhich is associated Avith the name of King 
Philip. Here he studied laAv and became eminent 
in civil life in Rhode Island. In the Revolution 
ary contest he took a decided part in favor of the 
rights of the colonies. In the cannonade of 
Bristol, in the evening of Oct. 7, 1775, by the 
British vessels of Avar, the Rose, Glasgow, and 
Siren, he Avent on board the Rose, and negotiated 
for the inhabitants. About this time his OAvn 
house Avas destroyed by the enemy. In 1792 he 
Avas elected a senator in congress, but soon re 
signed his place for the shades of his delightful 
retreat. He Avas many years speaker of the as 
sembly of Rhode Island, and deputy governor. 
He had lived a AvidoAver thirty-three years ; his 
Avife, Mary Le Baron, of Plymouth, Avhom he 
married in 1751, died Oct. 2, 1775. His eldest 
son, Major William Biadford, was aid to Gen. 
Charles Lee, of the Revolutionary army. By in 
dustry and rigid economy, Mr. Bradford acquired 
an independent fortune, in the use of Avhich he 
Avas hospitable and liberal. For many years he 
Avas accustomed to deposit AA ith his minister a 
generous sum, to be expended in charity to the 
poor. In his habits he Avas temperate, seeking 
his bed at an early hour of the evening, and rising 
early and Avalking over his extensive farm. Thus 
he attained nearly to the age of fourscore. 
TJtachcr s Med. Biog. ; Grisioold s Fun. Serm. 

BRADFORD, WILLIAM, the first printer in 
Pennsyh-ania, died May 23,- 1752, aged 93. He 
Avas born in Leicester, England, and, being a Qua 
ker, emigrated to this country in 1682 or 1683, 
and landed Avhere Philadelphia Avas aftenvards 
laid out, before a house Avas built. In 1687 he 
printed an almanac. The Avritings of George 
Keith, Avhich he printed, having caused a quarrel 
among the Quakers, for one of them, represented 
as seditious, he Avas arrested Avith Keith and im 
prisoned in 1692. It is remarkable, that in his 
trial, Avhen the justice charged the jury to find 
only the fact as to printing, Bradford maintained 
that the jury Avere also to find Avhethcr the paper 
Avas really seditious, and maintained that " the 
jury are judges in laAv, as well as the matter of 




fact." This is the very point which awakened ! 
such interest in England in the time of Wilkes. 
Bradford was not convicted ; but, having incurred 
the displeasure of the dominant party in Phila 
delphia, he removed to New York in 1693. In 
that year he printed the laws of the colony. Oct. 
16, 1725, he began the first newspaper in New 
York, called the N. Y. Gazette. In 1728 he 
established a paper-mill at Elizabethtown, N. Y., 
which, perhaps, was the first in this country. 
Being temperate and active, he reached a great 
age, a stranger to sickness. In the morning of 
the day of his death he walked about the city. 
By his first wife, a daughter of Andrew Sowles, a 
printer in London, he had two sons, Andrew and 
William. For more than fifty years he was 
printer to the New York government, and for 
thirty years the only printer in the province. He 
was kind and affable, and a friend to the poor. 
Thomas, II. 91; Pcnn. Gaz., May 28, 1752. 

BRADFORD, ANDREW, a printer, the son of 
the preceding, died Nov. 23, 1742, aged about 56. 
He was the only printer in Pennsylvania from 
1712 to 1723. lie published the first newspaper 
in Philadelphia Dec, 22, 1719, called the Ameri 
can Weekly Mercury. In 1732 he was post 
master ; in 1735 he kept a bookshop, at the sign 
of the Bible, in Second street. In 1738 he re 
moved, having purchased a house, No. 8 South 
Front street, which in 1810 was occupied as a 
printing house by his descendant, Thomas Brad 
ford, the publisher of the True American, a daily 
paper. His second wife, with whom he failed to 
find happiness, was Cornelia Smith, of New York; 
she continued the Mercury till the end of 1746, 
and died in 1755. Thomas, II. 30, 325. 

BRADFORD, WILLIAM, colonel, a printer, and 
a soldier of the Revolution, died Sept. 25, 1791, 
aged 72. He was the grandson of the first 
printer in Philadelphia. His father, William, was 
a seaman. Adopted by his uncle, Andrew Brad 
ford, he became his partner in business ; but his 
foster mother, Mrs. Cornelia B., wishing him to 
fall in love with her adopted niece, and he choos 
ing to fall in love with some other lady, caused 
the partnership to be- dissolved. In 1741 he went 
to England, and returned in 1742 with printing 
materials and books. At this period he married 
a daughter of Thomas Budd, who was imprisoned 
with his ancestor in 1692. He published Dec. 2, 
1742, the Pennsylvania Journal, which was con 
tinued till the present century, when it was super 
seded by the True American. In 1754 he opened, 
at the corner of Market and Front streets, the 
London coffee-house; in 1762 he opened a marine 
insurance office with Mr. Kydd. He opposed the 
stamp act in 1765, and in the early stage of the 
war he took up arms for his country. As a major 
and colonel in the militia he fought in the battle 
of Trenton, in the action at Princeton, and in sev 

eral other engagements. He was at Fort Mifflin 
when it was attacked. After the British army 
left Philadelphia, he returned with a broken con 
stitution and a shattered fortune. Business had 
found new channels. Soon he experienced the 
loss of his beloved Avife ; age advanced upon him ; 
a paralytic shock warned him of approaching 
death. To his children he said, " Though I be 
queath you no estate, I leave you in the enjoyment 
of liberty." Such patriots deserve to be held in 
perpetual remembrance. He left three sons : 
Thomas, his partner in business, William, attorney- 
general, and Schuyler, who died in the East 
Indies; also three daughters. Thomas, II. 48, 
330; U. 8. Gaz. 

BRADFORD, WILLIAM, attorney-general of 
the United States, died Aug. 23 t 1795. He was 
the son of the preceding, born in Philadelphia 
Sept. 14, 1755, and was early placed under the 
care of a respectable clergyman a few miles from 
the city. His father had formed the plan of 
bringing him up in the insurance office, which he 
then conducted ; but so strong was the love of 
learning implanted in the mind of his son, that 
neither persuasions, nor offers of pecuniary ad 
vantage, could prevail with him to abandon the 
hopes of a liberal education. He was graduated 
at Princeton college in 1772. During his resi 
dence at this seminary he was greatly beloved by 
his fellow students, while he confirmed the ex 
pectations of his friends and the faculty of the 
college by giving repeated evidence of genius and 
taste. At the public commencement he had one 
of the highest honors of the class conferred upon 
him. He continued at Princeton till the year fol 
lowing, during which time he had an opportunity 
of attending the lectures on theology of Dr. 

He now commenced the study of the law under 
Edward Shippen, and he prosecuted his studies 
with unwearied application. In the spring of 
1776 he was called upon by the peculiar circum 
stances of the times to exert himself in defence 
of the dearest rights of human nature, and to 
join the standard of his country in opposition to 
the oppressive exactions of Great Britain. When 
the militia were called out to form the flying camp, 
he was chosen major of brigade to Gen. llober- 
deau, and on the expiration of his term accepted 
a company in Col. Hampton s regiment of regu 
lar troops. He was soon promoted to the station 
of deputy muster-master-general, with the rank 
of licut.-colonel, in which office he continued about 
two years, till his want of health obliged him to 
resign his commission and return home. He now 
recommenced the study of the law, and in Sept., 
1779, was admitted to the bar of the supreme 
court. In Aug., 1780, he was appointed attorney- 
general of Pennsylvania. 

In 1784 he married the daughter of Elias 




Boudinot, of New Jersey, with whom he lived till 
his death in the exercise of every domestic virtue 
that adorns human nature. On the reformation 
of the courts of justice under the new constitution 
of Pennsylvania, he was solicited to accept the 
office of a judge of the supreme court, and was 
commissioned byGov. Mifflin, Aug. 22, 1791. In 
this station his indefatigable industry, unshaken 
integrity and correct judgment enabled liim to 
give general satisfaction. Here he had deter 
mined to spend a considerable part of his life ; 
but on the promotion of Edmund Randolph to 
the office of secretary of State, as successor of 
Mr. Jefferson, he was urged to accept the office 
of attorney-general of the United States, now left 
vacant. He accordingly received the appointment 
Jan. 28, 1794. But he continued only a short 
time in this station, to which he was elevated by 
Washington. He was succeeded by Mr. Lee, of 
Virginia. According to his express desire, he was 
buried by the side of his parents in the burial 
ground of the second Presbyterian church in 

Mr. Bradford possessed a mild and amiable 
temper, and his genteel and unassuming manners 
were united with genius, eloquence, and taste. 
As a public speaker he was persuasive and con 
vincing. He understood mankind well, and knew 
how to place his arguments in the most striking 
point of light. His language was pure and sen 
tentious ; and he so managed most of his forensic 
disputes, as scarcely ever to displease his oppo 
nents, while he gave the utmost satisfaction to his 
clients. He possessed great firmness of opinion, 
yet was remarkable for his modesty and caution 
in delivering his sentiments. Combining a quick 
and retentive memory and an excellent judgment 
with great equanimity and steadiness in his con 
duct, and a pleasing deportment, he conciliated 
respect and affection. Towards his country he 
felt the sincerest attachment, and her interests 
he preferred to every selfish consideration. His 
charities were secret, but extensive ; and none in 
distress were ever known to leave him with dis 
content. It is mentioned as a proof of his benev 
olence, that he adopted and educated as his own 
son an orphan child of Joseph Reed. His friend 
ships were few, but very affectionate, and those 
who aided him in his first setting out in life were 
never ungratefully forgotten. Though engaged 
constantly in public business, yet the concerns of 
this world did not make him regardless of the 
more important concerns of religion. He firmly 
believed the Christian system, for he had given it 
a thorough examination. By its incomparable 
rules he regulated his whole conduct, and on its 
promises he founded all his hopes of future hap 

In the earlier periods of his life he was not un 
acquainted with the walks of poetry, and some of 

his poetical productions, in imitation of the pasto 
rals of Shenstone, were published in the Phila 
delphia magazines. They were at the time held 
in high estimation. He published in 1793 an 
inquiry how far the punishment of death is nec 
essary in Pennsylvania, with notes and illustra 
tions, to which is added an account of the gaol 
and penitentiary house of Philadelphia, by Caleb 
Lownes. This Avork was written at the request 
of Gov. Mifflin, and was intended for the use of 
the legislature, in the nature of a report, they 
having the subject at large under their considera 
tion. Furnishing a proof of the good sense and 
philanthropy of the author, it gained him great 
credit. It had much influence in meliorating the 
criminal laws, and hastening the almost entire ab 
olition of capital punishments, not only in Penn 
sylvania, but in many other States, where the 
interests of humanity have at last prevailed over 
ancient and inveterate prejudices. Rees 1 Cycl. ; 
Hardie s Biog. Did. ; Marshall, V. 489, 639 ; 
Gaz. U. S., Aug. 24, 1795. 

BRADFORD, SUSAN, wife of the preceding, 
died in Burlington, X. J., Nov. 30, 1854, nearly 
90. Susan Vergereau was the eldest daughter of 
Elias Boudinot, born Dec. 21, 1764: her mother 
was Hannah Stockton, of Princeton, a daughter of 
John, a signer of the declaration of independence. 
Her father s great-grandfather was a Huguenot, 
who fled to England. She was married in 1784 
to Wm. Bradford, who died in 1795. A widow 
for the rest of her life, she lived in Burlington 
from 1805 till her death. Bishop Doane visited 
her daily the last twenty years. She was opulent 
and benevolent, and eminently pious. 

BRADFORD, THOMAS, died at Philadelphia in 
May, 1838, aged 94. He was an eminent printer, 
editor, and publisher, succeeding Franklin in 
1763 as printer to the continental congress. 

BRADFORD, ROBERT, major, died in Belpre, 
Ohio, in 1823, aged 73. He was born in 1750, 
the son of Robert, of Kingston ; and was a de 
scendant of the sixth generation from Gov. B. 
In the war of the Revolution he was a brave offi 
cer. The sword given him by Lafayette is in 
the hands of his only surviving son, O. L. Brad 
ford, of Wood county, Va. As an associate of 
the Ohio company, he removed to Marietta in 
1788. The next year he and other officers set 
tled Belpre, where he encountered the perils of 
the Indian scalping-knife. He was a worthy, 
cheerful, warm-hearted pioneer of the west. 
Hildreth s Bior/. Mem. relating to Ohio. 

BRADFORD, AXDKKW, died at Duxbury in 
Jan., 1837, aged 91 ; a descendant of Gov. B. He 
was a quartermaster in the Revolutionary army, 
a twin brother of Peter B., who died two years 

BRADFORD, JOHN, died Jan. 27, 1825, aged 
68. He was born in Boston Aug., 1750, gradu- 




ated at Harvard in 1774, and \vas ordained at 
Roxbury in May, 11 So. T. Gray wrote an obitu 
ary notice, with a sketch of the Roxbury churches, 

BRADFORD, ALDEN, died in Boston Oct. 26, 
1843, aged 78. He was born in Duxbury, the 
son of Gamaliel, was graduated in 1756, and a 
minister in Pownalborough, now Wiscasset, eight 
years. From 1812 to 1824 he was secretary of 
State of Massachusetts. He published a history 
of Mass, from 1764 to 1789, 2vols. ; from 1790 to 
1820; also two sermons on the doctrines of Christ, 
1794, at Hallowell ; eulogy on Washington ; ordi 
nation of N. Tilton, 1801 ; sermon at Plymouth ; 
oration, 1804; on death of Knox, 1806; biogra 
phy of C. Strong, 1820; on State rights, 1824; 
discourse, 1830 ; and account of Wiscasset and 
Duxbury in historical collections. 

BRADFORD, EBENKZER, minister of Rowley, 
a brother of Moses, died Jan. 3, 1801, aged 55. 
A graduate of Princeton in 1773, he was settled 
at R. in 1782, after living a few y ears in D anbury. 
His son, John Melancthon B., D. D., was a grad 
uate at Providence in 1800. His wife was a sister 
of Dr. Green, of Philadelphia. He published a 
sermon at the ordination of N.Howe, 1791; 
strictures on Dr. Langdon s remarks on Hopkins 
system, 1794 ; at a thanksgiving, also at a fast, 
1795 ; at the installation of J. 11. Stevens, 1795. 

BRADFORD, MOSES, died in Montague June 
13, 1838, aged 73. A descendant of Gov. Brad 
ford by his son AVilliam, he was born in Canter 
bury, Conn., the brother of Rev. E. B., of 
Rowley. He graduated at Dartmouth in 1785, 
and was from 1790 the minister of Francestown 
thirty-seven years, eminently useful, the church 
growing from fifty members to three or four hun 
dred. He had three sons, who were preachers. 

BRADFORD, EPHRAIM P., minister of New 
Boston, N. II. nearly forty years, died Dec. 14, 
1845 : a graduate of Harvard in 1803, and a dili 
gent laborer. 

BRADFORD, GAMALIEL, M. D., superintend 
ent of the Mass, general hospital, died in Boston 
Oct. 22, 1839, aged nearly 44; a descendant of 
"William B., and a graduate of 1814. He was an 
adversary of phrenology, and of slavery. He 
wrote eighty miscellaneous pieces ; among them 
an address on temperance ; a letter on slavery, 
and various reviews. A Memoir by Dr. Francis 
is in Hist. Coll. 3d series, vol ix. 

BRADLEY, SAMUEL, killed in the " Bradley 
massacre," was an early settler at Concord, N. H., 
then Rumford. On the llth Aug., 1746, as he 
was proceeding with six others to Hopkinton, the 
party was attacked by a hundred Indians a mile 
and a half from Concord village. Samuel Brad 
ley was killed and scaljx-d near the brook. To 
his brother, Jonathan Bradley, a lieutenant in 
Capt. Ladd s company, quarter was offered; but 

he refused it, and fought till he was hewed down 
with the tomahawk. Three others were killed : 
Alexander Roberts and William Stickney were 
made prisoners. Mr. Bradley was a young man ; 
his widow, who married Richard Calfe, of Ches- 
ter, died Aug. 10, 1817, aged 98. His son, John, 
who was two years old at the time of the mas 
sacre, was a very respectable citizen of Concord, 
and served in both branches of the legislature. 
He died July 5, 1815, aged 71, leaving sons, 
among whom was Samuel A. Bradley, of Frye- 
burg. Seven persons of the name of Bradley 
were killed by the Indians in Haverhill, Mass., in 
March, 1697 ; in 1704 a Mrs. Bradley, after kill 
ing an Indian by pouring boiling soap on him, 
was taken prisoner. Boutoris Cent. Disc.; 
Moore s Ann. of Concord ; Coll. Hist. Soc. s. s. 
IV. 129. 

BRADLEY, STEPHEN R., a senator of the 
United States, was born Oct. 20, 1754, in W r al- 
lingford, now Cheshire, Conn., and graduated 
at Yale college in 1775. He was the aid of 
Gen. Wooster, when that officer fell in a skirmish 
with the enemy. Removing to Vermont, he con 
tributed much to the establishment of that State. 
He was one of its first senators to congress, in 
which body he continued, with one intermission, 
until he retired from public life in 1812. He 
died at Walpole, N. H., Dec. 16, 1830, aged 76. 
He published Vermont s appeal, 1779, which has 
been sometimes ascribed to Ira Allen. 

BRADLEY, WILLIAM II., a poet, was born in 
Providence, R. I. After being educated as a phy 
sician, he went to Cuba, where he died in 1825. 
He published Giuseppino, an occidental story, 
1822 ; besides many fugitive pieces. Spec. Amer. 
Poet. II. 394, 398. 

BRADLEY, ABRAHAM, assistant postmaster 
general, died at Washington May 7, 1838. 

BRADLEY, PHL\EHAS, Dr., died at Washing 
ton Feb. 28, 1845, aged 75. Born at Litchfield, 
he practised physic at Painted Post, N. Y. ; but 
about 1800 accepted an appointment in the post 
office at Washington ; he was second assistant 

BRADLEY, JOSHUA, a Baptist minister, died 
at St. Paul, Minnesota, Nov. 22, 1855, aged 85. 
From his 20th year he was engaged in education 
and the ministry, rendering great services to the 
cause of religion. 

BRADLEY, EMILIE, wife of Dr. D. B. Brad 
ley, missionary to Siam, died at Bangkok Aug. 2, 
1845, aged 34. Her name was Emilie Royce, of 
Clinton, N. Y. She embarked July 2>, 1834, and 
had been ten years a missionary. Her end was 
remarkably peaceful, like that of many other 
missionaries. She was glad the Siamese could 
see how a Christian could die ; she wished them 
to judge which religion makes the soul most 
happy in the hour of death. 




BRADSTREET, SIMON, governor of Mass., 
the son of a nonconformist minister in England, 
died at Salem, March 27, 1697, aged 94. He 
was born at Ilorbling in Lincolnshire in March, 
1603. His father died when he was at the age of 
fourteen. But he was soon afterwards taken into 
the religious family of the Earl of Lincoln, in 
which he continued about eight years under the 
direction of Thomas Dudley, and among other 
offices sustained that of steward. He lived a 
year at Emanucl college, Cambridge, pursuing 
his studies amidst many interruptions. He then 
returned to the earl s; but soon accepted the 
place of steward in the family of the Countess of 
Warwick. Here he continued till he married a 
daughter of Mr. Dudley, and was persuaded to 
engage in the project of making a settlement in 
Massachusetts. He was in March, 1630, chosen 
assistant of the colony, which was about to be es 
tablished, and arrived at Salem in the summer of 
the same year. lie was at the first court, which 
was held at Charlestown Aug. 23. He was after- 
wards secretary and agent of Massachusetts, and 
commissioner of the united colonies. He was 
sent with Mr. Norton in 1662 to congratulate 
King Charles on liis restoration, and as agent of 
the colony to promote its interests. From 1673 
to 1679 he was deputy governor. In this last 
year he succeeded Mr. Leverett as governor, 
and remained in this office till, May, 1686, when 
the charter was dissolved, and Joseph Dudley 
commenced his administration as president of 
New England. In May, 1689, after the imprison 
ment of Andros, he was replaced in the oilice of 
governor, which station he held till the arrival of 
Sir William Phipps in May, 1692, with a charter 
which deprived the people of the right of elect 
ing their chief magistrate, lie had been fifty 
years an assistant of the colony. He had lived at 
Cambridge, Ipswich, Andover, Boston, and Salem. 

Gov. Bradstreet, though he possessed no splendid 
talents, yet by his integrity, prudence, moderation, 
and piety acquired the confidence of all classes of 
people. When King Charles demanded a sur 
render of the charter, he was in favor of comply 
ing ; and the event proved the correctness of his 
opinion. He thought it would be more prudent 
for the colonists to submit to a power which they 
could not resist, than to have judgment given 
against the charter, and thus their privileges be 
entirely cut off. If his moderation in regard to 
religious affairs, particularly towards the Anabap 
tists and the Quakers, was not so conspicuous, it 
was not a fault peculiar to him. Yet he had the 
good sense to oppose the witchcraft delusion. lie 
had eight children by his first wife, the daughter 
of governor Thomas Dudley, who wrote a volume 
of poems. His second wife, a sister of Sir George 
Downing, was the widow of Joseph Gardner, of 
Salem. His son, Simon, the minister of New 

London, graduated 1660, was ordained Oct. 5, 
1670, and died 168o. Another son, Major Dud 
ley B., was taken prisoner by the Indians with 
his wife at Andover in 1698. Mather s Magna- 
lia, II. 19, 20; Hutckinson, I. 18,219, 323; II. 
13, 105; Holmes, I. 466. 

BRADSTREET, ANNE, a poetess, was the 
daughter of Governor Dudley, and was born in 
1612 at Northampton, England. At the age of 
sixteen she married Mr. Bradstreet, afterwards 
governor of Massachusetts, and accompanied him 
to America in 1630. After being the mother of 
eight children, she died Sept. 16, 1672, aged 60. 

Her volume of poems was dedicated to her 
father, in a copy of verses dated March 20, 1642, 
and is probably the earliest poetic volume written 
in America. The title is : " Several Poems, com 
piled with great variety of wit and learning, full 
of delight ; wherein especially is contained a com 
plete discourse and description of the four ele 
ments, constitutions, ages of man, seasons of the 
year, together with an exact epitome of the three 
first monarchies, viz : the Assyrian, Persian, Gre 
cian, and Roman commonwealth, from the begin 
ning to the end of their last king, with divers 
other pleasant and serious poems. By a gentle 
woman of New England." A third edition was 
published in I7o8. Spec. Amer. Poet. Intr. XX.; 
American Quar. Rev. n. 494-496. 

BRADSTREET, SIMOX, minister of Charles- 
town, Mass., was graduated at Harvard college 
in 1693, and was ordained as successor of Mr. 
Morton, Oct. 26, 1698. He received J. Stephens 
as colleague in 1721, and Mr. Abbot as his col 
league in 1724. After a ministry of more than 
forty years, he died Dec. 31, 1741, aged 72. His 
successors were Abbot, Prentice, Paine, and 
Dr. Morse. He was a very learned man, of a 
strong mind, tenacious memory, and lively imagi 
nation. Lieut-Governor Taller introduced him to 
Governor Burnet, who was himself a fine scholar, 
by saying, here is a man who can whistle Greek ; 
and the governor afterwards spoke of him as one 
of the first literary characters and best preachers 
whom he had met with in America. Mr. Brad- 
street was subject to hypochondriacal complaints, 
which made him afraid to preach in the pulpit 
some years before he died. He delivered his ser 
mons in the deacon s seat, without notes, and they 
were in general melancholy effusions upon the 
wretched state of mankind and the vanity of the 
world. He possessed such a catholic spirit, that 
some of the more zealous brethren accused him 
of Arminianism ; but the only evidence of this 
was his fondness for Tillotson s sermons, and his 
being rather a practical than a doctrinal preacher. 
He seldom appeared with a coat, but always wore 
a plaid gown, and was generally seen with a pipe 
in his mouth. His Latin epitaph upon his prede 
cessor, Mr. Morton, has been preserved by the 




Mass. Hist. Society. Hist. Coll. VIII. 75 ; Bud- 

BRADSTREET, SIMON, minister of Marble- 
head, was the son of the preceding, and was 
graduated at Harvard college in 1728. He was 
ordained successor of Mr. Ilolyoke Jan. 4, 1738, 
and died Oct. 5, 1771; Isaac Story, who married 
his daughter, having been his colleague four or 
five months. lie was an excellent scholar, a most 
worthy and pious Christian, and faithful pastor ; 
laboring to bring his hearers to the love of God, 
the reception of the Saviour, and the practice of 
holiness. He published a sermon on the death 
of his brother Samuel, of Chaiiestown, 1755. 

BRADSTREET, JOHN, a major-general in 
America, appointed by the king of Great Britain, 
was in 1740 lieutenant-governor of St. John s, 
Newfoundland. lie was afterwards distinguished 
for his military services. It was thought of the 
highest importance in the year 1756 to keep open 
the communication with Fort Oswego on Lake 
Ontario. Gen. Shirley accordingly enlisted forty 
companies of boatmen, each consisting of fifty 
men, for transporting stores to the fort from 
Schenectady, and placed them under the command 
of Bradstrect, who was an active and vigilant 
officer, and inured to the hardships to which that 
service exposed him. In the beginning of the 
spring of this year a small stockaded post with 
twenty-five men, at the carrying place, was cut off. 
It became necessary to pass through the country 
with large squadrons of boats, as the enemy 
infested the passage through the Onondaga river. 
On his return from Oswego, July 3, 1756, Col. 
Bradstreet, who was apprehensive of being am 
bushed, ordered the several divisions to proceed as 
near each other as possible. He was at the head 
of about three hundred boatmen in the first 
division, when at the distance of nine miles from 
the fort the enemy rose from their ambuscade and 
attacked him. He instantly landed upon a small 
island and with but six men maintained his 
position, till he was reinforced. A general en 
gagement ensued, in which Bradstrect with 
gallantry rushed upon a more numerous enemy, 
and entirely routed them, killing and wounding 
about two hundred men. His own loss was 
about thirty. In the year 1758 he was intrusted 
with the command of three thousand men on an 
expedition against Fort Frontenac, which was 
planned by himself. He embarked at Oswego on 
Lake Ontario, and on the evening of Aug. 25th 
landed within a mile of the fort. On the 27th it 
was surrendered to him. Forty pieces of cannon 
and a vast quantity of provisions and merchandize, 
with one hundred and ten prisoners, fell into his 
hands. The fort and nine armed vessels and such 
stores as could not be removed, were destroyed. 
In August, 17G4, he advanced with a considerable 
force toward the Indian country, and at Presquc 

Isle compelled the Delawares, Shawanese, and 
other Indians to terms of peace. He was ap 
pointed major-general in May, 1772. After 
rendering important services to his country, he 
died at New York Oct. 21, 1774. Wynne, n. 
,59-61, 86-88; Ann. Beg. for 1764, 181 ; Holmes, 
II. 198; Marshall,!. 137,438; Coll. Hist. Soc., 
VII. 150, 155; Mante. 

BRADSTREET, STEPHEN I., died in Cleveland 
June 9, 1837, aged 42 ; pastor of the first church, 
then editor of the Ohio Observer and of the Cleve 
land Messenger; a graduate of Dartmouth, 1819. 

BRADY, HUGH, major-general, died in Detroit 
April 15, 1851, aged 83. Born in Pennsylvania, 
he entered the army in 1792, and served under 
Wayne against the Indians. At the battle of 
Chippewa he headed his regiment. From 1825 
he was stationed at Detroit. A life of rigid 
temperance and regular activity gave him an 
elastic step in old age. lie had a pure and 
upright character. 

was the son of Judge Jeremiah G. Brainard of 
Xew London, Conn., died Sept. 26, 1828, aged 
32. He was born about the year 1797. He was 
graduated in 1815 at Yale college. Though his 
name differs in one letter from that of the 
celebrated missionary, yet probably they had a 
common ancestor. Indeed his name, in a catalogue 
of the college, is given Urainerd, while that of 
John, a brother of David, is printed Brainard. 
These are probably both mistakes. Autograph 
letters of David and John in my possession 
present the form of Braincrd ; the other form of 
the name being adopted by the poet and his 
father, I do not feel authorized to change it for the 
sake of uniformity. Brainard studied law and 
commenced the practice at Midclletown ; but not 
finding the success which he desired, in 1822 he 
undertook the editorial charge of the Connecticut 
Mirror at Hartford. Thus he was occupied about 
seven years, until, being marked as a victim for the 
consumption, he returned about a year before his 
death to his father s house. 

He was an excellent editor of the paper, which 
he conducted, enriching it with his poetical pro 
ductions, which have originality, force, and paLhos, 
and with many beautiful prose compositions, and 
refraining from that personal abuse, which many 
editors seem to think essential to their vocation. 
In this respect his gentlemanly example is worthy 
of being followed by the editorial corps. He, 
who addresses himself every week or every day to 
thousands of readers, sustains a high responsibility. 
If, destitute of good breeding and good principles, 
he is determined to attract notice by the person 
alities, for which there is a greedy appetite in the 
community ; if he yields himself a slave to the 
party which he espouses, and toils for it by con 
tumelies upon his opponents ; if, catching the 




spirit of an infuriated zealot, and regardless of 
truth and honor, he scatters abroad his malignant 
slanders and inflammatory traducements ; then, 
instead of a wise and benevolent teacher and 
guide, he presents himself as a sower of discord 
and a minister of evil. 

When he was a member of Yale college in 
1815, during a revival of religion, he was deeply 
impressed with his sin and danger; but his 
religious sensibility soon diminished, and the world 
occupied again his thoughts, though spcculatively 
he assented to the truths of the gospel. Thus he 
lived twelve or thirteen years, till a few months 
before his death. Then, at his father s house, 
during his decay by the consumption, he spent his 
days and evenings in reading religious books and 
in pious meditations. To his minister, Mr. 
McEwen, he said, " This plan of salvation in the 
gospel is all that I want ; it lills me with wonder 
and gratitude, and makes the prospect of death 
not only peaceful, but joyous." Pale and feeble, 
he went to the house of God, and made a pro 
fession of religion and was baptized. The next 
Sabbath, as he could not attend meeting, the 
Lord s supper was administered at his room. His 
last remark to his minister was, " I am willing to 
die ; I have no righteousness, but Christ and his 
atonement are enough. God is a God of truth, 
and I think I am reconciled to him." The change 
experienced by the renovated, pardoned sinner, is 
described by him in the following lines : 

" All sights are fair to the recovered blind ; 
All sounds are music to tho deaf restored ; 
The lame, made whole, leaps like the sportive hind ; 
And the sad, bow d down sinner, with his loud 
Of shame and sorrow, when he cuts the cord, 
And leaves his pack behind, is free again 
In the light yoke and burden of his Lord." 

He published Occasional pieces of poetry, 12mo., 
1825. Specimens Amer. Poetry, ill. 198-212; 
Ilawes 1 Sermon. 

BllAIXERD, DAVID, an eminent preacher and 
missionary to the Indians, died at Northampton 
Oct. 9, 1747, aged 29; his gravestone by mistake 
says Oct. 10. lie was born at Iladdam, Conn., 
April 20, 1718. His grandfather was Deac on 
Daniel B., who was born in Braintree, Essex, 
England, and who settled in Iladdam about 1GGO, 
and died in 1715. He came to this country at 
the age of eight, in the Wyllys family, about 
1649 ; bis wife was Hannah, daughter of Jared 
Spencer. His father, Ilezekiah Brainerd, was au 
assistant of the colony, or a member of the 
council, who died when his son was about nine 
years of age ; his mother, Dorothy, the daughter 
of Ilev. Jeremiah llobart, and widow of D. 
Mason, died when he was fourteen years of age. 
His elder brother, Ilezekiah, was a representative 
of Iladdam ; and his brother Xehcmiah, who 
died in 1742, was a minister in Glastenbury. His 
sister, Martha, married Gen. Joseph Spencer, of 

East Iladdam. As his mind was early impressed 
by the truths of religion, he took delight in read 
ing those books which communicate religious 
instruction ; he called upon the name of God in 
secret prayer ; he studied the Scriptures with 
great diligence ; and he associated with several 
young persons for mutual encouragement and 
assistance in the paths of wisdom. But in all this 
he aftenvards considered himself as self-righteous, 
as completely destitute of true piety, as governed 
by the fear of future punishment and not by the 
love of God, as depending for salvation upon his 
good feelings and his strict life, without a per 
ception of the necessity and the value of the 
mediation of Christ. At this time he indeed 
acknowledged, that he deserved nothing for his 
best works, for the theory of salvation was 
familiar to him ; but while he made the acknowl 
edgment, he did not feel what it implied. lie 
still secretly relied upon the warmth of his affec 
tions, upon his sincerity, upon some quality in 
himself, as the ground of acceptance with God ; 
instead of relying upon the Lord Jesus, through 
whom alone there is access to the Father. At 
length lie was brought under a deep sense of his 
sinfulncss, and he perceived, that there was 
nothing <:ood in himself. This conviction was not 
a sudden perturbation of mind ; it was a perma 
nent impression, made by the view of his own 
character, when compared with that holy law of 
God, which he was bound to obey. But the 
discovery was unwelcome and irritating. He 
could not readily abandon the hope, which rested 
upon his religious exercises. He was reluctant to 
admit, that the principle, whence all his actions 
proceeded, was entirely corrupt. He was opposed 
to the strictness of the Divine law, which extended 
to the heart as well as to the life. He murmured 
against the doctrines, that faith was indispensably 
necessary to salvation, and that faith was com 
pletely the gift of God. He was irritated in not 
finding any way pointed out, which would lead 
him to the Saviour; in not finding any means 
prescribed, by which an unrenewcd man could of 
his own strength obtain that, which the highest 
angel could not give. He was unwilling to 
j believe, that he was dead in trespasses and in 
sins. But these unpleasant truths were fastened 
I upon his mind, and they could not be shaken oft . 
It pleased God to disclose to him his true character 
and condition, and to quell the tumult of his soul, 
lie saw that lus schemes to save himself were 
entirely vain, and must forever be ineffectual ; he 
perceived that it was self-interest which had 
before led him to pray, and that he had never 
once .prayed from any respect to the glory of 
God; he felt that he was lost. In this state of 
mind, while he was walking in a solitary, place in 
the evening of July 12, 1739, meditating upon 
religious subjects, his mind was illuminated with 




completely new views of the Divine perfections ; 
he perceived a glory in the character of God and 
in the way of salvation by the crucified Son of the 
Most High, which he never before discerned ; 
and he was led to depend upon Jesus Christ for 
righteousness, and to seek the glory of God as 
his principal object. 

In September, 1739, he was admitted a mem 
ber of Yale college, but he was expelled in Feb 
ruary, 1742. The circumstances which led to this 
expulsion were these : There had been great 
attention to religion in the college, and Mr. 
Braincrd, whose feelings were naturally warm, 
and whose soul was interested in the progress of 
the gospel, was misled by an intemperate zeal, 
and was guilty of indiscretions, which at that 
time were not unfrequcnt. In a conversation 
with some of his associates he expressed his be 
lief, that one of the tutors was destitute of 
religion. Being in part overheard, his associates 
were compelled by the rector to declare, respect 
ing whom he was speaking ; and he was required 
to make a public confession in the hall. Braincrd 
thought, that it was unjust to extort from his 
friends what he had uttered in conversation, and 
that the punishment was too severe. As he re 
fused to make the confession, and as he had been 
guilty of going to a separate meeting after pro 
hibition by the authority of college, he was 
expelled. In the circumstances, which led to this 
result, there appears a strong disposition to hunt 
up offences against the " New Lights," as those 
who were attached to the preaching of Mr. Whit- 
field and Tcnnent, were then called. It was not so 
strange that a young man should have been in 
discreet, as that he should confess himself to have 
been so. Mr. Brainerd afterwards perceived that 
he had been uncharitable and had done wrong, 
and with sincerity and humility he acknowledged 
his error and exhibited a truly Christian spirit ; 
but he never obtained his degree. Though he 
felt no resentment, and ever lamented his own 
conduct ; yet he always considered himself as 
abused in the management of this affair. 

In the spring of 1742 he went to llipton, to 
pursue the study of divinity under the care of 
Mr. Mills ; and at the end of July was licensed to 
preach, by the association of ministers which met 
at Danbury, after they had made inquiries re 
specting his learning, and his acquaintance with 
experimental religion. Soon after he began his 
theological studies, he was desirous of preaching 
the gospel to the heathen, and frequently prayed 
for them. In November, after he was licensed, 
he was invited to go to New York, and was ex 
amined by the correspondents of the society for 
propagating Christian knowledge, and was ap 
pointed by them a missionary to the Indians. 

He arrived on the first of April, 1743, at Kau- 
nameek, an Indian village in the woods between 

Stockbridge, in the State of Massachusetts, and 
Albany, at the distance of about twenty miles 
from the former place and fifteen miles from 
Kinderhook. lie now began his labors at the 
age of twenty-five, and continued in this place 
about a year. At first he lived in a wigwam 
among the Indians ; but he afterwards built him 
self a cabin, that he might be alone, when not 
employed in preaching and instructing the savages. 
lie lodged upon a bundle of straw, and his food 
was principally boiled corn, hasty pudding, and 
samp. With a feeble body, and frequent illness, 
and great depression of mind, he was obliged to 
encounter many discouragements, and to submit 
to hardships, which would be almost insupporta 
ble by a much stronger constitution. But he 
persisted in his benevolent labors, animated by 
the hope that he should prove the means of 
illuminating some darkened mind with the truth 
as it is in Jesus. Besides his exertions, which 
had immediate reference to the instruction of the 
savages, he studied much, and employed much 
time in the delightful employment of communing 
in the wilderness with that merciful Being, who 
is present in all places, and who is the support 
and joy of all Christians. When the Indians at 
Kaunamcek had agreed to remove to Stockbridge 
and place themselves under the instruction of 
Mr. Sergeant, Mr. Brainerd left them and bent 
his attention towards the Delaware Indians. 

He was ordained at Newark in New Jersey by 
a Presbytery, June 12, 1744, on which occasion 
Mr. Pemberton of New York preached a sermon. 
He soon afterwards went to the new field of his 
labors, near the forks of the Delaware in Penn 
sylvania, and continued there a year, making two 
visits to the Indians on Susquehannah river. He 
again built him a cabin for retirement ; but here 
he had the happiness to find some white people, 
with whom he maintained family prayer. After 
the hardships of his abode in this place, with but 
little encouragement from the effect of his exer 
tions, he visited the Indians at Crosweeksung, 
near Freehold in New Jersey. In this village he 
was favored with remarkable success. The Spirit 
of God seemed to bring home effectually to the 
hearts of the ignorant heathens the truths, which 
he delivered to them with affection and zeal. 
His Indian interpreter, who had been converted 
by his preaching, cooperated cheerfully in the 
good work. It was not uncommon for the whole 
congregation to be in tears, or to be crying out 
under a sense of sin. In less than a year Mr. 
Brainerd baptized seventy-seven persons, of whom 
thirty-eight were adults, that gave satisfactory 
evidence of having been renovated by. the power 
of God ; and he beheld with unspeakable pleasure 
between twenty and thirty of his converts seated 
around the table of the Lord. The Indians were 
at the time entirely reformed in their lives. They 




were very humble and devout, and united in Chris 
tian affection. In a letter, dated Dec. 30, 1745, he 
says : " The good work which you will find largely 
treated of in my journal, still continues among 
the Indians ; though the astonishing Divine influ 
ence, that has been among them, is in a consider 
able measure abated. Yet there are several in 
stances of persons newly awakened. When I 
consider the doings of the Lord among these 
Indians, and then take a view of my journal, I 
must say, t is a faint representation I have given 
of them." Nor is there any evidence, that he 
misjudged. The lives of these Indian converts 
in subsequent years, under John Brainerd and 
William Tennent, were, in general, holy and ex 
emplary, furnishing evidence of the sincerity of 
their faith in the gospel. 

In the summer of 1746 Mr. Brainerd visited 
the Indians on the Susquehannah, and on his 
return in September found himself worn out by 
the hardships of his journey. His health was 
so much impaired, that he was able to preach 
but Kttle more. Being advised in the spring of 
1747 to travel in New England, he went as far 
as Boston, and returned in July to Northampton, 
where, in the family of Jonathan Edwards, he 
passed the remainder of his days. He gradually 
declined till Tuesday, Oct. 9, 1747, when, after 
suffering inexpressible agony, he entered upon 
that rest which remaineth for the faithful ser 
vants of God. 

Mr. Brainerd was a man of vigorous powers 
of mind. While he was favored with a quick 
discernment and ready invention, with a strong 
memory and natural eloquence, he also possessed 
in an uncommon degree the penetration, the 
closeness and force of thought, and the sound 
ness of judgment which distinguish the man of 
talents from him who subsists entirely upon the 
learning of others. His knowledge was exten 
sive, and he added to his other attainments an 
intimate acquaintance with human nature, gained 
not only by observing others, but by carefully 
noticing the operations of his own mind. As he 
was of a sociable disposition, and could adapt 
himself with great ease to the different capacities, 
tempers, and circumstances of men, he was re 
markably fitted to communicate instruction. He 
was very free, and entertaining, and useful in his 
ordinary discourse; and he was also an able 
disputant. As a preacher he was perspicuous 
and instructive, forcible, close, and pathetic. He 
abhorred an affected boistcrousness in the pulpit, 
and yet he could not tolerate a cold delivery, 
when the subject of discourse was such as should 
warm the heart, and produce an earnestness of 

His knowledge of theology was uncommonly 
extensive and accurate. President Edwards, 
whose opinion of Mr. Brainerd was founded upon 


an intimate acquaintance with him, says, that 
" He never knew his equal, of his age and stand 
ing, for clear, accurate notions of the nature and 
essence of true religion, and its distinctions from 
its various false appearances." Mr. Brainerd had 
no charity for the religion of those, who, indulging 
the hope that they were interested in the Divine 
mercy, settled down in a state of security and 
negligence. He believed that the good man 
would be continually making progress towards 
perfection, and that conversion was not merely a 
great change in the views of the mind and the 
affections of the heart, produced by the Spirit of 
God ; but that it was the beginning of a course 
of holiness, which through the Divine agency 
would be pursued through life. From the ardor 
with which he engaged in missionary labors, some 
may be led to conclude, that his mind was open 
to the influence of fanaticism. During his resi 
dence at college, his spirit was indeed somewhat 
tinged with the zeal of bitterness ; but it was not 
long before he was restored to true benevolence 
and the pure love of the truth. From this time 
he detested enthusiasm in all its forms. He rep 
robated all dependence upon impulses, or im 
pressions on the imagination, or the sudden sug 
gestion of texts of Scripture. He withstood every 
doctrine which seemed to verge towards antino- 
mianism, particularly the sentiments of those who 
thought that faith consists in believing, that Christ 
died for them in particular, and who founded their 
love of God, not upon the excellence of his char 
acter, but upon the previous impression that they 
were the objects of his favor, and should assuredly 
be saved. He rebuffed the pride and presumption 
of laymen, who thrust themselves forth as public 
teachers and decried human learning and a learned 
ministry ; he detested the spirit, Avhich generally 
influenced the Separatists through the country; 
and he was entirely opposed to that religion, 
which was fond of noise and show, and delighted 
to publish its experiences and privileges. Very 
different from the above was the religion which 
Mr. Brainerd approved, and which he displayed 
in his own life. In his character were combined 
the most ardent and pure love to God and the 
most unaffected benevolence to man, an alienation 
from the vain and perishable pursuits of the world, 
the most humbling and constant sense of lu s own 
iniquity, which was a greater burden to him than 
all his afflictions, great brokenness of heart before 
God for the coldness of his love and the imper 
fection of his Christian virtues, the most earnest 
breathings of soul after holiness, real delight in 
the gospel of Jesus Christ, sweet complacence in 
all his disciples, incessant desires and importunate 
prayers that men might be brought to the knowl 
edge and the obedience of the truth, and that 
thus God might be glorified and the kingdom of 
Christ advanced, great resignation to the will of 




his heavenly Father, an entire distrust of his own 
heart and a universal dependence upon God, the 
absolute renunciation of everything for his Re 
deemer, the most clear and abiding views of the 
things of the eternal world, a continual warfare 
against sin, and the most unwearied exertion of 
all his powers in the service and in obedience to 
the commands of the Most High. He believed that 
the essence of true religion consists in the confor 
mity of the soul to God, in acting above all selfish 
\iews, for his glory, desiring to please and honor 
him in all things, and that from a view of his excel 
lency, and worthiness in himself to be loved, adored, 
and obeyed by all intelligent creatures. When 
this divine temper is wrought in the soul by the 
special influences of the Holy Spirit, discovering 
the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ, he 
believed that the Author of all good could not 
but delight in his own image, and would most 
certainly complete his own work, which he had 
begun in the human heart. His religion did not 
consist in speculation ; but he carried his own 
principles into practice. Resisting the solicita 
tions of selfishness, he consecrated his powers to 
the high and benevolent objects, enjoined in the 
Sci-iptures. It was his whole aim to promote in 
the most effectual manner the glory of his Re 
deemer. After the termination of a year s fruit 
less mission at Kaunamcek, where he had suffered 
the greatest hardships, he was invited to become 
the minister of East Hampton, one of the best 
parishes on Long Island ; but though he was not 
insensible to the pleasures of a quiet and fixed 
abode, among Christian friends, in the midst of 
abundance ; yet, without the desire of fame, he 
preferred the dangers and sufferings of a new 
mission among savages. He loved his Saviour, 
and wished to make known his precious name 
among the heathen. 

In his last illness and during the approaches of 
death he was remarkably resigned and composed. 
He spoke of that willingness to die, which origi 
nates in the desire of escaping pain, and in the 
hope of obtaining pleasure or distinction in 
heaven, as very ignoble. The heaven, which he 
seemed to anticipate, consisted in the love and 
sendee of God. " It is impossible," said he, " for 
any rational creature to be happy without acting 
all for God. I long to be in heaven, praising and 
glorifying him with the angels. There is nothing 
in the world worth living for, but doing good and 
finishing God s work; doing the work, which 
Christ did. I see nothing else in the world, that 
can yield any satisfaction, besides living to God, 
pleasing him, and doing his whole will. My 
greatest comfort and joy has been to do some 
thing for promoting the interests of religion, and 
for the salvation of the souls of particular per 
sons." When he was about to be separated for 
ever from the earth, his desires seemed to be as 

eager as ever for the progress of the gospel. He 
spoke much of the prosperity of Zion, of the in 
finite importance of the work which was committed 
to the ministers of Jesus Christ, and of the ne 
cessity, which was imposed upon them, to be 
constant and earnest in prayer to God for the 
success of their exertions. A little while before 
his death he said to Mr. Edwards : " My thoughts 
have been much employed on the old, dear theme, 
the prosperity of God s church on earth. As I 
waked out of sleep, I was led to cry for the pour 
ing out of God s Spirit and the advancement of 
Christ s kingdom, which the dear Redeemer did 
and suffered so much for ; it is tin s especially 
which makes me long for it." He felt at this time 
a peculiar concern for his own congregation of 
Christian Indians. Eternity was before him with 
all its interests. " T is sweet to me," said he, "to 
think of eternity. But O, what shall I say to 
the eternity of the wicked ! I cannot mention it, 
nor think of it. The thought is too dreadful ! " 
In answer to the inquiry, how he did, he said : " I 
am almost in eternity ; I long to be there. My 
work is done. I have done with all my friends. 
All the world is now nothing to me. O, to be 
in heaven, to praise and glorify God with his holy 
angels ! " At length, after the trial of his pa 
tience by the most excruciating sufferings, his 
spirit was released from its tabernacle of clay, and 
entered those mansions which the Lord Jesus 
hath prepared for all his faithful disciples. 

The exertions of Mr. Brainerd in the Chris 
tian cause were of short continuance, but they 
were intense, and incessant, and effectual. One 
must be either a very good or a very bad man, 
who can read his life without blushing for himself. 
If ardent piety and enlarged benevolence, if the 
supreme love of God and the inextinguishable 
desire of promoting his glory in the salvation of 
immortal souls, if persevering resolution in the 
midst of the most pressing discouragements, if 
cheerful self-denial and unremitted labor, if hu 
mility and zeal for godliness, united with conspic 
uous talents, render a man worthy of remem 
brance; the name of Brainerd will not soon be 

He published a narrative of his labors at Kaun- 
ameek, annexed to Mr. Pembcrton s sermon at 
his ordination; and his journal, or an account of 
the rise and progress of a remarkable work of 
grace amongst a number of Indians in New Jer 
sey and Pennsylvania, with some general remarks, 
1746. This work, which is very interesting, and 
which displays the piety and talents of the author, 
was published by the commissioners of the soci 
ety in Scotland, with a preface by them, and an 
attestation by W. Tennent and Mr. McKnight. 
His life, written by President Edwards, is com 
piled chiefly from his own diary. Annexed to it 
are some of his letters and other writings. It is a 




book which is well calculated to enkindle a flame 
of benevolence and piety in the breast. A new 
edition of his memoirs was published in 1822 by 
Sereno Edwards Dwight, including his journal. 
Mr. Edwards had omitted the already printed 
journals, which had been published in two parts: 
the first, from June 19 to Nov. 4, 1745, entitled 
Mirabilia Dei inter Indices ; the second, from Nov. 
24, 1745, to June 19, 1746, with the title, Divine 
grace displayed, &c. These journals Mr. Dwight 
has incorporated in a regular chronological series 
with the rest of the diary, as alone given by Ed 
wards. Brainerd s Life; his Journal; Ed 
wards 1 Fun. Sermon ; Middleton s Bio(j. Evang. 
IV. 262-264 ; Assembly Miss. Mag. n. 449-452 ; 
Boston Recorder, 1824, p. 196. 

BRAINERD, JOHN, a missionary, brother of 
the preceding, died about 1780. He was graduated 
at Yale college in 1746, and was a trustee of 
Princeton college from 1754 to 1780. The Indian 
congregation of his brother being removed from 
Crosweeksung or Crosweeks to Cranberry, not 
far distant, he succeeded his brother in the mis 
sion about the year 1748. His efforts were inces 
sant for their good ; but he had to encounter 
great difficulties. A drunken Indian sold their 
lands ; the greedy government of New Jersey 
was hostile to the tribe ; and Mr. Brainerd, unable 
to support a schoolmaster, endeavored himself, 
amidst numerous avocations, to teach them the 
elements of learning as well as the truths of re 
ligion. The place of his residence in 1754 was 
Bethel, whence he wrote to Dr. Wheelock : " It 
belongs to thousands to endeavor to Christianize 
the Indians, as well as to us. It is as really their 
duty, and would be every way as much to their 
advantage, as ours. If the country in general 
were but sensible of their obligation, how would 
they exert themselves, how freely would they dis 
burse of their substance, and what pains would 
they take to accomplish this great and good 
work?" About 1755 Wm. Tennent succeeded 
him. In 1763 he lived at Great Egg Harbor. 
In 1772 he lived at Brotherton, N. J. 

BRAXT, JOSEPH, a famous Indian chief, was at 
the head of the sk nations, so called, in the State 
of X T ew York. Each of these was divided into 
three or more tribes, called the turtle tribe, the 
wolf tribe, the bear tribe. He was a Mohawk of 
pure Indian blood. His father, Brant, a chief, 
was denominated an Onondaga Indian, and about 
the year 1756 had three sons in Sir Wm. John 
son s army. Young Brant was sent by Sir Wil 
liam to Dr. Wheelock s Indian charity school at 
Lebanon Crank, now the town of Columbia, Con 
necticut ; and after he had been there educated, 
employed him in public business. His Indian 
name was Thayendancga. About the year 1762 
Rev. Charles J. Smith, a missionary to the Mo 
hawks, took Brant as his interpreter ; but the Avar 

obliging him to return, Brant remained and went 
out with a company against the Indians, behaving 
"so much like the Christian and the soldier, that 
he gained great esteem." In 1765 his house was 
an asylum for the missionaries in the wilderness, 
and he exerted himself for the religious instruc 
tion of his poor Indian brethren. In 1775 he 
visited England ; and it was there perceived, of 
course, after the education he had received, that 
he spoke and wrote the English language with 
tolerable accuracy. In the war, which commenced 
in that year, he attached himself to the British 
cause. The barbarities attending the memorable 
destruction of the beautiful settlement of Wyo 
ming, in July, 1778, have been ascribed to him by 
the writers of American history and by Camp 
bell in his poem, Gertrude of Wyoming ; but 
Brant was not present in that massacre ; the In 
dians were commanded by Col. John Butler, a 
tory and refugee, whose heart was more ferocious 
than that of any savage. Col. Brant, however, 
was the undisputed leader of the band, which in 
July, 1779, destroyed the settlement of Minisink 
in Orange county, New York, a few miles from 
West Point. In June he left Niagara with about 
three hundred warriors of the six nations and a 
number of tories, for the purpose of destroying 
the settlements upon the Delaware river. On the 
20th of July he appeared on the west of Mini- 
sink and sent down a party, which, after destroy 
ing the settlement, returned with their booty to 
the main body at Grassy-swamp brook. The next 
day one hundred and twenty men assembled under 
the command of a physician, Col. Tusten, and 
marched seventeen miles toward the enemy. In 
the morning of July 22d, Col. Hathorn arrived 
and took the command, and in a short time the 
battle commenced and lasted the whole day. 
The fire was irregular, from behind trees and 
rocks, both by the Indians and Americans, every 
man fighting in his own way. Brant and his whole 
force were engaged. About sunset our troops, hav 
ing expended their ammunition, retreated and were 
pursued by the savages. Dr. Tusten, in a nook 
of rocks, had dressed the wounds of seventeen 
men, whose cries for protection and mercy, when 
they heard the retreat ordered, were piercing to 
the soul ; but they all perished, with Dr. Tusten, 
under the Indian tomahawk. On this day forty- 
four Americans fell, some of whom were the pride 
and flower of the village of Goshen. Among 
them were Jones, Little, Duncan, Wisner, Vail, 
Townsend, and Knapp. Major Poppino, who 
escaped, lived to nearly one hundred years, and 
was present with an assemblage of ten or twelve 
thousand people, when their bones were buried 
July 22, 1822. After the peace of 1783 Brant 
visited England, and passed the remainder of his 
life in Upper Canada. In 1785 he in self-de 
fence killed one of his sons, who in a fit of 



drunkenness had attempted his life; in conse 
quence of this act he resigned his commission of 
captain in the British service, and surrendered 
himself to justice ; but Lord Dorchester, the gov 
ernor, would not accept his resignation. He sent 
his two sons, Joseph and Jacob, in 1801, to the 
care of President Wheelock, of Dartmouth col 
lege, to be educated in Moor s school. He died 
at his seat in Upper Canada, at the head of Lake 
Ontario, Nov. 24, 1807, aged 65. His daughter 
married Win. J. Kerr, Esq., of Niagara, in 1824. 

His son, John, an Indian chief, was in England 
in 1822, and placed before the poet, Campbell, 
documents to prove that his father was not pres 
ent at the massacre at Wyoming, and that he was 
in fact a man of humanity. After reading them 
Campbell published a letter, in which he recanted 
the charges of ferocity, advanced in his Gertrude ; 
but he assigns rather an inadequate reason for 
this change in the estimate of his character, 
namely, that Brant enjoyed the friendship of 
some high-minded British officers, which would 
not have been the case, had he been ferocious, 
and destitute of amiable qualities. In the war of 
the Revolution he was doubtless the leader of 
savages, who took delight in scalps ; he was un 
deniably in command, when the wounded of Min- 
isink were butchered ; yet the slaughter may have 
occurred entirely without his orders. Probably 
his subsequent intercourse with civilized men and 
reading the New Testament may have softened 
his character. I am able to state, on the author 
ity of his son Joseph, that as he lay in his bed 
and looked at the sword hanging up in his bed 
room, with which he had killed his son, he was 
accustomed to cry in the sorrow of his heart. He 
once proposed to write a history of the six na 
tions. He published the book of common prayer 
and the gospel of Mark, in the Mohawk and 
English languages, 8vo. London, 1787. The 
gospel according to St. John, in Mohawk, entitled 
Nene Karighwiysoston tsinihorighhote-n ne Saint 
John, which is ascribed to him in the Cambridge 
catalogue, was the w~ork of the chief, John Norton ; 
it is without date, but was printed at London in 
1807 or 1808 by the British and foreign Bible so 
ciety, in an edition of two thousand copies. 
Holmes, II. 292, 302; Mass. Hist. Coll. X. 154; 
Phil. Trans. LXXVI. 231; Panoplist, m. 323, 
324 ; Weld s Trav. II. 297 ; Wheelock s Narra 
tive ; Eastern Argus, May 7, 1822. 

BRATTLE, THOMAS, a respectable merchant 
of Boston, was born Sept. 5, 1657, and was grad 
uated at Harvard college in 1676, and was after 
wards treasurer of that institution. He was a 
principal founder of the church in Brattle street, 
of which Dr. Colman was the first minister. His 
death occurred May 18, 1713, in the fifty-sixth 
year of his age. He was brother-in-law of Mr. 
Pemberton. Seyeral of his communications on 


astronomical subjects were published in the philo 
sophical transactions. He wrote an excellent let 
ter, giving an account of the witchcraft delusion 
in 1692, which is preserved in the Hist. Collec- 
lections. Holmes, I. 511; Colman s Life, 42; 
Coll. Hist. Soc. v. 61-79. 

BRATTLE, WILLIAM, minister of Cambridge, 
Mass., brother of the preceding, died Feb. 15, 
1717, aged 54. He was born in Boston about the 
year 1662, and was graduated at Harvard college 
in 1680. lie was afterwards for several years a 
tutor and fellow of that seminary. He exerted 
himself to form his pupils to virtue and the fear 
of God, punishing vice with the authority of a 
master, and cherishing every virtuous disposition 
with parental goodness. When the small pox 
prevailed in the college, he was not driven away 
in terror ; but with benevolent courage remained 
at his post, and visited the sick, both that he might 
administer to them relief, and might impress 
upon them those truths which were necessary to 
their salvation. As he had never experienced 
the disease, he now took it in the natural way ; 
for the practice of inoculation had not been intro 
duced into America. But the course of the dis 
order was mild, and he was soon restored to his 
usual health. He was ordained pastor of the 
church in Cambridge, as successor of Mr. Gookin, 
Nov. 25, 1696, and after a useful ministry of 
twenty years was succeeded by Dr. Appleton. 
His funeral was attended Feb. 20, a day memora 
ble for the great snow which then commenced, 
and which detained for several days at Cambridge 
the magistrates and ministers, who were assem 
bled on the occasion. The snow was six feet 
deep in some parts of the streets of Boston. 

Mr. Brattle was a very religious, good man, an 
able divine, and an excellent scholar. Such was 
his reputation for science, that he was elected a 
fellow of the royal society. He was polite and 
affable, compassionate and charitable. Having a 
large estate, he distributed of his abundance with 
a liberal hand ; but his charities were secret and 
silent. His pacific spirit and his moderation were 
so conspicuous, as to secure to him the respect of 
all denominations. So remarkable was his pa 
tience under injuries, and such a use did he make 
of the troubles of life, that he was heard to ob 
serve, that he knew not how he could have spared 
any of his trials. Uniting courage with his hu 
mility, he was neither bribed by the favor, nor 
overawed by the displeasure of any man. He 
was a man of great learning and abilities, and at 
once a philosopher and a divine. But he placed 
neither learning nor religion in unprofitable spec 
ulations, but in such solid and substantial truth, 
as improves the mind and is beneficial to the 
world. The promotion of religion, learning, vir 
tue, and peace was the great object, in which he 
was constantly employed. As he possessed pen- 


etration and a sound judgment, his counsel was 
often sought and highly respected. Such was his 
regard to the interests of literature, that he be 
queathed to Harvard college 250 pounds, besides 
a much greater sum in other charitable and pious 
legacies. With regard to his manner of preach 
ing, Dr. Colman, comparing him and Mr. Pember- 
ton, who died about the same time, observes : 
" They performed the public exercises in the 
house of God with a great deal of solemnity, 
though in a manner somewhat different ; for Mr. 
Brattle was all calm, and soft, and melting; but 
Mr. Pemberton was all flame, zeal, and earnest 
ness." The death of this good man, after a lan 
guishing disease, was peaceful and serene. 

He published a system of logic, entitled, " com 
pendium logicte secundum principia D. Renati 
Cartesii plerumque efformatum et catechistice pro- 
positum." It was held in high estimation, and 
long recited at Harvard college. An edition of 
it was published in the year 1758. Holmes Hist. 
Cambridge; Coll. Hist. Soc. VII. 32, 5.3-59 ; X. 
168; Holmes, II. 94; Boston News-Letter, No. 

BRATTLE, WILLIAM, a man of extraordinary 
talents and character, the son of the preceding, 
died in Oct., 1776, aged about 75. He was grad 
uated at Harvard college in 1722. He was a 
representative of Cambridge in the general court, 
and was long a member of the council. He 
studied theology and preached with acceptance. 
His eminence as a lawyer drew around him an 
abundance of clients. As a physician his practice 
was extensive and celebrated. He was also a 
military man, and obtained the appointment of 
major-general of the militia. While he secured 
the favor of the governor of the State, he also in 
gratiated himself with the people. In his conduct 
there were many eccentricities. He was attached 
to the pleasures of the table. At the commence 
ment of the American Revolution an unhappy 
sympathy in the plans of General Gage induced 
him to retire to Boston, from which place he ac 
companied the troops to Halifax, where he died. 
His first wife was the daughter of Gov. Salton- 
stall ; his second was the widow of James Allen, 
and daughter of Col. Fitch. His son, Thomas 
Brattle, of Cambridge, died Feb. 7, 1801. 
Coll. Hist. Soc. VII. 58; vm. 82. 

BRAXTON, CARTER, a member of congress in 
1776, died October 10, 1797, aged 61. He 
was the son of George Braxton, a rich plan 
ter of Newington, King and Queen s county, 
Virginia, born Sept. 10, 1736. His mother was 
the daughter of Robert Carter of the council. 
After being educated at William and Mary col 
lege, he married and settled down as an inde 
pendent planter. On the death of his wife he 
visited England, and returned in 1760. By lu s 
second wile, the daughter of Richard Corbin of 



Lanneville, he had sixteen children : she died in 
1814, and all the children but one were dead before 
1829. In 1765 he became a member of the house 
of burgesses, and was distinguished for his pat 
riotic zeal. In November, 1775, he was elected 
the successor of Peyton Randolph in congress, 
but continued a member of that body only till 
the signing of the declaration of independence. 
During the remainder of his life he was often 
a member of the legislature and council of Vir 
ginia. His talents were respectable ; his oratory 
easy ; lu s manners peculiarly agreeable. His last 
days were embittered by unfortunate commercial 
speculations, and vexatious lawsuits : some of his 
friends, his sureties, suffered with him. Though 
in early life a gentleman of large fortune, he 
found himself, in his old age, by his own impru 
dence, involved in inextricable embarrassments. 
Happy arc they, who are wisely content with 
their lot, and who use liberally their wealth, not 
for display, but for the purposes of a noble char 
ity. GoodriclCs Lives. 

BRAY, THOMAS, D. D., ecclesiastical commis 
sary for Maryland and Virginia, died Feb. 15, 
1730, aged 73. He was sent out by the bishop of 
London, in 1699, and was indefatigable in his 
efforts to promote religion in the colonies, and 
among the Indians and Negroes. Libraries were 
instituted by him, both for missionaries and 
parishes. He crossed the Atlantic several times, _ 
and spent the greater part of his life in these 
labors. Soliciting the charities of others, he 
in his disinterested zeal contributed the whole 
of his small fortune to the support of his 
plans. Through lu s exertions parish libraries 
were established in England, and various benevo 
lent societies in London were instituted, particu 
larly the society for the propagation of the gospel 
in foreign parts. He published a memorial on 
the state of religion in North America with pro 
posals for the propagation of religion in the sev 
eral provinces ; circular letters to the clergy of 
Maryland; cursus catecheticus Americanus, 1700; 
apostolic charity ; bibliotheca parochialis ; dis 
course on the baptismal covenant. 

BRAZER, JOHN, D. I)., died at Charleston, S. 
C., Feb. 26, 1846, aged 56. Born in Worcester, 
he graduated in Cambridge, in 1813 ; he was 
afterwards a professor. He was ordained over 
the north society in Salem, Nov. 14, 1820, suc 
cessor of J. E. Abbott. Many of his writings ap 
peared in the north American Review. He pub 
lished a sermon at the ordination of J. Cole ; on 
the death of Dr. Holyoke ; at the installation of 
A. Bigelow ; Memoir of Dr. Holyoke ; before 
society for education; several in the Christian 
preacher ; use of affliction ; on prayer ; power of 
unitarianism over the affections. 

BREARLEY, DAVID, chief justice of New 
Jersey, died Aug. 23, 1790, aged, it is said, only 




26. He was born in that State in 1763, and 
received the degree of A. M. at Princeton, in 
1781. He attained to great eminence at the bar. 
Soon after he received the appointment of judge, 
he died at his seat near Trenton. He Avas ap 
pointed by Washington in 1789, district judge for 
New Jersey, and was succeeded by Robert Morris. 

BREARLEY, JOSEPH, general, died at Mor- 
ristown, in 1805, aged 93. 

BREBEUF, JEAN DE, a Jesuit missionary 
among the Indians in Canada, arrived at Quebec 
in 1625. According to Charlevoix, he twice, when 
among the Hurons, in a time of drought, obtained 
rain in answer to his prayers. However, taken 
prisoner by the Iroquois in 1649, he was cruelly 
put to death by them, with his associate, father 
Lallemant. Amidst their barbarities, the savages 
said to him, " You have assured us, that the 
more one suffers on earth the greater will be his 
happiness in heaven ; out of kindness to you, we 
therefore torture you." At least Charlevoix re 
ports that they said so. Brebeuf was 55 years of 
age. He was the uncle of the poet of Normandy, 
George de B. He translated into Huron an 
abridgment of the Christian doctrine by Ledes- 
ma. This is annexed to Champlaiu s relation du 
voyage, 1632. Charlevoix, I. 294. 

BRECK, ROBERT, a minister of Marlborough, 
died Jan. 6, 1731, aged 48. He was born in 
Dorchester in 1682, the son of Captain John 
Breck, a very ingenious and worthy man, and 
grandson of Edward Breck, a settler of Dorches 
ter in 1636. After his father s death he was sent 
to Harvard college, where he graduated in 1700. 
He was ordained Oct. 25, 1704, as successor of 
Mr. Brimsmead. His successors were Kent, 
Smith, and Packard. He left a wife and four 
children. His wife was Elizabeth Waimvright 
of Haverhill. A daughter married Rev. Mr, 
Parkman, of Westborough. He was a man of 
vigorous talents, of quick perception, and tena 
cious memory, of solid judgment, and exten 
sive learning. So great was his skill in the He 
brew, that he read the Bible out of it to his 
family. He was also well versed in philosophy, 
mathematics, antiquities, and history ; and his 
extensive knowledge he was always ready to com 
municate for the instruction of others. As a pas 
tor he was prudent and faithful ; he Avas an ortho 
dox, close, methodical preacher. He Avas a strong 
disputant ; a strenuous asserter of the privileges of 
the churches ; and an opponent of Episcopal claims. 
United Avith his piety, he possessed a singular cour 
age and resolution. Before his settlement he 
preached some time on Long Island, during the 
administration of Gov. Cornbury, \vhen, though a 
young man, he boldly asserted the principles of the 
nonconformists, notwithstanding the threatening 
and other ill-treatment, Avhich he experienced. 
In temper, he was grave and meditative, yet at 

times cheerful, and in com r ersation entertaining. 
A perfect stranger to coA etousness, he was ever 
hospitable and charitable. In severe pain he Avas 
resigned ; and his end was peace. So great AA as 
the esteem, in Avhich he was held, that in his 
sickness a day of fasting was kept for him Oct. 
15, 1730, Avhen scA - eral ministers were present; 
and on his death, sermons Avere preached by SAvift 
of Framingham, Prentice of Lancaster, and Lor- 
ing of Sudbury. He published an election ser 
mon, 1728 ; the danger of falling aAvay after a 
profession; a sacramental sermon, 1728. Bos 
ton Weekly News-Letter, Jan. 21; Weekly Jour 
nal, Jan. 18, 1731 ; Loring s Sermon. 

BRECK, ROBERT, minister of Springfield, died 
April 23, 1784, aged 70. He was the son of the 
preceding, and Avas graduated at Hansard college, 
in 1730. He was ordained Jan. 27, 1736. His 
settlement occasioned an unhappy controversy. 
It Avas alleged against him, that he did not deem 
a knoAvledge of Jesus Christ necessary to the sal 
vation of the heathen, and that he treated lightly 
of the atonement. A narrative relating to his or 
dination Avas published ; folloAved by " an ansAver 
to the Hampshire narrative ; " and this by " a 
letter " to the author of the narrative, 1737. His 
superior intellectual poAvers Avcre enlarged by an 
extensive acquaintance with men and books. He 
accustomed himself to a close manner of thinking 
and reasoning. By diligent application, he ac 
quired a rich fund of the most usel ul knowledge. 
His disposition was remarkably cheerful and 
pleasant, and his conversation Avas entertaining 
and instructive, sometimes enlivened by humor, 
but ahvays consistent with the sobriety of the 
Christian and the dignity of the minister. He 
Avas easy of access, hospitable, compassionate, and 
beneA-olent. His sense of human weakness and 
depravity led him to admire the gracious provis 
ion of the gospel, and he delighted to dAvell upon 
it in his public discourses. His religious senti 
ments he formed on a careful examination of the 
Scriptures. Steady to his oAvn principles, he was 
yet candid towards those who diii cred from him. 
In his last illness, he spoke in the humblest terms 
of himself, but professed an entire reliance on 
divine mercy through the Mediator, ar.d he 
resigned himself to death with the dignity of a 

His first Avife was Eunice, daughter of his prede 
cessor, Rev. D. BreAver ; his second wile was 
Helena, the widow of RCA-. E. Dorr. His suc 
cessor Avas Mr. HoAvard. His son, Robert, who 
died at Northampton, in 1799, aged 63, Avas 
clerk of the court of common pleas. The son of 
the latter, Colonel John, died in N.,in 1827, aged 
55 ; leaving sons, Dr. EdAvard, Robert, and Theo 
dore, now citizens of Brecksvillc, Ohio. 

He published a sermon, 1748; on the death 
of Rev. D. Parsons, 1781 ; of Rev. S. Williams, 




1782; at the ordination of D. Parsons, 1783; 
also a century sermon Oct. 16, 1775, on the burn 
ing of the town by the Indians. Lathrop s Fu 
neral Sermon; Holland s History of Western 
Massachusetts, i. 201. 

BRECK, SAMUEL, a merchant, removed from 
Boston to Philadelphia, where he died May 7, 
1809. His daughter married James Lloyd. 

BRECK, DANIEL, died in Hartland, Vt., Dec., 
1845, aged 97. Born in Boston, he was reli 
giously educated at Princeton, where he gradu 
ated in 1774. As a chaplain he accompanied 
Porter s regiment to Canada, and was in the 
attack upon Quebec. He preached the first ser 
mon at Marietta, on the text, " Of his kingdom 
there shall be no end ; " having \isions of the 
progress of the gospel in the vast western coun 
try, lie was a man of high character and excel 
lence, the father of Judge Breck of Kentucky. 

BRECKENRIDGE, JOHN, attorney-general of 
the United States, died at Lexington, Kentucky, 
Dec. 14, 1806. He was elected a member of the 
senate in the place of Humphrey Marshall, and 
took his seat in 1801. In Jan., 1802, he submit 
ted in the senate a resolution to repeal an act of 
the preceding session respecting the judiciary 
establishment of the United States, by which six 
teen new circuit judges had been created. It 
was this resolution, which called forth the most 
astonishing powers of argument and eloquence. 
In 1803 Mr. Breckenridge distinguished himself 
by supporting resolutions in relation to Spanish 
affairs of a milder complexion, than those advo 
cated by Mr. Ross. After the resignation of Mr. 
Lincoln of Mass., he was appointed attorney- 
general in his place. 

BRECKENRIDGE, JOHN, D.D., died near 
Lexington, Ky., Aug. 4, 1841, aged 44. His 
parents were John B. and Mary Hopkins Cabell, 
of a Virginia family. He was one of nine chil 
dren, born at Cabell s Dale, near Lexington, 
where he died. He was a devoted preacher, and 
wore himself out by his labors. 

BRECKENRIDGE, ROBERT, general, died in 
Lexington, Ky., in Sept., 1833, aged 78. 

BREED, ALLEN, one of the first settlers of 
Lynn, died March 17, 1692, aged 91. lie was 
born in England in 1601 and arrived in this coun 
try in 1630, probably in the Arabella at Salem, 
June 12. He was a farmer and lived in the 
western part of Summer street, Lynn, possess 
ing two hundred acres of land. The village, 
in which he resided, derived from him the 
name of " Breed s End." He is one of the gran 
tees, named in 1640 in the Indian deed of South 
Hampton, Long Island, which was settled from 
Lynn, by Rev. Mr. Fitch, and others. The name 
of his wife was Elizabeth ; and his children were 
Allen, Timothy, Joseph, and John. Of these, 

Allen was living in 1692, when it was voted by 
the town, that Allen Breed, senior, " should sit in 
the pulpit." The descendants in Lynn and other 
towns in Massachusetts, are numerous ; from one 
of them was derived the name of Breed s Hill, in 
Charlestown, celebrated for the battle of 1775, 
called by mistake the battle of Bunker s Hill, for 
the battle was fought on Breed s not Bunker s 
Hill. One of his descendants at Lynn was Col. 
Fred. B., an officer of the Revolution, who died 
July, 1820, aged 68. Among the descendants in 
Connecticut were Gershom Breed, an eminent 
merchant of Norwich, and his sons, John M. 
Breed, mayor of the city, a graduate of Yale, 
1768; Shubael Breed, a graduate of 1778; and 
Simeon Breed, a graduate of 1781. The widow 
of the last is still living, aged 89, the sister of E. 
Perkins, who died, aged above 100 years. 
Lewis History of Lynn, 25 ; farmer s Register ; 
I) wi (jlit s Travels, III. 313. 

BREESE, SAMUEL SIDNEY, died in Sconondoa, 
Oneida county, N. Y., Oct. 15, 1848, aged 80. 
Born in Philadelphia, a descendant of the Hu 
guenots, he was one of the first settlers of 
Cazcnovia ; then was the law partner of Judge 
Platt of Whitestown. In 1813, he became a far 
mer for the rest of his life. He was a member of 
the convention to form a new constitution. He 
was an excellent citizen, and a sincere Christian. 
His end was peace, through hope in the atoning 

BRENTON, WILLIAM, Governor of Rhode 
Island, was a representative of Boston for several 
years from 1635. Of Rhode Island he was presi 
dent between 1660 and 1661, and governor under 
the charter from 1666 to 1669; in both which 
offices he succceeded Arnold, and was succeeded 
by him. He died in Newport, 1674. Several of 
his descendants held important offices in the col 
ony : they adhered to the royal government at the 
Revolution. An admiral in the British navy was 
a native of Newport. Farmer s Keg. 
missionary, was a Roman by birth. He toiled 
with much zeal in his mission among the Hurons 
in Canada, until it was broken up. Having been 
taken captive and tortured, he bore in his mutilated 
hands for the rest of his life, the proofs of his suf 
ferings. He died in Italy. In 1643 there was 
published an account of his mission in Italian, en 
titled, Breve relatione d ulcune missioni, &c. 

BREWER, DANIEL, died at Springfield, Nov. 
5, 1733, aged 65, in the 4()th year of his ministry. 
He succeeded Mr. Glover, and was followed by 
Mr. Breck. Born in Roxbury, he graduated at 
Harvard in 1697, and was ordained in 1694. His 
wife was Catharine, daughter of Rev. N. Chaun- 
cey of Hatfield ; her sister, Sarah, married Rev. 




S. Whittelsey of Wallingford. lie left six chil 
dren, lie published : God s help to be sought in 
time of war, 1724. 

BREWER, CHAUXCEY, doctor, died at Spring 
field, in 1830, aged 87, a graduate of Yale, 1762. 

BREWSTER, WILLIAM, one of the Pilgrims 
at Plymouth, the Elder and only teacher for some 
years, died about April 16, 1644, aged 83. This 
is the date given by Bradford ; but Morton says, 
about April 18. He was born, probably, at 
Scrooby, in 1560. As there was a William B. in 
that town in 1571, he was probably the father 
of Elder Brewster of Plymouth, who himseh 
passed the last years of his residence in England 
at Scrooby, as a public officer. This place, which 
is of great interest in American history, is a small 
town in Nottinghamshire, only two miles south of 
Bawtry, in Yorkshire, and ten miles west of Gains 
borough, in Lincolnshire. It was a post town, and 
had a small well-built church, and an Episcopal 
manor, which was an occasional residence of the 
Archbishop of York. The manor was built in 
two courts, of timber, except the front, which was 
of brick, with a moat around it. This, it will be 
found, became the residence of Brewster. Noth 
ing now remains of it, but the stone gateway. 
On the wood-work of the church is seen a vine 
bearing clusters of grapes. His family was one of 
some eminence. The coat-armor of one of the 
name, bore " a chevron ermine between three 
silver etoiles on a sable field." Our Brewster 
derives, in our view, no honor from his family ; 
but the device of stars breaking through the dark 
ness of night is a very suitable device for the 
American Brewster. He was the chief light of 
the Plymouth colony, in a dark wilderness. 

Mr. Brewster was educated at the university of 
Cambridge, where his mind was impressed with 
religious truth, and he was renewed by the Spirit 
of God. After completing his education he en 
tered into the service of William Davison, am 
bassador of Queen Elizabeth in Holland. This 
gentleman, who was friendly to religion, possessed 
the highest regard for Mr. Brewster, and reposed 
in him the utmost confidence. He esteemed him 
as a son. Mr. Brewster in return proved himself 
not unworthy of the friendship, which he had ex 
perienced ; for when Davison, who had been 
appointed secretary of state, incurred the affected 
displeasure of the queen for drawing, in com 
pliance with her orders, the warrant for the exe 
cution of Mary, he did not forsake his patron. He 
remained with him, and gave him what assistance 
it was in his power to afford, under the troubles, 
with which it was the policy of Elizabeth to over 
whelm the innocent secretary in the year 1587. 
When he could no longer serve him, he retired to 
the north of England among his old friends. 

It was now, that he resided at Scrooby, where 
he was post, or postmaster, from 1594 to Sept. 

30, 1607. The recorded payments to him 
amounted in that period to 456 pounds. He was 
also inn-keeper to the travellers by post. As 
there were no cross-posts he had to provide for 
distant deliveries. If he had a good income, it 
enabled him to exercise a generous hospitality ; 
and his abode in the Archbishop s manor fur 
nished a convenient place of meeting for the new 
Puritan Separatist church. 

His attention was now chiefly occupied by the 
interests of religion. His life was exemplary, and 
it seemed to be his great object to promote the 
highest good of those around him. He endeavored 
to excite their zeal for holiness, and to encourage 
them in the practice of the Christian virtues. As 
he possessed considerable property, he readily 
and abundantly contributed towards the support 
of the gospel. He exerted himself to procure 
faithful preachers for the parishes in the neigh 
borhood. By degrees he became disgusted with 
the impositions of the prelatical party, and their 
severity towards men of a moderate and peace 
able disposition. As he discovered much corrup 
tion in the constitution, forms, ceremonies, and 
discipline of the established church, he thought 
it his duty to withdraw from its communion, and 
to establish with others a separate society. This 
new church, under the pastoral care of the aged 
Mr. Clifton and Mr. Robinson, met on the Lord s 
days at Mr. Brewster s house, where they were 
entertained at his expense, as long as they could 
assemble without interruption. When at length 
the resentment of the hierarchy obliged them to 
seek refuge in a foreign country, he was the most 
forward to assist in the removal. He was seized 
with Mr. Bradford, in the attempt to go over to 
Holland in 1607, and was imprisoned at Boston, 
in Lincolnshire. He was the greatest sufferer of 
the company, because he had the most property. 
Having, with much difficulty and expense, obtained 
his liberty, he first assisted the poor of the society 
in their embarkation, and then followed them to 

He had a large family and numerous depend 
ents; and his estate was exhausted. As his edu 
cation had not fitted him for mechanical or mer 
cantile employments, he was now pressed with 
hardships. In this exigency he found a resource 
in his learning and abilities. He opened a school 
at Leyden, for instructing the youth of the city 
and of the university in the English tongue ; and 
being familiar with the Latin, with which they 
were also acquainted, he found no impediment 
from the want of a language common to both. 
By means of a grammar, which he formed him 
self, he soon assisted them to a correct knowledge 
of the English. By the help of some friends 
he also set up a printing-press, and published 
several books against the hierarchy, which could 
not obtain a license for pubh cation in England. 


Such was his reputation in the church at Ley- 
den, that he was chosen a ruling elder, and he 
accompanied the members of it, who came to New 
England in 1620. He suffered with them all the 
hardships attending their settlement in the wil 
derness. He partook with them of labor, hunger, 
and watching ; and his Bible and his sword were 
equally familiar to him. As the church at Ply 
mouth was for several years destitute of a minister, 
Mr. BreAvster, who was venerable for his character 
and years, officiated as a preacher, though he 
could never be persuaded to administer the sacra 
ments. According to the principles of the church, 
the ruling elder, in the absence of the teaching 
elder or pastor, was permitted to dispense the 
word. No regular minister was procured before 
the year 1629, when Ralph Smith was settled. 
Previously to this period the principal care of the 
church rested upon Mr. Brewster, who preached 
twice every Lord s day ; and afterwards he occa 
sionally exercised for the good of the church his 
talents in teaching. He died in the peace and 
hope of the Christian. His children were Pa 
tience, Fear, Love (a son), Wrestling, Jonathan, 
Lucretia, William, Mary. Jonathan removed to 
New London, thence to Norwich, Conn., and died 
1659. His estate and residence, to which he 
early removed, were in Duxbury ; his son, Love, 
succeeded him in his house. His three hundred 
books were valued at 43 pounds ; his whole estate 
at 150 pounds. 

Through his whole life he was remarkably tem 
perate. He drank nothing but water, until 
within the last five or six years. During the 
famine, which was experienced in the colony, he 
was resigned and cheerful. When nothing but 
oysters and clams were set on lu s table, he would 
give thanks that his family were permitted " to 
suck of the abundance of the seas, and of the 
treasures hid in the sand." He was social and 
pleasant in conversation, of a humble and modest 
spirit ; yet, when occasion required, courageous in 
administering reproof, though with such tender 
ness as usually to give no oft ence. lie was con 
spicuous for his compassion towards the distressed; 
and if they were suffering for conscience sake, he 
judged them, of all others, most deserving of 
pity and relief. He had a peculiar abhorrence of 
pride. In the government of the church he was 
careful to preserve order and the purity of doc 
trine and communion, and to suppress contention. 
He was eminent for piety. In his public prayers 
he was full and comprehensive, making confession 
of sin with deep humility, and supplicating with 
fervor the Divine mercy through the merits of 
Jesus Christ. Yet he avoided a tedious prolixity, 
lest he should damp the spirit of devotion. In 
his discourses he was clear and distinguishing, as 
well as pathetic ; and it pleased God to give him 



uncommon success, so that many were converted 
by his ministry. At his death he left what was 
called an excellent library. It was valued at 43 
pounds in silver, and a catalogue of the books is 
preserved in the colony records. 

The church at Plymouth, of which Mr. Brew 
ster was ruling elder, was peculiar for the lib 
erty of "prophesying" or preaching, which was 
allowed even to such private members as were 
"gifted." When Governor Winthrop visited Ply 
mouth in 1632, in the afternoon s exercise of the 
Lord s day, a question, according to custom, was 
propounded, upon which a number of the congre 
gation expressed their opinions, and the Governor 
of Massachusetts, being requested, " spoke to it" 
with the rest. " The preachments of the gifted 
brethren," says Dr. Mather, "produced those 
discouragements to the ministers, that almost all 
left the colony, apprehending themselves driven 
away by the neglect and contempt with which the 
people on this occasion treated them." This 
church admitted none to its communion without 
either a written or oral declaration of their faith 
and religious experience. The Scriptures were 
not read in public, nor was the psalm before sing 
ing, till in compassion to a brother, Avho could not 
read, one of the elders or deacons was permitted 
to read it line by line, after it had been previously 
expounded by the minister. No children were 
baptized unless one of the parents was in full 
communion, and baptized children were considered 
as subjects of ecclesiastical discipline. While in 
Holland the Lord s supper was administered every 
Sabbath ; but it was omitted in America till a 
minister was obtained, and then it was adminis 
tered only once in a month. Bell-nap s Amer. 
Biog.u. 252-256 ; Coll. Hist. Soc. IV. 108, 113- 
117; Morton, 153; Need s N. E. I. 231; Sav 
age s Winthrop,!. 91; Magnalia,!. 14 ; Prince, 

BREWSTER, JONATHAN, son of the preceding, 
lived in Duxbury in 1632, and was deputy and 
attorney. He removed to New London in 1638. 
He expressed in a letter dated at " Mohcken," 
Sept., 1656 probably New London an inten 
tion of going to England. He died 1659. His 
son Benjamin removed to Norwich soon after 
1648. By his wife, Anna Dart, of New London, 
he had sons Jonathan, Daniel, William, and Ben 
jamin ; and his descendants are to be found now 
in the vicinity. Scabury Brewster, of Norwich, 
the father of the dentist, Christopher Brewster, 
who was knighted 4>y the Emperor of Russia, was 
descended from Wrestling, the brother of Jona 
than, and was born in Plymouth in 1755. In 
1779 there were eleven Brewster families in the 
east society of Norwich. 

BREWSTER, RUTH, daughter of the preced 
ing, married first John Picket, and next, in 1668, 




Charles Hill, of New London, -who, after her 
death, married a daughter of Major John Mason. 

BREWSTER, NATHANIEL, minister of Brook- 
haven, Long Island, was a graduate of the first 
class of Harvard college in 1642. At first he 
was settled in the ministry at Norfolk, England ; 
on his return to America he was settled at Brook- 
haven in 1665, and died in 1690, leaving sons, 
John, Timothy, and Daniel, whose descendants of 
respectable standing remain on Long Island. 
Farmer s Register. 

BREWSTER, EBEXEZER, general, a descend 
ant of Elder Brewster, died at Hanover, N. H., 
Jan. 4, 1814, aged 74. He emigrated from Nor 
wich, Conn. The following was his son. 

BREWSTER, AMOS AVERT, colonel, died at 
Hanover, N. H., April 24, 1845, aged 68. He 
was many years sheriff of the county. His wife 
was a daughter of Adriana Boudinot. He suf 
fered the unhappiness of burying six young chil 
dren within a period of five years. 

BREWSTER, LYMAN D., died in Hennepin, 
Oct. 22, 1835, aged 51; from Connecticut he re 
moved to the west, to Tennessee and Illinois. 
He bequeathed 20,000 dollars to the African colo 
nization society, and 2,500 dollars to schools. 

BRICKETT, JOHN, published a work, entitled 
Natural history of North Carolina, with cuts, Dub 
lin, 1737. 

BRIDGE, THOMAS, minister of the first church 
in Boston, was born at Hackney, England, and 
was graduated at Harvard college in 1675. After 
visiting Europe as a merchant, he became a min 
ister. He first preached at Jamaica ; then at 
New Providence and Bermuda, and at West Jer 
sey. He was ordained at Boston as colleague 
with Mr. Wadsworth, May 10, 1705. He died 
suddenly of an apoplexy, Sept. 26, 1715, aged 58. 
He was eminent for his Christian virtues. While 
he was upright in his dealings, he was also meek 
and mild ; his heart was kind ; and he was hum 
ble and devout. He was habitually serious. 
Thongh his talents were not conspicuous, yet his 
thoughts were always expressed in suitable and 
manly language. In prayer he was eminent. 
His intimate acquaintance with the Scriptures and 
the devotional frame of his mind rendered his 
supplications to the throne of grace very interest 
ing. While he was himself exceedingly desirous 
of doing good, free from every particle of envy, 
he sincerely rejoiced in the usefulness and re 
spectability of others. He was not desirous of 
honor, and so humble was the opinion which he 
had formed of himself, that the expression of his 
humility sometimes put to the blush those who 
were younger and more desirous of distinction. 
He was diligent in study, but his Bible was his 
library. To this book he devoted his attention, 
and became well acquainted with its important 
truths. Such was his moderation, so greatly was 

he desirous of peace, that it Avas thought he was 
sometimes silent when he ought to have spoken, 
and that he yielded too much to others. He pub 
lished the following sermons : at the artillery 
election, 1705 ; on the choice of the town officers, 
1710; on faith, 1713. Caiman s Fun. Serm. ; 
Hist. Coll. ill. 257. 

BRIDGE, JCSIAH, second minister of East 
Sudbury, Mass., was graduated at Harvard col 
lege in 1758, and ordained Nov. 4, 1761, the suc 
cessor of Wm. Cook, who died Nov. 12, 1760, 
aged 63, in the thirty-seventh year of his minis 
try. Mr. Bridge died June 20, 1801, aged 61, in 
the fortieth year of his ministry, and was suc 
ceeded by Joel Foster, who died in 1812. Before 
the division of the church the ministers of Sud 
bury were E. Brown, Sherman, and I. Loring. 
He was a popular preacher, with a clear, loud 
voice. His convention sermon in 1792 and Dud- 
leian lecture in 1797 were not printed. He pub 
lished a sermon at the ordination of J. Damon ; 
the election sermon, 1789. Coll. Hist. Soc. s.s. 
IV. 61 ; Palladium, June 26th, 1801. 

BRIDGE, EBENEZER, died Oct. 1, 1792, aged 
77. Born in Boston, he was graduated in 1736, 
and ordained at Chclmsford in 1741, and was in 
office fifty years. He published the artillery elec 
tion sermon, 1752; the election sermon, 1767. 

BRIDGE, MATTHEW, minister of Framingham, 
died in 1775, a graduate of 1741. He published 
a sermon at the ordination of E. Stone, Reading, 

BRIDGE, EDMUND, died at Dresden, Maine, 
Sept., 1825, aged 86. He was born in Lexington, 
and was a patriot of the Revolution. From 1781 
to 1815 he was sheriff of Lincoln. He was an 
advocate of the Christian ministry and of public 
schools, held in esteem for his integrity and be 
nevolence. He was the father of Judge Bridge, 
of Augusta. 

BRIDGHAM, SAMUEL W-, general, chancellor 
of Brown university, died in Dec., 1840, at Provi 
dence, aged 67. He was mayor, and attorney- 

BRIDGMAN, JAMES G., a missionary, went to 
China in 1844, and was ordained at Canton. He 
died Dec. 6, 1850, in a fit of insanity inflicting a 
fatal wound. 

BRIGGS, JAMES, the first minister of Cum- 
mington, died in 1825, aged about 70. A gradu 
ate of Yale in 1775, he was settled in 1779, the 
town giving him two hundred acres of land and 
sixty pounds for a settlement, lie was a very 
respectable and useful minister. 

BRIGGS, ELIAKIM, died at Dighton, Sept. 27, 
1852, aged 86, the last of seven children, whose 
ages amounted to 588 years. Five brothers 
reached the ages of 72, 86, 87, 88, 96. The ages 
of two sisters amounted to 15!) years. 

BRIGIIAM, PAUL, lieut.-gov. of Vermont, 




died at Norwich, June 16, 1824, aged 79. For 
four years he was a captain in the war of inde 
pendence ; five years high sheriff of Windsor 
county; five years chief judge of the county 
court ; and twenty-two years lieut.-governor. His 
various duties he discharged to the acceptance of 
his fellow citizens, till the infirmities of age ad 
monished him to retire from the public service. 
Farmer s Coll. in. Appendix, 64. 

BllIGHAM, ELIJAH, judge, a member of con 
gress, died of the croup at Washington, April 22, 
1816. A native of Northborough and graduate 
of Dartmouth in 1778, he settled as a merchant 
in Westborough, and sustained various public 

BllIGHAM, AMARIAH, Dr., died in Utica, Sept. 
8, 1849, aged 51, formerly principal of the Re 
treat at Hartford, and from 1842 superintendent 
of the State asylum for the insane at Utica. He 
was a brother of Dr. B., secretary of the Ameri 
can Bible society. 

BRIGHT, FRANCIS, first minister in Charles- 
town, Mass., was a pupil of the famous Mr. Dav 
enport. He arrived at Naumkeag, or Salem, in 
June, 1629, in company with Mr. Skelton and 
Mr. Higginson. Disagreeing in judgment with 
his two brethren, he removed to Charlestown. 
After tarrying here a little more than a year, and 
finding that the people were disposed to carry the 
reformation to a greater length than he thought 
was necessary, he returned to England in 1630. 
He was succeeded by Mr. Wilson. Morse and 
Parish s N. E., 74; Morton, 82; Prince, 184, 

BRIMMER, GEORGE W., died at Florence in 
Sept., 1838. A graduate of Harvard in 1803, he 
was skilled in painting and architecture. 

BRIMMER, MARTIN, mayor of Boston, died 
April 25, 1847. A graduate of 1814, he was dis 
tinguished for his liberality and zeal in promoting 
the interests of public education. 

BRIMSMEAD, WILLIAM, first minister of Marl- 
borough, died July 3, 1701. He was a native of 
Dorchester, and probably the son of John Brims- 
mead,who lived in Dorchester in 1638, and who had 
a son, John, born 1640. The name is the same as 
Brinsmcad, as it was written in 17.32 in the last will 
of John Brinsmead, of Milford, one of whose 
daughters married Dr. Whcelock ; and the same 
as Brinsmade, as it was written by Daniel Nathan 
iel B., of Woodbury, in 1777, and as it is written at 
the present day. He was educated at Harvard col 
lege, but never received a degree. lie, with 
others of his class, being displeased with a vote 
of the corporation, requiring the students to reside 
four years at Cambridge instead of three, left the 
institution in 1647. He was employed as a 
preacher at Plymouth in 166,5. At Marlborough 
he preached as early as Sept., 1660, though he 
was not ordained till Oct. 3, 1666. As he was 

preaching, Sunday, March 20, 1676, the assembly 
was dispersed by an outcry of " Indians at the 
door." All reached the fort safely, except one 
man, who w r as wounded. The meeting-house and 
many dwelling-houses were burnt. lie was suc 
ceeded by Mr. Breck. He was never married. 
He is represented as a well accomplished servant 
of Christ. He published the election sermon, 
1681. Among the papers made use of by Prince 
in compiling his annals, was a journal in Latin 
kept by Mr. B. from 1665 to 1695 inclusively. 
Coll Hist. Soc.v. 47, 122; ix. 179; x. 89. 

BRES T SMADE, DANIEL, minister of Washing 
ton, Conn., died April 23, 1793, aged 74. He 
was a graduate of 1745. Dr. Porter succeeded 
him. His son, Judge Daniel, a graduate of 1772, 
died in 1826, aged 75. The son of the latter is 
Gen. Daniel B. Brinsmade, of Washington. 

BRISTED, JOHN, died at Providence, Feb. 23, 
1855, aged 76. He was a native of England, 
who arrived at New York in 1806, and in 1820 
married a daughter of J. J. Astor, by whom he 
had a son, Charles Astor Bristcd. He was many 
years a useful Episcopal minister ; his liberality 
was experienced by students in theology. 

BRISTOL, WILLIAM, U. S. judge for the dis 
trict of Conn., died at New Haven, March 7, 
1836, aged 57. Born in Hamden, he graduated 
in 1798. He was a judge of the State court in 
1819 ; an upright judge and an able lawyer. 

BRIT, TUOMAS, died on Sampit, near George 
town, Aug., 1825, aged 115, a soldier in the 
Cherokee, French, and Revolutionary wars. He 
rode on horseback in one day thirty-eight miles, 
three weeks before his death. 

BROCK, JOHN, minister of Reading, died June 
18, 1688, aged 67. He was born in England in 
1620, and was distinguished for early piety. He 
came to this country about the year 1637. He 
was graduated at Harvard college in 1646, and, 
after residing there two years longer, engaged in 
preaching the Gospel, first at Rowley and then at 
the Isle of Shoals. He continued at this last 
place till 1662, when he removed to Reading, as 
successor of Samuel Hough, being ordained Nov. 
13, 1662. Here he ministered in holy things till 
his death. He was succeeded by Mr. Pierpont. 
His wife was the widow of Mr. Hough. 

Mr. Brock was an eminent Christian, and a 
laborious, faithful minister, preaching not only on 
the Sabbath, but frequently on other days. He 
established lectures for young persons, and for the 
members of the church. He often made pastoral 
visits, and they Avere rendered very useful by his 
happy talents in conversation. lie was so re 
markable for holiness and devotion, that it was 
said of him by the celebrated Mitchell : " He 
dwells as near heaven as any man upon earth." 
He was full of faith and of the Holy Ghost. 
Several remarkable stories are related of the effi- 



cacy of his prayers, in which he frequently had a 
particular faith, or an assurance of being heard. 
When he lived at the Isle of Shoals, he per 
suaded the people to enter into an agreement to 
spend one day in every month, besides the Sab 
baths, in religious worship. On one of these 
days the fishermen, who composed his society, 
desired him to put off the meeting, as the rough 
ness of the weather had for a number of days 
prevented them from attending to their usual em 
ployment. He endeavored in vain to convince 
them of the impropriety of their request. As 
most of them were determined to seize the oppor 
tunity for making up their lost time, and were 
more interested in their worldly than in their 
spiritual concerns, he addressed them thus : " If 
you are resolved to neglect your duty to God, and 
will go away, I say unto you, catch fish if you 
can ; but as for you, who will tarry and worship 
the Lord Jesus Christ, I will pray unto him for 
you, that you may catch fish until you are weary." 
Of thirty-five men, only five remained with the min 
ister. The thirty, who went from the meeting, with 
all their skill caught through the whole day but four 
fishes ; while the five, who attended divine service, 
afterwards went out and caught five hundred. 
From this time the fishermen readily attended all 
the meetings which Mr. Brock appointed. A poor 
man, who had been very useful with his boat in 
carrying persons, who attended public worship, 
over a river, lost his boat in a storm, and lamented 
his loss to his minister. Mr. Brock said to him : 
" Go home, honest man ; I will mention the mat 
ter to the Lord ; you will have your boat again 
to-morrow." The next day, in answer to earnest 
prayer, the poor man recovered his boat, which 
was brought up from the bottom by the anchor of 
a vessel, cast upon it without design. A number 
of such remarkable correspondences between the 
events of Providence and the prayers of Mr. 
Brock, caused Mr. John Allen, of Dedham, to say 
of him : " I scarce ever knew any man so famil 
iar with the great God, as his dear servant Brock." 
Mather s Magnalia, IV. 141-143; Coll. Hist. 251-254; Stone s Fun. Serm. onPren- 
tiss ; Fitch s Sermon at the ordination of TucJce. 

BROCK, ISAAC, major-general in the British 
army, captured Gen. Hull and his whole army at 
Detroit, Aug. 16, 1812. He afterwards proceeded 
to the Niagara frontier, and was killed in the bat 
tle of Queenstown, Oct. 13th. He was rallying 
his troops, which had been put to flight by a des 
perate charge of Col. Chrystie, when he was 
pierced by three balls. He was a brave and gen 
erous officer. During his funeral the guns of the 
American fort were fired as a token of respect. 
Brackenridcjds Hist. War, 73. 

BROECK, ABRAHAM TEN, a patriot of the 
Revolution, was the president of the convention 
of the State of New York in 1776, and signed 


their eloquent address, dated at Fishkill, Dec. 21, 
which was written by John Jay. In Oct., 1781, 
he was the mayor of the city of Albany, and com 
municated to Gen. Heath a vote of thanks for the 
protection he had afforded the city. He died at 
Albany, Jan., 1810, aged 76. 

BROECK, JOHN TEN, died at Albany in Dec., 
1822. He was a patriot of the Revolution, and 
held various public offices, while he adorned in 
private life his Christian profession. Amer. Ee- 
memb. 1777, p. 53 ; Heath, 320. 

BROCKWAY, THOMAS, minister of Columbia, 
died in 1808, aged about GO. He graduated in 
1768 at Yale, in the first class, whose names are 
alphabetically arranged. They had been previ 
ously put down according to supposed family 
rank or dignity. A native of Lyme, he succcded 
Dr. Wheelock at Lebanon crank, now Columbia. 

BROCKWAY, DEODATE, died in Ellington, 
Conn., Feb., 1849, aged 73, the son of the pre 
ceding, a graduate of 1797. Soon after his set 
tlement he fell from the steeple of his new meet 
ing-house, sixty-five feet, and was well nigh crip 
pled for life. He was a man of sense and of high 
moral and Christian worth ; in private life urbane 
and a model of hospitality. His son, John H., 
a graduate of 1820, was a member of congress 
1839-1843. Among a few sermons, which he 
published, was an election sermon. 

BRODHEAD, JOHN, died at New Market, N. 
H., April 7, 1838, aged 67, a respected Methodist 
minister and member of congress. 

BRODHEAD, JACOB, D. D., died in Spring 
field, Mass., June 6, 1855, aged 73. The synod 
of the reformed Dutch church in session in New 
Brunswick, being on that day apprised by tele 
graph of his death, appointed a committee to 
attend in New Y 7 ork the funeral of this father in 
their church. Of this committee was Dr. Bethune, 
who had succeeded Dr. Brodhead in three of his 
pastoral charges at Rhuiebeck, Philadelphia, 
and Brooklyn and who delivered a discourse on 
his decease, which was published. 

It appears, by the address of Dr. De Witt, that 
Dr. B. was born May 14, 1782, at Marblctown, 
Ulster county, and was the son of Charles, a pat 
riot and soldier, who commanded a company 
chiefly raised at his own expense at the surren 
der of Burgoyne. An early ancestor, Capt. Dan 
iel, came from Yorkshire, and settled with the 
Hollanders and Huguenots of Ulster. Dr. B. 
was a graduate of Union college in 1801. In 
1804 he succeeded his cousin, John Brodhead 
Romeyn, as pastor of the Dutch church at Rhine- 
beck flats. In 1809 he was installed as a colleague 
with Drs. Livingston, Kuypers, and Abeel over the 
collegiate Dutch church in New York ; this 
sense of collegiate as indicating a common 
church, composed of several churches having col 
league pastors not being given in our diction a- 




ries. In 1813 he took the charge of the first 
Dutch church in Crown street, Philadelphia. 
After twelve years he returned to New York, and 
was the pastor of Broome-street Dutch church; 
afterwards of Flatbush church, and from 1841 to 
18-16 of the central church of Brooklyn. He was 
an eminently pious and most useful man, a faithful 
servant of God in all his fields of labor, and he died 
in great peace in the family of his only daughter. 
In his sickness the Supper was administered to 
him by Dr. Osgood, assisted by his brethren 
in Springfield, Buckingham, Parsons, and Seeley. 

His first wife was Anna, daughter of John N. 
Bleecker, Albany. His son, John Romeyn B., 
naval officer of New York, is known as a histo 
rian ; his daughter is the wife of George M. At- 
water,of Springfield. A memorial was published, 
with a fine portrait, containing Dr. Bcthune s ser 
mon and other pieces. lie published the follow 
ing discourses : at Philadelphia, 1813; a plea for 
the poor, 1814; new year s memorial, 1826; at 
thanksgiving, 1826 ; on education, 1831 ; on death 
of Dr. Kuypers, 1833; preached in central church, 

BllODNAX, WILLIAM H., general, died in 
Virginia, of the cholera, in Oct., 1834, aged 48. 
He was a lawyer, a member of the house of dele 
gates, and deserves honorable remembrance as an 
advocate of the gradual abolition of slavery. 

BROMFIELD, EDWARD, an eminent merchant 
in Boston, died April 10, 1756, aged 60. He was 
born in Nov., 1695. His father, Edward, was a 
member of the council ; his mother was the eldest 
daughter of Rev. Mr. Danforth, of Roxbury. By 
means of her instructions and the instructions of 
his grandmother, a daughter of Mr. Wilson, of 
Boston, his mind in early h fe was deeply im 
pressed by religious truth. His whole life was 
conscientious, upright, and holy. He sustained 
several important trusts, and with incorruptible 
integrity sought the public good. He was a rep 
resentative of his native town in the general court, 
from the year 1739 to 1743 ; and he would have 
been continued, as colleague with his brother-in- 
law, Thomas Gushing, but he preferred the hum 
bler station of overseer of the poor, in which 
office he remained twenty-one years successively-. 
His daughter, Sarah, married Jeremiah Powell, a 
member of the council. His son, Col. Henry 
Bromfield, a merchant in Boston, passed his last 
days at Harvard, where he died, Feb. 9, 1820, 
aged 92. His daughter married Daniel D. Rog 
ers, of Boston. Mr. Bromfield was eminent for 
his Christian virtues. In his intercourse with 
others he was open, friendly, pleasant, and re 
markable for candor. Attached to the ancient 
principles of New England, he loved the most 
zealous and awakening ministers ; he worshipped 
the Most High in his family ; he partook of the 
supper of his Lord and Master with the humblest 

reverence and the most ardent gratitude and 
love. In his last sickness, so deep was the sense 
of his unworthiness and guilt, that he enjoyed 
little composure till just before his death, when 
his apprehensions were in a great measure re 
moved. In his most desponding moments he 
ever justified the ways of God. Prince s Fun. 
Serm.; Boston Gaz., April 19, 1756. 

BROMFIELD, EDWARD, a young man of un 
common genius, the son of the preceding, was 
born in Boston in 1723. He was graduated at 
Harvard college in 1742. He lived but a short 
time to display his virtues and his talents, for 
he died August 18, 1746, aged 23 years. 
From his childhood he was very amiable and 
modest. As he grew up, the poAvers of his mind 
were unfolded, and he discovered remarkable 
ingenuity and penetration, which were strength 
ened and increased as he became acquainted with 
mathematical science. His genius first appeared 
in the use of the pen, by which with admirable 
exactness he sketched the objects of nature. He 
made himself so familiar with Weston s short 
hand, that he was able to take down every word 
of the professor s lectures at the college, and the 
sermons which were delivered from the pulpit. 
He was skilful in projecting maps. As he was 
well skilled in music, he made with his own 
hands an excellent organ, with two rows of keys 
and several hundred pipes. The workmanship 
exceeded anything of the kind which had been 
imported from England. He took peculiar pleas 
ure in pursuits which related to natural philosophy, 
for he wished to behold the wisdom of God in 
his works. He made great improvement in the 
microscopes, which were then used, most ac 
curately grinding the finest glasses, and multiply 
ing the powers of optical instruments. He met 
with no mechanism which he did not readily im 
prove. But these were only the amusements of 
Mr. Bromfield. He was engaged in the pursuits 
of higher and more interesting objects than those 
which had reference only to the earth and could 
occupy the mind but a few days. Though from 
childhood he possessed the virtues, which endeared 
him to his acquaintance, yet it was not before he 
reached the age of seventeen that he was converted 
by the influence of the Divine Spirit from his 
natural state of selfishness and iniquity to the 
supreme love of his Maker. From this period 
the truths of revelation claimed his intense study, 
and it was his constant aim to conform his life to 
the requisitions of the gospel. Nothing interested 
him so much as the character of Jesus Christ and 
the wonders of redemption, which he hoped 
would excite his admiration in the future world, 
and constitute his everlasting blessedness. He 
left behind him a number of manuscripts, which 
contained his pious meditations, and marked his 
progress towards perfection. Though his body 




was feeble, his whole soul was indefatigable. In 
his eyes there was an expression of intellect, 
which could not be mistaken. Had his life been 
spared, his name might have been an honor to 
his country, and philosophy might have been 
dignified by a connection with genuine religion. 
Prince s Account of Bromfield ; Panoplist, II. 

BROOKE, FRANCIS J., judge of the court of 
appeals in Virginia, died March 3, 1851, aged 87. 
He was a soldier of the Revolution, a Mend of 
Washington. His first campaign, with his twin 
brother John, was under Lafayette in 1781. He 
was often in the legislature. In 1811 he was 
judge of appeals, and was re-elected in 1831 till 
the time of his death. 

BROOKE, GEORGE M., major-general, died in 
San Antonio March 9, 1851. He entered the 
army in 1808; and he received various brevets for 
his defence of Fort Erie, for his sortie, and for 
his conduct in the war with Mexico. Fort Brooke 
at Tampa Bay, where he was stationed, received 
his name. 

BROOKS, ELEAZER, a brigadier-general, died 
at Lincoln Nov. 9, 1806, aged 80 years. He was 
born in Concord, Mass., in 1726, and was a 
descendant of Capt. Thomas Brooks, a settler of 
Concord in 1636, who died May 22, 1667. With 
out the advantages of education he acquired a 
valuable fund of knowledge. It was his practice 
in early life to read the most approved books, and 
then to converse with the most intelligent men 
respecting them. In 1774 he was chosen a repre 
sentative to the general court, and continued 
thirty-seven years in public life, being successively 
a representative, a member of the senate, and of 
the council. lie took a decided part in the 
American Revolution. At the head of a regiment 
he was engaged in the battle at White Plains in 
1776, and distinguished himself by his cool, 
determined bravery. From the year 1801 he 
secluded himself in the tranquil scenes of domestic 
life. Gen. Brooks possessed an uncommonly 
strong and penetrating mind, and his judgment 
as a statesman was treated with respect. He was 
diligent and industrious, slow in concerting, but 
expeditious in performing his plans. He was a 
firm believer in the doctrines of Christianity, and 
in his advanced years accepted the office of 
deacon in the church at Lincoln. This office he 
ranked above all others which he bad -sustained in 
life. Steams Fun. Serm.; Columb. Centinel, 
Nov. 22, 1806. 

BROOKS, Jonx, LL. D., governor of Mass., 
died March 1, 18125, aged 72. His residence was 
at Medford, where he was born in 1752. His 
father was Capt. Caleb B., a farmer; and his early 
years were spent in the toils of a farm, with no 
advantages of education but those of a town 
school. At the age of fourteen by a written in 

denture as an apprentice for seven years he was 
placed under the tuition of Dr. Simon Tufts. At 
this period he formed a friendship with his fellow 
student, Count Rumford. While studying medi 
cine he also exhibited a fondness for military 
exercises, forming the village boys into companies 
and training them. Commencing the practice of 
physic at Reading, he took the command of a 
company of minute-men, for the drilling of whom 
he acquired some skill by observing the trainings 
of the British soldiers in Boston. On the news 
of the expedition to Lexington, April 19, 1775, he 
instantly marched ; and, meeting the British force 
returning from Concord, he ordered his men to 
place themselves behind the barns and fences, 
and to fire continually upon the enemy. He soon 
received the commission of major in the army. 
He entered the service of his country with an 
excellent character and a high sense of moral 
rectitude. On the evening of June 16th he 
assisted in throwing up the fortifications at Breed s 
hill; but next morning being dispatched by Col. 
Prescott with a message to Gen. Ward at Cam 
bridge, and being obliged for the M T ant of a horse 
to go on foot, he did not participate in the 
memorable battle of the 17th June. In 1777 he 
was appointed lieutenant-colonel. He accompa 
nied Arnold in August, 1777, against Col. St. 
Leger on the Mohawk, and suggested to Arnold 
the successful project of dispersing the Indians by 
sending out one Cuyler to spread an exaggerated 
account of our forces. In the battle of Saratoga, 
Oct. 7, at the head of his regiment he stormed 
and carried the intrenchments of the German 
troops. In the battle of Monmouth he was 
acting adjutant-general. When the conspiracy at 
Xewburg in March, 1783, had well nigh disgraced 
the army, Washington rode up to Brooks and 
requested him to keep his officers within quarters 
to prevent their attending the insurgent meeting ; 
the reply was, " Sir, I have anticipated your 
wishes, and my orders are given." With tears in 
his eyes, Washington took him by the hand and 
said, " Col. Brooks, this is just what I expected 
from you." 

From the army Brooks returned to private life, 
free from the vices incident to soldiership, rich in 
honor, esteem, and affection, but without property 
and without the means of providing for his family, 
except, by resuming his profession. His aged 
and infirm teacher, Dr. Tufts, resigned his business 
into the hands of his pupil. For many year? he 
was major-gcnercl of the militia of his county, 
and he established excellent discipline, for which 
during the whole war he had been distinguished. 
As a member of the convention he advocated the 
adoption of the constitution of the United States. 
By Washington he was appointed marshal of the 
district and inspector of the revenue ; in the war 
of 1812 he was appointed adjutant-general of 


Massachusetts by Gov. Strong, whom he succeeded 
as chief magistrate in 18 16. For seven years 
successively he was re-elected ; and with great 
dignity and faithfulness he presided over the 
affairs of the commonwealth. In 1823 he retired 
to private life, being succeeded by "William Eustis. 
His wife died many years before. His only 
daughter, Lucy, the wife of Rev. George O. 
Stuart of Kingston, Upper Canada, died Dec., 
1814; and his son, John, a lieutenant in the navy, 
of youthful beauty and generous enterprise, fell in 
the battle of Lake Erie Sept. 10, 1813, on board 
Perry s flag-ship Lawrence. One son survived 

Gov. Brooks held a high rank as a physician. 
He was scientific and skilful. His manners were 
dignified, courteous, and benign; and his kind 
offices were doubled in value by the manner 
in which he performed them. In the office of 
chief magistrate, he labored incessantly for the 
public good. His addresses to the legislature 
manifested large and liberal views. No one could 
doubt his integrity and devoted patriotism. He 
was the governor of the people ; not of a party. 
In his native town, of which he was the pride, the 
citizens were accustomed to refer their disputes to 
his arbitrament, so that lawyers could not thrive in 
Medford. In private life he was most amiable 
and highly esteemed, the protector and friend of 
his numerous relatives, and the delight of all his 
acquaintance. The sweetness of his temper was 
evinced by the composure and complacency of his 
countenance. Towards the close of his life, he 
connected himself with the church in Medford, 
under the pastoral care of Dr. Osgood. A short 
time before he died, he said : " I see nothing ter 
rible in death. In looking to the future I have 
no fears. I know in whom I have believed ; and 
I feel a persuasion, that all the trials appointed 
me, past or present, will result in my future and 
eternal happiness. I look back upon my past life 
with humility. I am sensible of many imperfec 
tions that cleave to me. I know, that the pres 
ent is neither the season nor the place in which 
to begin the preparation for death. Our whole 
life is given us for this great object, and the work 
of preparation should be early commenced, and 
be never relaxed till the end of our days. To 
God I can appeal, that it has been my humble 
endeavor to serve him in sincerity, and wherein 
I have failed, I trust in his grace to forgive. I 
now rest my soul on the mercy of my adorable 
Creator, through the only mediation of his Son, 
our Lord. O, what a ground of hope is there in 
that saying of an apostle, that God is in Christ 
reconciling a guilty world to himself, not imput 
ing their trespasses unto them ? In God I have 
placed my eternal all ; and into his hands I com 
mit my Spirit ! " To the medical society he be 
queathed his library. Besides liis valuable official 



communications as chief magistrate, he published 
an oration to Cincinnati society, 1787 ; discourse 
before the humane society, 1795 ; eulogy on Wash 
ington, 1800; discourse on pneumonia, before the 
medical society, 1808. Thaclter s Med. Biog., 
192-207 ; DixwelVs Memoir ; Columb. Centinel, 
May 18, 1825. 

BROOKS, PETER CHARDOX, died in Boston, 
Jan. 1, 1849, aged 82. A native of Medford, he 
opened an Insurance office in Boston, in 1789 ; 
he was very successful, and retired from business 
in 1803, in early life, a man of great wealth; yet 
he was afterwards, for a few years, the president 
of the New England Insurance Company, the 
first company of the kind in the State. For the 
remainder of his long life, he lived in summer in 
Medford, and in winter in Boston. The principal 
merchants with whom he was associated in busi 
ness, were Thomas Russell, John Hancock, the 
Amorys, Joseph Burrell, S. Breck, S. Brown, C. 
Bulfinch, John Codman, S. Elliot, Gardner 
Green, Stephen Higginson, Tuthill Hubbart, John 
C. Jones, Theodore Lyman, Jonathan Mason, 
Samuel Parkman, the Perkins , the Phillips , W. 
Powell, David Sears, and Joseph Russell, of 
whom only the last was living in 1854. As a 
member of the senate and chairman of a com 
mittee, he did great service to the cause of public 
virtue, by his report on the Plymouth Beach 
Lottery. It put an end to all grants of lotteries 
in Massachusetts. It appears that the lottery, 
granted in 1812, had been conducted by the man 
agers in eleven classes ; the result was, that from 
118,000 tickets, amounting to 883,000 dollars, the 
managers paid the town of Plymouth less than 
10,000 dollars. The following were his principles 
in business : To abstain from all speculative in 
vestments ; to take no more than the legal inter 
est; and never to borrow money. As a man he 
was highly respected and esteemed. His three 
daughters were married to Edward Everett, 
Charles F. Adams, and Dr. N. L. Frothingham. 
His life, by E. Everett, is in " Lives of American 

BROOKS, ALEXANDER S., lieut.-colonel, was 
killed in Florida, Dec. 19, 1836, by the bursting 
of the boiler of a steam packet. A son of Gov. 
B., a graduate of 1802, he was in the army of his 
country nearly thirty years. 

BROOKS, MARIA, MRS., died at Matanzas, 
Nov. 11, 1845, aged about 50 years. She was 
born in Medford; lived some years in Boston, 
and at last in Mantanzas. About 1828 she visited 
Europe, and shared the friendship of Wordsworth 
and Southey, who superintended the publication 
of her poem, Zophiel, and pronounced her " the 
most impassioned and imaginative of all poet 
esses." The refinement of her taste has been 
questioned ; but the reputation of her poems was 




BROOKS, JAMES G., poet and editor, died at 
Albany, Feb. 20, 1841, aged 39. Born at Claver- 
ack, he graduated at Union college in 1819. He 
edited various papers in New York, Winchester, 
Rochester, and Albany. He published The 
Rivals of Este, and other poems, by J. G. and 
Mary E. Brooks, 1829. 

BROOME, JOHN, lieutenant-governor of New 
York and president of the Senate, was an emi 
nent merchant, and for many years at the head of 
various commercial, charitable, and religious insti 
tutions. In 1777 he was a member of the con 
vention, which framed the constitution of New 
York. In 1804 he was elected lieutenant-gov 
ernor; and he died Aug 8, 1810, aged 82. 

BROUWERE, JOHN II. J., a sculptor and 
painter, died in Newport, R. I., Sept. 5, 1834. 

BROWN, CHADD, minister of Providence, 11. L, 
fled thither from persecution in Massachusetts, 
in 1636, and became in 1639 one of the members 
of the Baptist church, then formed by Roger 
Williams, when Wm. Wickenden was appointed 
first elder. With him Mr. Brown was associated 
in the pastoral care of the church, in 1642. lie 
died about 1665, and his colleague in 1669. In 
1792 the town of Providence voted to erect a 
monument to his memory. His descendants for 
nearly two centuries have been among the most 
distinguished citizens of Rhode Island. His 
grandson, James Brown, was a minister of the 
same church ; and four of the grandsons of James 
have been patrons of Brown university ; Nicho 
las ; Joseph, L.L. D., who died Dec., 1785 ; John, 
an eminent merchant, who died Sept. 20, 1803, 
aged 67 ; and Moses. Coll. Hist. Soc. s. s. ix. 

BROWN, EDMUJTD, the first minister of Sud- 
bury, Mass., came from England in 1637, was or 
dained Aug., 1640, over the 18th church in Mass., 
and died June 22, 1677. He sustained a good char 
acter, and was a man of distinction in his day. 
His successors were James Sherman, who was 
dismissed in 1705 ; Israel Loring, who died 
March 9, 1772, aged 89; and Jacob Bigelow, and 
Timothy Ililliard. 

BROWN, JOHN, minister of Haverhill, Mass., 
was born in Brighton, and was graduated in 1714, 
and ordained the successor of Joseph Gardner, 
May 13, 1719. He died Dec. 2, 1742, aged 46, 
being greatly esteemed for his learning, piety, 
and prudence, and was succeeded by Edward 
Barnard. By his wife, Joanna, daughter of Rev. 
Roland Cotton, he had four sons, educated at 
Cambridge, three of whom were ministers ; 
viz., John of Cohasset, who graduated in 1741, 
and died Sept. 21, 1791 ; Cotton of Brookline, 
who graduated in 1743, and died April 13, 1751 ; 
and Thomas of Stroudwater, who graduated in 
1752, and died in 1797. Of his three daughters, 
one married John Chipman of Marblehead, and 

another Rev. Edward Brooks of North Yarmouth 
and Medford, father of Peter C. Brooks. He 
published a sermon on the death of Thomas 
Symmes, 1726. Mass. Hist. Coll. s.s. iv. 142. 

BROWN, Jonx, colonel, a distinguished officer 
in the Revolutionary war, was born in Sandisfield, 
Berkshire county, Mass., Oct. 19, 1744. His 
parents removed from Woodstock, Conn., first to 
Brimfield, then to Granville, and to Sandisfield, 
and last to Rutland, Vt. After graduating at 
Yale college in 1771, he studied law with Oliver 
Arnold in Providence, and commenced the prac 
tice at Caghnawaga, now Johnstown, New Y ork, 
and was appointed king s attorney. However, in 
a short time, about the year 1773, he removed to 
Pittsfield, where there was then but one lawyer, 
Woodbridge Little. But these two men of the 
law had very different notions of patriotism. Mr. 
Brown was resolved to hazard every thing in 
resistance of oppression. Bold and prudent and 
having a fine personal appearance, he was selected 
by the state committee of correspondence in 
1774 for the hazardous enterprise of going to 
Canada to excite the people to revolt. He went 
in the spring of 1774, and returned in the autumn, 
and went again in 1775. His pretence was the 
purchase of horses ; but the Canadians remarked 
that he was a singular jockey, for the horses never 
suited him. Once, indeed, the house in which 
he lodged was assailed ; but he made his escape. 
He was a delegate to the provincial congress, 
Feb. 15, 1775. Immediately after the battle of 
Lexington, some gentlemen in Connecticut formed 
the project of taking Ticondcroga by surprise. 
Captains Edward Mott and Noah Phelps of 
Hartford marched April 29th, privately, with 
sixteen unarmed men. Arriving at Pittsfield, 
they communicated the project to Mr. Brown and 
Col. James Easton; also to Arnold, who was 
(hen at Pittsfield. These gentlemen instantly 
engaged in the affair, and led by Arnold, they 
captured the fort of Ticonderoga, May 10th. 
Mr. Brown was intrusted with the business 
of conveying away the prisoners, amounting to 
100, and was also sent as express to the general 
congress at Philadelphia, where he arrived May 
17th. In July, he and Allen were dispatched 
through the woods into Canada, to assure the 
Canadians that their religion and liberties should 
not be impaired by the approaching army. On 
the 24th of Sept., he took fort Chamblee. The 
next day, Allen, who expected the co-operation of 
Brown, marched upon Montreal, but was attacked 
by a superior force, and was taken prisoner. As 
this was an expedition unauthorized by any higher 
authority, Allen was treated with great severity. 

While Arnold was before Quebec, Maj. Brown 
arrived from Sorel and joined him ; Montgom 
ery had arrived two days before. In the attack 
on Quebec, Dec. 31st, Maj. Brown, with a part of 


a regiment of Boston troops, was directed to co 
operate, by making a false attack upon the walls 
to the south of St. John s gate, and to set fire to 
the gate with combustibles, prepared for the pur 
pose. He executed his part in the enterprise ; 
Col. Livingston, owing to the depth of the snow, 
failed in liis. In this assault, Montgomery fell. 
The congress, Aug. 1, 1776, voted him a commis 
sion of lieutenant-colonel, with rank and pay in 
the continental army from Nov., 1775. In Dec., 
1776, he conducted a regiment of militia to fort 
Independence. After the defeat of Col. Baum at 
Bennington, in 1777, he was dispatched by Gen. 
Lincoln, from Pawlet to the north end of Lake 
George with 500 men, to relieve our prisoners. By 
marching all night, he attacked the enemy at 
break of day, Sept. 17th, at the landing, three 
miles from Ticouderoga ; set at liberty 100 of our 
men ; made prisoners of 293 ; took the landing, 
Mount Defiance, Mount Hope, the French lines, 
and the block house; 400 batteaux, an armed 
sloop, several gun-boats, a few cannon, and a vast 
quantity of plunder. His letter to Gates, Sept. 
18, described his success, which tended to raise 
the spirit of the troops, and to excite the militia 
to join their brethren. After this exploit, he 
joined the main army. In the next month Bur- 
goyne was captured. 

Soon after this event, Col. Brown retired from 
the service, on account of his detestation of 
Arnold. In the campaign in Canada, in 1776, 
he had become acquainted with his character ; 
and it is remarkable, that at this period, three 
years before the treason of Arnold, Col. Brown 
published a handbill of thirteen or fourteen arti 
cles against him, in the height of his fame, charg 
ing lu m with levying contributions on the Cana 
dians for hk- own private use and benefit. He 
said that Arnold would prove a traitor, for he 
had sold many a life for money. The people of 
La Prairie had submitted on the promise of good 
quarters ; but their village was plundered and 
burnt, and lives were destroyed. After this, Col. 
Brown was employed occasionally in the Massa 
chusetts service. He was chosen a member of 
the general court, in 1778. 

In the fall of 1780, he marched up the Mohawk, 
for the relief of Gen. Schuyler, but was led by a 
traitor into an ambuscade of Canadians, torics, 
and Indians at Stone Arabia, in Palatine, and was 
slain on his birth-day, Oct. 19, 1780, aged 36 
years. Forty-five of his men, many of whom 
marched from Berkshire the week before, were 
also killed. The same day, at Fox s Mills, Gen. 
Van Rensselaer defeated the same party under 
Sir John Johnson. This force had destroyed 
Schoharie. Col. Brown s daughters married 
Wm. Butler, printer, Northampton ; and Dr. 
Hooker of Rutland, Vt. ; the former is still living 
at Northampton, at an advanced age. His son, 



Henry C. Brown, was for several years the sheriff 
of Berkshire. When he was in Albany, on his way 
to Stone Arabia, Col. Brown had the curiosity to 
call upon Ann Lee, then in prison, the mother of 
the Shakers ; and he assured her, by way of 
pleasantry, that on his return he should join her 
society. About a fortnight after his death, two 
grave-looking Shakers proceeded from Albany to 
Pittsfield, and presented themselves before the 
widow of Col. Brown, saying, that they came from 
mother Ann with this message to her, that her 
husband in spirit, since his death, had come and 
joined mother Ann s company, and had given 
express orders that his widow should also join 
the society. But mother Ann, with all her art, 
did not in this case find a dupe. Mrs. BroAvn, 
who became the wife of Capt. Jared Inger- 
soll, and who gave me this narrative, bid the 
stupid messengers go about their business. Yet 
this mother Ann is now by multitudes regarded 
as a divinely commissioned teacher of true reli 
gion and the way to heaven. When will rational 
men cease to yield up their understandings to 
gross and palpable imposture, like that of Ann 
Lee and Emanuel Swedenborg ? It will never be, 
until they are willing to receive the truth of God 
from his Word, and to obey his commands. 
Hist. Berkshire, 119, 122, 378; Amer. Remcmb. 
1776. p. 458 ; Coll. Hist. Soc. II. 56, 117, 197 ; s. s. 
II. 240, 243 ; III. 236. 

BIIOWN, JOSEPH, professor of experimental 
philosophy, in the college of II. I., died Dec. 3, 
1785, aged 52. He was distinguished for skill in 
mechanical science ; being the first in this coun 
try to construct and apply the British invention of 
the steam engine. 

BROWN, NICHOLAS, an eminent merchant of 
Rhode Island, died at Providence, May 29, 1791, 
aged 61. He was the grandson of James Brown, 
minister of the Baptist church, in Providence ; 
and James was the grandson of Chadd Brown, a 
minister of the same church, after Roger Wil 
liams, in 1642. From early youth his attention 
had been directed to mercantile pursuits, and by 
the divine blessing upon liis diligence and upright 
ness he acquired a very ample fortune. But 
although he was rich, he did not make an idol of 
his wealth. His heart was liberal, and he listened 
to every call of humanity or science. The inter 
ests of government, of learning, of religion were 
dear to lu m. He loved his country, and rejoiced 
in her freedom. The public buildings in Provi 
dence, sacred to religion and science, are monu 
ments of his liberality. He was an early and 
constant patron of the college. In lu s religious 
principles he was a Baptist, and he was a lover of 
good men of all denominations. He was not 
ashamed of the gospel, nor of the poorest of the 
true disciples of the Redeemer. His general 
knowledge, and the fruitfulness of his invention, 




furnished him with an inexhaustible fund of enter 
taining conversation. Stillman s Funeral Ser 
mon ; Providence Gaz. 

BROWN, ANDREW, editor of the Philadelphia 
Gazette, was born in Ireland, about the year 1744. 
He came to America in 1773, as a soldier in the 
British regiment ; but he quitted the service, and 
settled in Massachusetts. He engaged in the 
American cause at the commencement of the war, 
and displayed great courage^in the battles of Lex 
ington and Bunker s Hill. He was also a useful 
officer in the northern army under General Gates. 
At the close of the war he established an academy 
for young ladies in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, on a 
very liberal and extensive plan. He afterwards 
removed to Philadelphia, where he pursued the 
same object; but as his employment did not well 
accord with a very irritable temper, he relin 
quished it. He now established the Federal 
Gazette, the first number of which was published 
Oct. 1, 1788. The present government of the 
United States had not then commenced, and his 
paper was the channel through which some of 
the most intelligent friends of the constitution ad 
dressed the public. He pursued his task with in 
defatigable industry ; but difficulties pressed upon 
him, and he seemed to have little prospect of 
deriving much pecuniary advantage from his 
paper, before the city was visited with yellow fe 
ver in 1793. As he remained in Philadelphia 
during the ravages of the pestilence, and contin 
ued his Gazette, when the other daily papers 
were suspended, he derived from the circumstance 
an increase of patronage, which at length re 
warded his labors. His exertions were not relaxed 
through his success ; but changing the name of 
his paper to that of the Philadelphia Gazette, and 
resolving, that it should not be devoted exclu 
sively to any political sect, but should be open to 
discussions from every side, he made it a correct 
vehicle of important intelligence. The profits of 
his establishment were noAv great, and he was in 
the midst of prosperity, when it pleased God to 
overwhelm him with ruin. His house took fire 
by means of his office, which was one part of it, 
Jan. 27, 1797, and in an unsuccessful attempt to 
rescue his family from the flames, he was so much 
burned, that he survived but a few days. His 
wife and three children were next day committed 
to a common grave, and the next Saturday, Feb. 
4, 1797, his spirit followed them into another 
world. The only survivor of the family was a son, 
born in Ireland of a former wife, who became one 
of the proprietors of the Gazette, after the death 
of his father. Hardies Biog. Diet.; Monthly 
Mag., 1191, p. 71, 72. 

BROWN, JOHN, died Sept. 21, 1701, aged G6, 
the minister of Cohasset for forty-four years. He 
was the son of Rev. J. B., of Haverhill, and a 
graduate of 1711. AVhen, settled, he called to 

see an opposer, who said he liked his person, l;ut 
disapproved his preaching. " I agree with you," 
said Mr. B., " my preaching I do not like very 
well myself; but how great a folly, that you and 
I should set up our opinion against that of the 
whole parish ! " This stroke of humor reconciled 
the opponent. He published a sermon on the 
death of Dr. Mayhew, 1706; also on the deceit- 
fulness of the heart, and a thanksgiving discourse. 

BROWN, MOSES, a brave officer in the navy of 
the United States, died of an apoplectic fit, Jan. 
1, 1804, aged 62 years. During the last 48 years 
of his life he followed the profession of a mariner. 
In the Revolutionary war his reputation gained 
him the command of several of the largest private 
armed ships from New England. In these sta 
tions he was zealous, brave, and successful. He 
was engaged in several severe battles with the 
enemy. When the small American navy was 
establishing, a number of years after the war, the 
merchants of Ncwburyport built a ship by sub 
scription for the government, and obtained the 
command of her for Capt. Brown. His advanced 
age had not impaired his skill, nor deprived him 
of his zeal and activity. While he commanded 
the Merrimac, he was as enterprising and success 
ful as formerly. When the reduction of the navy 
took place, he was dismissed from office ; but his 
finances did not allow him to retire from business, 
and he followed till his death his accustomed avo 
cation. N. E. Repertory, Jan. 14, 1804. 

BROWN, WILLIAM HILL, a poet, died at Mur- 
frcesborough, North Carolina, where he was 
studying law, Sept. 2, 1793, aged 27. He wrote 
a tragedy, founded on the death of Andre, and a 
comedy. His Ira and Isabella was published in 

BROWN, SAMUEL, M. B., a physician in Bos 
ton, was the son of an innkeeper of the same 
name, and was born at Worcester in 1768. lie 
graduated at Harvard college in 1793 ; obtained 
the degree of M. B. in 1797 ; and died at Bolton 
in Jan., 1805, aged 36. His wife was a daughter 
of Dr. Jeffries. He lost a brother by the yellow 
fever of 1798. Dr. Brown was very much re 
spected, and promised to be distinguished in his 
profession. He published a dissertation on bilious 
malignant fever, 1797, and a valuable dissertation 
on yellow fever, which received the premium of 
the humane society, 8vo., 1800; on mercury, in 
Medical Repository, vol. vi. 

BROWN, CHARLES BROCKDEX, a distinguished 
writer, died Feb. 22, 1810, aged 39. He was 
born in Philadelphia Jan. 17, 1771. After a 
classical education under Robert Proud, author of 
the history of Pennsylvania, he was at the age of 
eighteen apprenticed to a lawyer, Alexander 
Wilcox ; but his time Avas chiefly employed, not 
in the study of the law, but in various literary 
pursuits. Timidity and an invincible dislike to 


the legal profession prevented him from becoming 
a member of the bar. He published in 1798 his 
first novel, Wicland, which gained for him reputa 
tion ; and in 1799 Ormond, or the secret witness, 
which was less successful. Next followed Arthur 
Mervyn, in which the ravages of the yellow fever, 
witnessed by the author in Philadelphia and New 
York, are faithfully described. He wrote also 
Edgar Huntley ; and in 1801 Clara Howard, in an 
epistolary form, and then Jane Talbot in 1804, 
the two last being much inferior to his preceding 
productions. He conducted two periodical works ; 
in 1799 and 1800 the Monthly Magazine and 
American Review, and in 1805 the Literary 
Magazine and American Register. He also wrote 
three political pamphlets. In 1806 he commenced 
the semi-annual American Register, five volumes 
of which he lived to publish. 

Of a delicate constitution, his lungs in 1809 
gave clear indications that he was in a consumption. 
lie travelled in New Jersey and New York, but 
without benefit. His wife, whom he married in 
1804, was the sister of John B. Linn. His son, 
Eugene L., a youth of great promise, died of the 
consumption in 1824. 

His novels, which were admired while he lived, 
fell into oblivion after his death ; but after a few 
years they began to be read in England, and they 
were republished in Boston. They present, in 
rich language, varied incidents and powerful 
emotions, and the author has a wonderful invention; 
but his scenes are terrific, and the horrors of 
crime are oppressive to the heart. As his novels 
were produced with great rapidity, they are all 
deficient in unity, and apparently unfinished. 
There is no moral in them ; no useful end was 
proposed. Mr. Brown wrote for amusement, and 
for the indulgence of his diseased imagination; 
and his writings, like much of modern literature, 
are not tinged with the spirit of that holy religion, 
which will at a future day pervade the productions 
of all the learned of the earth. He was an 
admirer of Godwin; and by Godwin, who ac 
knowledged that he was indebted to him, he was 
regarded as a writer of distinguished genius. 
His style is free from affectation, simple and 
nervous. " For a large part of his short life he 
appears as a sad enthusiast, a sceptical inquirer, a 
dissatisfied observer, a whimsical projector of 
better things for society than he could ever bring 
to pass, or in a calm moment wish to realize ; 
turning his mind to various pursuits with rash 
eagerness ; planning epics, studying architecture, 
forming literary associations, discussing legal 
questions with his fellow students, and abandoning 
the profession of his choice before he had felt 
either its vexations or excitements, or even framed 
a tolerable excuse for his conscience, or an answer 
to the persuasions of his friends. Such was his 
hurried, mingled, undirected life." The latter 


part of his literary career was more beneficial to 
himself and useful to the world. With a fixed 
and important object before him, and a course of 
study, directed in its subjects and manner of 
prosecution by a sober judgment, his days might 
have been prolonged, and have been passed in 
comparative happiness. 

In 1815 William Dunlap published a short 
account of his life, with selections from his letters, 
manuscripts, and printed works. Besides the 
magazines already mentioned, and the novels, 
which were reprinted at Boston, 6 vols., 1827, 
Mr. Brown translated Volney s travels in the U. 
S., 1804; and wrote a memoir of J. B. Linn, 
prefixed to Valerian, 1805; address to the gov 
ernment of the U. S. on the cession of Louisiana 
to the French, etc., 1803; the British treaty, 
1808; address to congress on the restrictions of 
foreign commerce, etc., 1809. North American 
Review, June, 1819; Encyclopedia Americana. 

BROWN, SAMUEL II., author of several books, 
in the war of 1812 was a volunteer in the corps 
of mounted riflemen, commanded by Col. It. M. 
Johnson. He afterwards edited a newspaper at 
Cayuga, N. Y., called the Patriot, which on account 
of pecuniary embarrassment he relinquished in 
1815. He died at Cherry Valley, Sept. 15, 1817, 
aged 42. He published view of the campaigns of 
the northwestern army, 1814; history of the war 
of 1812, in two vols.; western gazetteer, or 
emigrant s directory, 1817. 

BROWN, CHARLES. M. D., died at Harper s 
Ferry Sept., 1824, leaving a large estate to the 
Philadelphia medical hospital. 

BROWN, RICHARD, colonel, a Cherokee Indian, 
died in Tennessee Jan. 26, 1818, aged 45, when 
Gen. Jackson was proceeding against the Seminole 
Indians. lie was one of the Cherokee delegation, 
appointed to proceed to Washington in order to 
carry into effect the objects of a treaty, which the 
nation had made with the United States. The 
American government had not in 1818 renounced 
and cast away the obligations of sacred treaties 
with the Cherokces, pledging the faith of the 
country for their protection within defined bounda 
ries. Col. Brown was regarded by his countrymen 
as a leader in war and a wise counsellor in peace. 
In every battle during the Creek war he was at 
the head of the Cherokees under Gen. Jackson, 
whose personal friendship he enjoyed. He was 
severely wounded in the action at the Horse 
Shoe. His blood and that of his countrymen was 
shed for ungrateful and faithless whites, determined 
for the sake of their lands to drive them from 
their beautiful hills and valleys into the wide 
plains of the wilderness beyond the Mississippi. 
Possibly a returning sense of right will yet spare 
the remains of the red men, the original occupants 
of our country, and allow them to lie down in the 
dust by the graves of their fathers. An old 




English charter will be found a poor justification 
of injustice and inhumanity towards a weak and 
defenceless people. Boston Patriot, Feb. 18, 

BROWN, CLARK, died in William and Mary 
parish, Maryland, where he was an Episcopal 
minister, Jan. 12, 1817. He had been a Congre 
gational minister in Machias in 1795, and at 
Brimfield in 1798. He published a sermon on 
Noah s prophecy as to Japheth, 1805; a Masonic 
sermon, 1814; a volume of select sermons was 
published after his death. 

BROWN, FRANCIS, D. D., president of Dart 
mouth college, died July 27, 1820, aged 36. He 
was born at Chester, N. II., Jan. 11, 1784, and 
graduated in 1805 at Dartmouth, where he was a 
tutor from 1806 to 1809. In January, 1810, he 
was ordained the minister of North Yarmouth, 
Maine, as the successor of Tristram Oilman, 
whose daughter he married. Of Bowdoin college 
he was an overseer and trustee. In 1815 he was 
appointed president of Dartmouth college. He 
died of the consumption. His predecessor was 
Dr. Wheelock; his successor Dr. Dana. "His 
talents and learning, amiablencss and piety 
eminently qualified him for the several stations 
which he filled, and rendered him highly useful 
and popular." He published several sermons, 
among which are the following : at the ordination 
of Allen Greely, 1810 ; at a fast on account of the 
war, 1812; on the evils of war, 1814; before the 
Maine missionary society, 1814. Lord s Lempr. 

BROWN, BENJAMIN, captain, a pioneer of the 
West, died in Athens, O., in Oct., 1821, aged 76. 
He was a professor of religion, much respected. 
He was born in Leicester, Mass., the son of Cap 
tain John, and grandson of William, a first settler 
of Hatfield. He was a soldier in the war, after 
living in various places. He died at his son s, 
Gen. John Brown s. His descendants are numer 
ous. ITildreih. 

BROWN, CATHARINE, a Cherokee, died July 
18, 1823, aged 23. She was born about the year 
1800, at a place now called Wills-valley, in a beau 
tiful plain of tall forest trees, within the chartered 
limits of Alabama, a few miles west of the Geor 
gia line and twenty-five miles southeast of the 
Tennessee river. On each side of the valley rose 
the Raccoon and Lookout mountains. Her pa 
rents were half-breeds ; their mothers only being 
full-blooded Cherokees. Her father s name was 
Yaunugungyahski, which means, " the drowned 
by a bear ;" he had also the name of John Brown, 
from his father. Her mother s name was Tsaluh ; 
she was called by the whites, Sarah ; and before 
she married Brown, she was the wife of Webber, 
by whom she had a son, a man of property, now 
called Col. Webber. Catharine s parents were 
ignorant of the English language, and the amount 
of their religion was, that there was a Creator of 

the world, and also a future state of rewards and 

In 1801 the Moravians commenced a mission at 
Spring-place in the Cherokee country, about forty 
or fifty miles east of Wills-valley ; soon afterwards 
Rev. Gideon Blackburn made efforts for several 
years to establish a school among the Cherokees. 
In 1816 Rev. Cyrus Kingsbury, employed by the 
American board for foreign missions, appeared at 
a Cherokee council and obtained permission to 
establish schools. He selected, as the place for 
the first school, Chickamaugah, now called Brain- 
erd, twenty or thirty miles north of Spring- 
place, within the limits of Tennessee. Catharine 
heard of this school, and though living at a dis 
tance of one hundred miles, she became a member 
of it in July, 1817, being then seventeen years of 
age. She had learned to speak English by re 
siding at the house of a Cherokee friend, and 
could read in words of one syllable. Although 
an Indian girl of comely features and blooming, 
and although she had been placed amidst many 
temptations, yet her moral deportment had been 
always correct. She was modest and gentle, but 
withal somewhat fond of displaying the ornaments 
of her dress. In three months she learned to 
read and write. In Dec., 1817, she cherished the 
hope that she had experienced the power of the 
gospel in her heart. She was baptized Jan. 25, 
1818, and admitted as a member of the church 
March 29th. In June, 1820, she undertook to 
teach a school at Creek-path, near her father s. 
For sweetness of temper, meekness, and gentle 
ness she was unsurpassed. To her parents she 
Avas very dutiful and affectionate. A weekly 
prayer meeting was instituted by her, and she 
was zealous to instruct her ignorant neighbors in 
the great truths of the Gospel. She formed the 
purpose of perfecting her education, that her use 
fulness might be increased. But in the spring of 
1823 her health declined, she had a settled con 
sumption, and it became evident that her death 
was near. She said : " I feel perfectly resigned 
to the will of God. I know he will do right with 
his children. I thank God that I am entirely in 
his hands. I feel willing to live, or die, as he 
thinks best. My only wish is, that He may be 
glorified." Having been conveyed about fifty 
miles, to the house of her friend, Dr. Campbell, 
she there died. She was buried at Creek-path, 
by the side of her brother, John, who had died 
the preceding year in the triumphs of the same 
faith. Dr. Campbell remarks : " The Saviour 
seemed to be continually the anchor of her hope, 
the source of her constant and greatest happi 
ness, and the object of her most ardent love." A 
pure flame of benevolence burned within her. 
" My heart," she says, " bleeds for my poor peo 
ple ; I am determined to pray for them while God 
lends me breath." If it be asked : 




" F:iir spirit, mirsed in forest wild, 
Where caught thy breast those sacred flames? " 

Tho answer must be : from the beams of that Sun 
of Righteousness, which is the light of the world ; 
from that glorious Gospel, which it is the duty of 
Christians to communicate to all the heathen 
tribes of the earth. Her conversion was the 
means of the establishment of a mission at Creek- 
path, and of the conversion to the faith and hopes 
of Christianity of her father and of most of her 
family. Let any scoffer at missions contemplate 
this lovely child of the wilderness, won from the 
gloom of paganism to the joyous, lofty hopes of 
Christianity, and triumphing over the king of ter 
rors, and then say, if he can, that the missionary 
enterprise is idle, and useless, and a waste of 
money. An interesting memoir of Catharine 
Brown was compiled by Ilufus Anderson, assist 
ant secretary of the American board for foreign 
missions, and published in 1825. Anderson s 

BROWX, DAVID, a Cherokee, a brother of the 
preceding, died at Creek-path, Sept. 14, 1829. 
He followed his sister to the school at Brainerd. 
In Nov., 1819, he assisted John Arch in preparing 
a Cherokee spelling-book, which was printed. At 
the school he became convinced of his sinfulness, 
and embraced the salvation offered in the Gospel. 
In 1820, on going home to visit his sick father, 
he immediately took his Bible and began to read 
and interpret it to his parents, exhorting them 
and others to repent of their many sins and to 
become the followers of Jesus Christ. With his 
father s consent he maintained the worship of God 
in the family. This visit induced Mr. Brown and 
other chiefs co solicit the establishment of a mis 
sion at Creek-path town ; the school was opened 
by Rev. Mr. Butrick, in March, 1820. May 1 1th, 
David Brown, soon after he was admitted to the 
church, set out for New England, to attend the 
foreign mission school at Cornwall, Conn., that 
he might be prepared to preach the gospel. His 
visits to Boston and other towns had a favorable 
effect in exciting a missionary zeal. After passing 
two years at the school, with Elias Boudinot and 
six other Cherokees, he remained a year at Ando- 
ver, enjoying many advantages for improvement. 
In the mean time his brother, John, had become a 
convert and made a profession and died in peace ; 
his parents also and other members of his family 
had become pious. He returned to them in 1824, 
having first delivered in many of the principal 
cities and towns an address on the wrongs, claims, 
and prospects of the American Indians. His 
father had removed to the Arkansas, west of the 
Mississippi ; and there, on his arrival at Dwight, 
July 12, he immediately engaged in efforts to en 
lighten and convert his countrymen. " On the 
Sabbath," said he, " I interpret English sermons, 
and sometimes preach myself in the sweet lan 

guage of Tsallakce," (the Cherokee.) He attended 
Indian councils and was appointed the secretary 
of the Indian government. But he soon revisited 
his people on the east of the Mississippi. His 
father died in Arkansas in the autumn of 1826, 
aged 65, having been a worthy member of the 
church about five years, and having the satisfac 
tion of seeing two sons and four daughters also 
members of the church. In the spring of 1829, 
David Brown was taken ill and bled at the lungs. 
lie wrote, June 1st : " On the bed of sickness I 
have enjoyed sweet communion with my Saviour." 
He died at the house of Rev. Mr. Potter, giv 
ing evidence that he died in the faith of the 

In Sept., 1825, he wrote a letter, giving some 
account of the Cherokees, from which it appears 
that there were then about 14,000 on the east of 
the Mississippi, among whom were 1,277 African 
slaves. The northern part of the Cherokee coun 
try was mountainous ; at the south were extensive, 
fertile plains, watered with beautiful streams. 
" These plains," said he, " furnish immense pas 
turage, and numberless herds of cattle are dis 
persed over them. Horses are plenty. Numerous 
flocks of sheep, goats, and swine cover the valleys 
and hills. On Tennessee, Ustanala, and Ganasagi 
rivers Cherokee commerce floats. The climate is 
delicious and healthy ; the summers are mild. 
The spring clothes the ground with its richest 
scenery. Cherokee flowers of exquisite beauty 
and variegated hues meet and fascinate the eye in 
every direction. In the plains and valleys the 
soil is generally rich, producing Indian corn, cot 
ton, tobacco, wheat, oats, indigo, sweet and Irish 
potatoes. Apple and peach orchards are quite 
common. Butter and cheese are seen on Chero 
kee tables. Cotton and woollen cloths are manu 
factured here. Schools are increasing every year; 
learning is encouraged and rewarded. Our native 
language, in its philosophy, genius, and symphony, 
is inferior to few, if any, in the world. Our sys 
tem of government, founded on republican prin 
ciples, by which justice is equally distributed, 
secures the respect of the people. The legisla 
tive power is vested in what is denominated Tsal- 
agi Tinilawigi, consisting of a national committee 
and council. Members of both branches are chosen 
by and from the people for a limited period. The 
Christian religion is the religion of the nation." 
The meaning of the last assertion is, that Chris 
tianity was approved, and the propagation of it 
encouraged by the national council, although 
thousands yet remained in the darkness of pagan 
ism. Such and still greater was the progress of 
the Cherokees toward civilization, under the sanc 
tion of sacred treaties with the United States, 
when the Georgians, greedy for the Cherokee 
lands and the Cherokee gold mines, determined 
to annoy them and compel them to sell their little 




remaining nook of territory, and, abandoning the 
graves of their fathers, to seek a new abode, of 
fered them by the United States government in 
the wilderness, west of the Mississippi. We, as a 
nation, are chargeable with enormous injustice 
towards our Indian brethren. One thing is cer 
tain, that public oppression always cries to Hea 
ven for vengeance upon the guilty nation. Nor 
does the bolt ever fail to strike the guilty. 
Anderson s Memoir of C. Brown; Missionary 

BHOWN, JACOB, major-general, died in Wash 
ington, Feb. 24, 1828, aged 52. He was born in 
1775, in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, where he 
resided until twenty years of age. Afterwards 
he lived two years in Ohio, engaged in surveying 
public lands. Settling in the city of New York, 
he superintended a large school and commenced 
the study of the law; but he soon relin 
quished these pursuits, and emigrated to unculti 
vated lands, which he had purchased on the 
borders of Lake Ontario. He built in the Avilder- 
ness the first house at Brownville, which is now, 
in consequence of his adventurous spirit, a flour 
ishing, beautiful village. In 1812 he was called 
into service as a militia general. His arrange 
ments were judicious, and he repulsed an attempt 
of the enemy against Ogdensburg. In the spring 
of 1813 he was invited by Col. Backus, then in 
command at Sackett s harbor, when it was in 
vested and menaced by the enemy, to assume the 
defence. Gen. Brown was successful, and soon 
afterwards received an appointment of brigadier- 
general in the regular army ; early in 1814 he 
was appointed, with the rank of major-general, to 
the command of the army of Niagara. The four 
principal incidents in the Niagara campaign were 
the battles of Chippewa and Niagara, and the 
defence and sortie of fort Eric. In the two first 
and the last he commanded in person. The army 
crossed into Canada the morning of July 3d, the 
two brigades of regulars being commanded by 
Generals Scott and Ripley, and the volunteers by 
Gen. Porter. Fort Erie was surprised and taken. 
The battle of Chippewa was fought July 5th, by 
Scott s brigade, and the enemy were driven to 
their intrenchments ; the American loss being 
338 ; the British 500. On the 10th, Gen. Brown 
marched to Quccnstown. Here, at a conference 
of officers, it was debated, whether the army 
should proceed to invest fort George or to attack 
Gen. Riall at Twelve-mile creek, ten or twelve 
miles from Quecnstown. Gen. Scott was in favor 
of investing the fort. Gen. Ripley proposed to 
march in the night with his brigade and the artil 
lery of Towson, and attack Riall in the morning, 
so as to break him up before he should be rein 
forced, lie deemed it idle to invest the fort with 
inadequate artillery. Gen. Porter and Cols. Mc- 

Ree and Wood concurred with him in opinion. 
But the contrary opinion of Gens. Brown and 
Scott and Col. Gardner prevailed. From the 
16th to the 23d of July the army lay before fort 
George, and retrograded to Chippewa on the 
24th. The battle of Bridgewater or Niagara was 
fought with the reinforced enemy July 25th. It 
was commenced by Scott s brigade. Gen. Ripley 
advanced to his support, and arriving on the 
ground instantly ordered Col. Miller with the 
21st regiment to carry the enemy s artillery by an 
attack in front, while he should lead the other 
regiment upon the flank of the enemy. The bat 
tery was taken, and was held by Ripley against 
repeated attempts to recover it. In the mean time 
Generals Brown and Scott were wounded; and 
late at night, after a murderous contest with a 
much superior force, Gen. Brown ordered a re 
treat, and gave up the command to Ripley, 
who returned to fort Erie and fortified it. 
The British loss was upwards of 1,000 ; the 
American from 600 to 700. He recovered suf 
ficiently to be in command at the sortie from fort 
Erie Sept. 17th, when Gen. Ripley was danger 
ously wounded. Fort Erie was evacuated Nov. 
5th, and our army returned to the American side 
of the river, whence it had proceeded three 
months before, having gained nothing but the 
honor of unavailing victories. 

In his official account of the battle of Niagara, 
Gen. Brown forgot to give any praise to Gen. 
Ripley, and also censured him for not attacking 
the enemy the next day, to have done which with 
a greatly inferior force after the retreat, ordered 
by Gen. Brown the preceding night, would have 
hazarded the safety of the army. Gen. Ripley in 
consequence demanded a court of inquiry, which 
was sitting at Troy March 15, 1815, when it was 
dissolved by an order from the department of 
war, which stated as reasons : " The congress of 
the United States having approved his conduct by 
a highly complimentary resolve, and the President 
being pleased to express his favorable opinion of 
the military character of Gen. Ripley." A gold 
medal was voted by Congress to Gen. Brown, and 
also to Generals Ripley, Miller, Porter, Scott, 
Gaincs, Macomb, Jackson, Harrison, and Shelby. 

At the close of the war he and Gen. Jackson 
were retained in the service as the major-generals 
of the army ; and in 1821 he was left in the sole 
command. From that time he resided in the city 
of Washington, where he died, leaving a large 
family. Urackenridge s Hist. War; Holmes, II. 
464; ">. Y. Statesman, Feb. 28, 1828; Bait. Pat 
riot, June 17, 1815; Facts relative to the Cam 
paign of the Niagara. 

BROWN, DAVID L., a teacher in painting and 
drawing, died in Boston Dec. 18, 1836, aged 85, 
formerly of London. 


BROWN, SYTHAX, a slave, died March 5, 1846, 
aged 1 15 years and 4 months. lie was long the 
personal servant of John Randolph, of Mattoax, 
the father of J. R. of Roanoke. 

BROWN, OLIVER, died at Iladdam Feb. 8, 
1853, aged 74, a graduate of Harvard in 1804. 
He was chaplain to the State prison of Massachu 
setts ; then missionary to Rhode Island, sent by 
the society for the diffusion of knowledge. He 
organized a church in South Kingston, and was 
the minister of it fifteen years, and was at last the 
minister of Grassy-hill, in Lymc. 

BROWN, JOHN, 1). 1)., minister of Hadley, 
died March 22, 1840, aged 53. Bom in Brook 
lyn, Conn., he graduated in 1809 at Dartmouth, 
and was seventeen years a minister in Cazenovia, 
N. Y., and two years in Pine street, Boston, and 
eight years in Hadley. Boston Recorder, July 
10 ; Observer, July 18, 1840.. 

BROAVN, BARTHOLOMEW, died in Boston April 
14, 1854, aged 81. He was born in Sterling Sept. 
8, 1772, and graduated in 1799. He was a law 
yer in Sterling and East Bridgewater, and had 
lived in Boston ten years. Having great skill in 
music, he edited, about twenty years, with Judge 
Mitchell, the Bridgewater collection of church 
music, which was highly esteemed, in which were 
many pieces of his composition. For fifty-nine 
years he wrote the calendars in Thomas Farmer s 

BROWN, MOSES, died at Providence Sept, 6, 
1836, aged nearly 98. He was born Sept. 23, 
1738, and was the youngest of four brothers: 
Nicholas, Joseph, and John were also enterprising, 
remarkable men. They founded Brown univer 
sity. His early years were spent in the family of 
his uncle Obadiah, a wealthy merchant, whose 
daughter he married in 1764. In 1763 he en 
gaged in commercial pursuits with his brothers, 
but retired from business in ten years. Losing 
his three children, he was taught to seek his hap 
piness more entirely in God. He was a Baptist 
till 1773, when he became a Friend. In that year 
he liberated his slaves, and was one of the found 
ers of the abolition society of Rhode Island ; he 
was also a supporter of the Bible and peace socie 
ties. His will, made at the age of 96, evinced his 
desire to promote the cause of education, philan 
thropy, and religion. 

BROWN, NICHOLAS, was born in Providence, 
April 4, 1769, was educated at the college, and 
died Sept. 27, 1841, aged 72. His ancestor, 
Chad. B., was the assistant of R. Williams in 
founding the colony of Rhode Island. His father, 
Nicholas, and his father s three brothers were the 
benefactors of the college, as was also N. B., and 
also his only son, John Carter Brown. Hence 
may be seen the propriety of the name of Brown 
University. He founded a professorship of ora 
tory and erected Hope college, so called from his 



sister Hope, and is to be honored for other acts 
of munificence. His life, by C. King, is in the 
Lives of American merchants. 

BROWN, James, died in Philadelphia April 7, 
1835, aged 73. Born in Virginia, he settled as a 
lawyer in Tennessee, then in Natchez and New 
Orleans. He was U. S. attorney, a member of 
the senate in 1812, minister to France in 1823. 
He had lived a few years in Philadelphia. 

BROWN, MATTHEW, D.D., died July 29, 1853, 
at the house of his son-in-law, Dr. Riddle, of 
Pittsburgh, aged 77. He was long president of 
Jefferson college, Pennsylvania, extensively known 
and esteemed. 

BROWN, OBADIAH B., died in Washington 
May 2, 1852, aged 72, pastor of the first Baptist 
church from 1807 till 1850. 

BROWN, JAMES, died in Watcrtown, Mass., 
March 10, 1855, aged 55 ; a distinguished book 
seller of the house of Little, Brown 8: Co. in 
Boston. He was skilled in bibliography, and was 
a student in various sciences. He was at the head 
of American publishers. A part of his library 
he bequeathed to the Boston natural history so 
ciety. Of large property, he was a man of 
becoming hospitality. 

BROWN, T. S., major, died in Naples, Italy, 
June 30, 1855. A nephew of Gen. J. Brown, he 
graduated at West Point. The New York and 
Erie Railroad was constructed mainly under his 
direction as engineer-in-chief. In Dec., 1849, he 
went to Russia as consulting engineer of the St. 
Petersburg and Moscow railroad. 

BROWNE, AHTHUR, an Episcopal clergyman 
at Portsmouth, died at Cambridge June 10, 1773, 
aged 73. He was a native of Drogheda in Ire 
land, and was the son of Rev. John Browne, 
lie was educated at Trinity college in Dublin, and 
received the degree of master of arts in 1729. 
Being ordained by the Bishop of London for a 
society in Providence, Rhode Island, he went to 
that place, and remained there till the year 1736, 
when he removed to Portsmouth. He was the 
first incumbent of the church, consecrated in 
1734. He received a salary of 75 pounds as a 
missionary from the society for propagating the 
gospel in foreign parts, and continued in this 
station till his death. His wife, Mary, was the 
daughter of Thomas Cox, D. D., of Drogheda. 
Of his children, Marmaduke, a clergyman, died 
at Newport about 1771; Jane married Samuel 
Livermore ; Ann married Mr. Saint Loc, a Brit 
ish officer. His church ascribed to him " good 
conduct, a most noble and benevolent disposition, 
excellent preaching, sound doctrines, and good 
oratory." He published a sermon on the excel 
lency of the Christian religion, 1738; at the 
execution of Penelope Kenny, 1739; on the re 
bellion in Scotland, 1746 ; to the free masons, 
1748; on the fast; on the doctrine of election, 




1757 ; remarks on Mayhew s reflections on the 
church of England, 1763. Alden s account of 
Portsmouth ; Coll. Hist. Soc. x. 57, 58, 70. 

BROWNE, ARTHUR, LL. D., king s professor 
of Greek in Trinity college, Dublin, died in 
1805. He was the son of Marmaduke Browne, 
rector of Trinity Church, Newport, Rhode 
Island. He enjoyed in early life the advan 
tages of a school, established in Newport by 
Dean Berkeley, and was distinguished by his 
talents, industry, and strong desire of improving 
his education in some European university. To 
gratify this desire, his father went to Ireland to 
make provision for entering his son at Trinity 
college; but, after having effected his object, he 
died soon after his return, in consequence of his 
sufferings during a tedious voyage of three 
months. His son, who went to Ireland in 1771 
or 1772, continued during the remainder of his 
life connected with Trinity college, and was the 
idol of the students. He was professor of civil 
law in the university, and its representative in the 
Irish house of commons. His great powers of 
mind he improved by incessant study and by 
intercourse with the most distinguished scholars 
and the most able and virtuous statesmen of his 
day. He was always a champion of the people. 
He published a compendious view of civil law, 
being the substance of a course of lectures read 
in the university of Dublin, together with a sketch 
of the practice of the ecclesiastical courts, and 
some useful directions for the clergy; Hussen 
O Dil* or beauty and the heart, an allegorical 
poem, translated from the Persian language ; and 
miscellaneous sketches, in 2 vols., 8vo. This 
last work is written after the manner of Mon 
taigne. Monthly Anthology, II. 559-562. 

BROWNE, JOHN, died at Frankfort, Ky., Aug. 
28, 1837, aged 80, a senator 1792-1805. 

BRUCE, DAVID, a Moravian missionary, died in 
Litchfield county, Ct., in 1749. The Indians of the 
Mohegan stock, with whom he was sent to reside 
in the same year, had received some instruction 
from Buttner, Rauch, and other missionaries at 
the neighboring station of Shacomaco in the State 
of New York. He lived in the house belonging 
to the brethren, called Gnadensee, in the village 
of Wachquatnach, on the River Iloussatonnoc in 
Cornwall or Sharon. Mr. Sergeant, ten years 
before, had been visited for instruction in religion 
by a company of Indians from the same place, 
which he writes Wukhquautenauk, distant from 
Stockbridge about twenty-eight miles. Bruce 
also lived occasionally amongst the Indians at 
Pachgatgach, which perhaps was Pauquaunuch at 
Stratfield, or with greater probability a settlement 
on the Iloussatonnoc in the interior of Connec 
ticut, either at Derby, or New Milford, or Kent. 
Mr. Brainerd in 1743 visited some Indians, living 
at Scaticoke, five or six miles from New Milford, 

and preached to them. There was still another 
village, which the Moravians visited, called Potatik, 
probably the same as Poodatook, on the river at 
Newtown. As Bruce was dying, he called the 
Indian brethren, and, pressing their hands to his 
breast, entreated them to remain faithful to the 
end. He was succeeded by Buninger. LoslcieVs 
History, II. 115; Brainerd s Life, 65; Hopkins 
Houssatonnic Indians, 75. 

BRUCE, ARCHIBALD, M. D., a physician of 
New York, died Feb. 22, 1818, aged 40. He was 
born in that city in Feb., 1777. His mother, the 
daughter of Nicholas Bayard, was the widow of 
Jeremiah Van Rensselaer. His father, William 
Bruce, the head of the medical department in the 
British army at New York, was very solicitous 
that he should not become a physician. After 
the death of his father he was educated at 
Columbia college, where he was graduated in 
1795. The medical lectures of Dr. Nicholas 
Romayne gave him a taste for the study of 
physic. He afterwards became the pupil of Dr. 
Hosack. In 1798 he repaired to Europe, and in 
1800 obtained a medical degree at Edinburgh. 
During a tour of two years in France, Switzerland, 
and Italy, he collected a valuable mineralogical 
cabinet, his taste for the science of mineralogy 
having been acquired Avhile he was a pupil of Dr. 
Hosack, who brought to this country the first 
cabinet of minerals, and in arranging it called for 
the assistance of his pupil, Bruce. He married 
in London, and came out to New York in 1803. 
About the year 1807 he was appointed professor 
of materia mcdica and mineralogy in the college 
of physicians and surgeons of New York. Upon 
the re-organization of the college in 1811 he was 
superseded by the appointment of others. Intes 
tine feuds were alleged as the cause of the 
changes made. Dr. Bruce, in connection with his 
friend Romayne and other gentlemen, established 
{ or a while a rival medical faculty. In 1810 he 
commenced the journal of American mineralogy; 
but he published only one volume. His work 
was followed by Silliman s journal. After repeated 
attacks of severe indisposition he died of the 
apoplexy. Thacher s Med. Hiog. ; Sillimarfs 
Journal, I. II. 

BRUEN, MATTHIAS, a minister in New York, 
died Sept. 6, 1829, aged 36 years. He was a 
descendant of an early settler of New England, 
and was born at Newark, N. J., April 11, 1793. 
He dated his renovation of mind by the Divine 
Spirit at the age of eighteen. After graduating 
at Columbia college in 1812, he studied theology 
with Dr. Mason. In 1816 he travelled in Europe 
with his distinguished preceptor. About the 
beginning of 1819, being invited to preach in the 
American chapel of the oratory at Paris, he was 
ordained in London, and then passed six months 
at Paris. In 1822 he was employed as a mission- 




ary in the city of New York, but refused to 
receive any compensation. During his labors he 
collected the Bleecker street congregation. Of 
this people he became the stated pastor, and con 
tinued such till his death by inflammation of the 

Mr. Bruen engaged earnestly in various benevo 
lent institutions. He was agent and correspond 
ing secretary of the domestic missionary society ; 
and when it was changed into the American 
home missionary society, he still assisted by his 
counsels. Bible, Sunday school, tract, and foreign 
mission societies engaged his efforts ; and in the 
Greek cause he cheerfully co-operated. He was 
accomplished in manners, in literature, and in the 
knowledge of mankind. Though he had high 
and honorable feelings, abhorring everything mean, 
yet he had humble views of his own acquisitions, 
intellectual and moral. All his distinctions he 
laid at his Master s feet. In the last week of his 
life he suffered extreme pain. It was a sudden 
summons to depart ; yet he was calm and resigned. 
" I die," said he, " in peace and love with all men." 
Thus, after embracing his wife and two babes, and 
most impressively addressing liis relatives, he fell 
asleep in Jesus. 

" lie lay, and a smile was on his face; 
Affection over him bent, to trace 
The token Mercy had left, to tell 
That with the spirit all was well. 
It was the smile that marks the blest ; 
It told, that in hope he had sunk to rest 
Of a joyful rising, after his sleep. 
No more to suffer, no more to weep." 

He published a sermon at Paris on the death of a 
lady of New York ; and sketches of Italy. 
Cox s and Skinner s Sermon; Home Missionary 
Mugazine; Boston Recorder, Nov. 11, 1829. 

BRY, THEODORE DE, published collectiones 
perigrinantium in Indiam orientalem ct occiden- 
talem. America, partes 13, years 1590-1599. 

BRYAN, GEORGE, a judge of the supreme 
court of Pennsylvania, died Jan. 28, 1791, aged 
GO. He was the eldest son of an ancient and 
respectable family in Dublin, Ireland, in his ode 
on which country, Southey exclaims with some 
reason : 

" land, profuse of genius and of worth." 

He came to this country in early life, and lived 
forty years in Philadelphia. At first he engaged 
extensively in commercial business ; but it pleased 
the wise Disposer of events to defeat his plans, 
and reduce him to a state of comparative poverty. 
He afterwards lived more in accordance with 
ancient simplicity. He was an active and intelli 
gent man. Previously to the Revolution he was 
introduced into public employments. He was a 
delegate to the congress which met in 1765 for 
the purpose of remonstrating against the arbitrary 
measures of Great Britain. In the war, which ! 
followed, he took an open and active part. 

After the Declaration of Independence he was 
vice-president of the supreme executive council 
of Pennsylvania, and on the death of President 
Wharton in May, 1778, he was placed at the 
head of the government. When his office, by 
the limitation of the constitution, expired in the 
autumn of 1779, he was elected a member of the 
legislature. Here, amidst the tumult of war and 
invasion, when every one was trembling for him 
self, his mind was occupied by the claims of hu 
manity and charity. lie at this time planned and 
completed an act for the gradual abolition of 
slavery, which is an imperishable monument to his 
memory. He thus furnished evidence, that in 
opposing the exactions of a foreign power he was 
opposing tyranny, and was really attached to the 
cause of liberty. In 1780 he was appointed a 
judge of the supreme court, in which station he 
continued during the remainder of his life. In 
1784 he was elected one of the council of censors, 
and was one of its principal members till his 
death. When the subject of the constitution of 
the United States was discussed, he was conspic 
uous in the ranks of the opposition. He died at 
Philadelphia in the year 1791. 

Besides the offices already mentioned, Judge 
Bryan engaged in various of public, literary, and 
charitable employments. Formed for a close ap 
plication to study, animated with an ardent thirst 
for knowledge, and blessed with a memory of 
wonderful tenacity, and a clear, penetrating, and 
decisive judgment, he availed himself of the la 
bors and acquisitions of others, and brought honor 
to the stations which he occupied. To his other 
attainments he added the virtues of the Christian. 
He was distinguished by his benevolence and sym 
pathy with the distressed ; by an unaffected hu 
mility and modesty ; by his readiness to forgive 
injuries ; and by the inflexible integrity of his 
conduct. He was superior to the frowns and 
blandishments of the world. Thus eminently 
qualified for the various public offices, in which 
he was placed ; he was faithful and humble in 
discharging their duties, and he filled them with 
dignity and reputation in the worst of times, and 
in the midst of a torrent of unmerited obloquy 
and opposition. Such was his disinterestedness 
and his zeal for the good of others, that his own 
interest seemed to be overlooked. In the admin 
istration of justice he was impartial and incor 
ruptible. He was an ornament to the profession 
of Christianity, which he made, the delight of his 
connections, and a public blessing to the State. 
By his death religion lost an amiable example, 
and science a steady friend. Ewing s Funeral 
Sermon; American Museum, ix. 81-83; Dun- 
lap s Amer. Advertiser. 

BRYANT, LEMUEL, minister of Braintree, was 
graduated at Harvard college in 1739. He died 
at Hingham in 1754, and was buried at Scituate, 




probably because he was a native of that place. 
John Adams speaks of a controversy between 
Mr. B. and Miles, Porter, Bass, &c., "which 
broke out like the eruption of a volcano and 
blazed with portentous aspect for many years." 
He published a sermon on moral virtue, 1747 ; 
remarks on Mr. Porter s sermon, 1750. 

BRYANT, SOLOMON, an Indian minister, died 
May 8, 1775, aged 80. He was ordained at 
Marshpee, Mass., soon after the resignation of Mr. 
Bourne in 1742, and he preached to his red 
brethren in the Indian dialect. He was a sensi 
ble man and a good minister, but not sufficiently 
prudent in the admission of members and rather 
deficient in economy. After his dismission, occa 
sioned by some dissatisfaction on the part of the 
Indians, he was succeeded by Mr. Hawley in 
1758. It seems, however, that his labors were 
not entirely interrupted, for Mr. Hawley wrote 
concerning him in 1760: "He grows better as 
he grows older. He is near 66 years of age, 
has been a preacher more than forty, and con 
tinues in his usefulness to tin s day." Joseph 
Bryant, also an Indian minister at Marshpee, or in 
that neighborhood, died April 25, 1759. In 1698 
John Bryant had been Indian teacher at Acush- 
net five or six years. Mass. Hist. Coll., ill. 
191 ; X. 180 ; s. s. III. 16. 

BRYANT, PETER, M. D., a respected physi 
cian of Cummington, died in 1820, aged 52. His 
widow, Sarah, the sister of Rev. Dr. Snell of 
Brookfield, died in 1847. In the poems of his 
son, William C. Bryant, there is an allusion to 
him in the hymn to death. 

BRYANT, JAMES C., missionary to South 
Africa, died at Inanda Dec. 23, 1850. From 
1840 to 1846 he was the minister of Littleton, 
Mass. He sailed for Africa in April, 1846. He 
died in great peace. Mrs. B. survived him. He 
had made various translations into the Zulu lan 
guage. His character is described in the Miss. 
Herald of 1851. 

BRYSON, JOHN, died in 1855, aged 98, in 
Northumberland co., Penn. He studied theology 
with the blind Dr. Waddcll. lie was the pastor 
of Warrior s run and Chillisquaqua, from 1790 to 

BUCHANAN, THOMAS, governor of Liberia, 
died at Bassa Sept. 3, 1841, in the prime of 
life. He was a man of high character and use 

BUCHANAN, JOHN, died near Williamsport, 
Md., Nov. 4, 1844, aged 70, chief judge of the 
court of appeals. 

BUCHANAN, JAMES, died near Montreal Oct. 
1851, aged 80. He was British consul at New 
York. He published sketches of North Ameri 
can Indians, 2 vols., 1824. 

BUCKINGHAM, THOMAS, minister of the 
second church in Hartford, died Nov. 19, 1731, 

aged 62. He was probably the son of Thomas 
Buckingham, the minister of Saybrook in 1C69, 
and a descendant of Thomas B., who lived in 
New Haven in 1639. Stephen B., minister of 
Norwalk from 1697 to 1727, was probably his 
brother. He was graduated at Harvard college 
in 1690. The time of his settlement has not 
been ascertained. He was succeeded by Elnathan 
Whitman. He was one, of the most eminent 
ministers in Connecticut, and was regarded as 
one of the pillars of the church. His superior 
abilities were under the direction of good princi 
ples. His conversation was such, as was becom 
ing a minister of Christ. In his life he imitated 
his blessed Master, and, being exemplary in piety, 
having a pleasant temper, obliging and engaging 
manners, and many amiable virtues, he conciliated 
respect and esteem. 

He published a sermon preached at the elec 
tion, in 1728, entitled Moses and Aaron. The 
following passages from it will give some view of 
his sentiments, and of the times. " By the Spirit 
the elect are brought to possess the good which 
Jesus Christ hath purchased for them. By him 
they are convinced, awakened, humbled, con 
verted, sanctified, led, and comforted." " If we 
look back upon the last year, how many appear 
ances and indications of his anger were there to 
be observed therein ; the unusual illuminations of 
the heavens by repeated and almost discontinued 
ilashes of lightning, with dreadful peals of thun 
der attending, the scorching heat and drought of 
the summer, the pinching cold and length of the 
winter, stormy winds and tempests, the death of 
useful men, and the groaning and trembling of 
the earth under our feet." " Have you not heard 
some, who have risen from among you, speaking 
perverse tilings, blaspheming the constitution and 
order of your churches, denying the validity of 
your ordinations, and condemning your ministerial 
acts as so many usurpations, who unchurch the 
best and greatest part of Christians, and leave 
you with the best of your flocks to uncovenanted 
mercies, that is, in a state of heathenism, without 
God and Christ and hope in the world ; and this 
merely for the sake of a non-agreement 
them in a few unscriptural rites and notions ? " 
Echvards Elect. Serm. in 1732 ; Trumlntll, I. 
498, 519. 

BUCKMLNSTER, JOSEPH, minister of Rut 
land, Mass., died Nov. 27, 1792, aged 72. lie 
was the son of Col. Joseph Buckminster of Fra- 
mingham, who died in 1780, aged 83, and whose 
father, Joseph, one of the earliest settlers of 
Framingham, died in 1740, also aged 83. The 
last named was a grandson of Thomas Buck- 
minster, written in the colony records Buckmas- 
ter, who came from Wales and lived as early 
as 1645 in Boston, where he died Sept. 28, 1658, 
leaving several sons. 




Mr. Buckminster was graduated at Harvard 
college in 1739, ordained in 1742, and was in the 
ministry 53 years. lie was highly respected and 
useful. In his theological sentiments he was a 
sublapsarian Calvinist. Mr. Foster of Strafford 
having published a sermon, in which he asserted 
a two-fold justification, and "a remedial law, or 
law of grace, whose precepts are brought down 
to a level with the fallen sinner s abilities," Mr. 
Buckminster published a reply, being a para 
phrase on Rom. x. 4, for which he received the 
thanks of an association of ministers. Other 
pamphlets followed by the same writers in this 
controversy. In his dissertations on gospel salva 
tion Mr. Buckminster asserts, on the one hand, 
the doctrine of election against the Armimans, 
and on the other hand, against the supralapsa- 
rians, he says, " the decrees have no direct, posi 
tive influence upon us. We are determined by 
motives, but act freely and voluntarily. They lie 
in the foundation of the Divine proceedings, and 
compose his plans of operation. They infer the 
certain futurition of things, but have no influence 
ab extra to bring them to pass." These seem 
not very incorrect views on the subjects of the 
divine decrees and of free agency. Indeed, it is 
not easy to imagine how it is possible to recon 
cile the doctrine of Divine efficiency, or positive 
influence in the production of sinful volitions, with 
the respomibleness of man or with the truth and 
holiness of God. The views of Mr. B. seem to 
accord well with those of Robert Southey, who 
says : " Impossible as it may be for us to reconcile 
the free will of man with the foreknowledge of 
God, I nevertheless believe in both with the most 
full conviction. When the human mind plunges 
into time and space in its speculations, it adven 
tures beyond its sphere ; no wonder, therefore, 
that its powers fail, and it is lost. But that my 
will is free, I know feelingly : it is proved to me 
by my conscience. And that God provideth all 
things, I know by his own word, and by that in 
stinct which he hath implanted in me to assure 
me of his being." 

Mr. B. published two discourses on family re 
ligion, 1759 ; ordination of E. Sparhawk ; para 
phrase on Rom. X. 4. ; dissertations on Eph. II. 
9-1 1 ; a sermon on the covenant with Abraham. 
Farmer s Register ; Eliot. 

BUCKMIXSTER, JOSEPH, D. D. minister of 
Portsmouth, N. H., the son of the preceding, 
died June 10, 1812, aged 60. He was born Oct. 
14, 1751. Being the delight and hope of his 
parents, they were desirous that he should become 
a minister of the gospel. He was graduated at 
Yale college in 1770, and from 1774 to 1778 was a 
tutor in that seminary, associated in that employ 
ment with Abraham Baldwin. At this period he 
became temporarily attached to a lady, then of 
reputation and celebrity, whose character is the 

bains of one of the productions of Mrs. Foster. 
lie was ordained over the north church in Ports 
mouth, Jan. 27, 1779, as successor of Dr. Lang- 
don, after whose death Dr. Stiles had supplied 
the pulpit one or two years. After a ministry of 
thirty-three years, his health became greatly im 
paired ; a depression of spirits, to which he had 
been subject, came upon him with new violence ; 
spasmodic affections caused at times a suspension 
of reason ; under these distressing complaints a 
long journey was thought necessary to his relief. 
He left home June 2, 1812, accompanied by his 
wife and two friends ; but on the Green moun 
tains of Vermont he was arrested by the messen 
ger of death. He died at a solitary tavern in 
Reedsborough, and his remains were interred at 
Bennington, and a sermon preached on the oc 
casion by Mr. Marsh. It is remarkable, that on 
the preceding day his eldest son, a minister in 
Boston, died after a week s illness. Although 
Dr. B. had not heard of his sickness, yet he said 
to his wife repeatedly a few hours before his own 
death, Joseph is dead! His first wife, the only 
daughter of Rev. Dr. Stevens of Kittery, died 
July 19, 1790, aged 36, leaving one son and two 
daughters ; his second wife, the daughter of Rev. 
Isaac Lyman of York, died June 8, 1805, aged 
39 ; his third wife, who survived him, was the 
widow of Col. Eliphalet Ladd. One of his daugh 
ters, who married Prof. Farrar of Cambridge, 
died in Sept., 1824. He was succeeded in the 
ministry by Mr. Putnam. 

Dr. Buckminster was an eminently pious man. 
He left an unsullied reputation, and was greatly 
beloved and deeply lamented. His mind had been 
well cultivated. A brilliant imagination, his most 
distinguishing faculty, gave a richness to his style. 
He had a heart of sensibility. His voice, strong 
and musical, expressed the various emotions of 
his soul. His attitude and gestures were un- 
afi ected and impressive, while lu s countenance 
itself was eloquent. But lu s popularity as a 
preacher is to be ascribed also to the boldness 
and the energy with which he proclaimed the 
great and all-important truths of the gospel. 
Even the hostility of the erroneous and the 
wicked, which he aroused, proved that he had 
found a way to their conscience, for in his great 
meekness, humility, and benevolence they could 
not think that he was their enemy. They could 
hardly hate the man, except on account of his 
doctrine and the faithfulness of his warnings. 
Though his sermons were not systematic, they 
were luminous and instructive. Breaking from 
the confinement of a few favorite topics, he expa 
tiated in the wide field of religious truth. Thc- 
varying events of Providence were always no 
ticed by him, and employed to some pious pur 
pose. The tenderness of his heart, made him 
peculiarly welcome in the house of affliction. 




In the gift of prayer, on all the occasions of 
prayer, he particularly excelled. As a pastor 
he was a bright example to his brethren; in 
cessant in labor and delighting in his work ; 
cherishing always most sedulously the seriousness 
witnessed amongst his people, and devising new 
plans for gaining access to their hearts ; and in 
meetings for social prayer seeking the Divine 
blessing upon the means of instruction. In his 
preaching he dwelt much on the iniquity of the 
human heart, on the character and value of the 
atonement by the crucified Son of God, and on 
the necessity of regeneration by the Holy Spirit, 
of faith and repentance, and the holiness without 
which there is no admission into heaven. In his 
own opinion, he began to preach before he was 
truly a servant of God ; and afterwards he ceased 
to preach for a time, in the persuasion that his 
motives were selfish and unworthy. But after a 
long period of distress light broke in upon his 
mind. A few years after his settlement, on the 
anniversary of his ordination, he wrote as follows : 
" Blush, O my soul, and be ashamed, that thou 
hast felt no more of thy own worth and the worth 
of thy fellow immortals, the infinite love and com 
passion of God, of thy dear Redeemer, and the 
excellency of the gospel. Shall God call me, who 
have been so great and aggravated an offender, 
to the high and honorable office of publishing the 
glad tidings of salvation, and of an ambassador 
for him, to woo and beseech men to be reconciled 
to him ; and shall I be lukewarm and indiffer 
ent?" But notwithstanding the talents, the 
piety, the faithfulness, and the fervent zeal of 
Dr. Buckminster, no very remarkable effects at 
tended his preaching ; showing that, after all the 
skilful and diligent toil of the planter, it is God 
only, who, according to his sovereign pleasure, 
giveth the increase. On account of his catholic 
disposition, Dr. Buckminster possessed the regard 
of other denominations of Christians besides his 
own. In the private relations of life he was 
faithful, affectionate, and interesting. He pub 
lished the following sermons : at the New Hamp 
shire election, 1787 ; on the death of Washing 
ton, 1800 ; on the death of Mrs. Rowland, and 
Mrs. Porter ; on choosing rulers, two sermons, 
1796; on the fire, 1803; on baptism, 1803; 
at the ordination of his son, 1805 ; on the 
death of Rev. S. Haven and his wife, 1806; 
at the installation of J. Miltimore, 1808; of J. 
Thurston, 1809 ; three discourses, Boston, on the 
death of Dr. Hemminway, 1811 ; and a short 
sketch of Dr. McClintock. Panoplist, vm. 105- 
111 ; Adams Ann. of Portsmouth, 353-345 ; 
Parker s Funeral Sermon ; Farmer s Coll. in. 

ter in Boston, died June 9, 1810, aged 28. He 
was the son of the preceding, and was born May 

26, 1784. Under the cultivation of his devoted 
parents his talents were early developed. At the 
age of four years he began to study Latin gram 
mar ; at the age of twelve he was ready for ad 
mission into college. He graduated at Harvard 
with distinguished honor in 1800. The next four 
years were spent partly in the family of his rela 
tive, Theodore Lyman of Waltham, partly as an 
assistant in the academy at Exeter, and in the 
prosecution of theological studies. In Oct., 1804, 
he began to preach at Brattle street, Boston, 
where he was ordained as the successor of Dr. 
Thacher, Jan. 30, 1805. A severe illness imme 
diately followed, which interrupted liis labors un 
til March. In the course of this year, the return 
of the epilepsy, which he had previously expe 
rienced, excited his apprehensions that his men 
tal faculties would be destroyed. He wrote in 
Oct. : " The repetition of these fits must at length 
reduce me to idiocy. Can I resign myself to the 
loss of memory, and of that knowledge, I may 
have vainly prided myself upon ? O God ! enable 
me to bear this thought." A voyage to Europe 
being recommended, he sailed in May, 1806, and 
visited England, Holland, Switzerland and France. 
In Paris he spent five months ; and there and in 
London he collected a valuable library of nearly 
3,000 vols. After his return in Sept., 1807, he 
was occupied in the ministry about five years with 
occasional attacks of epilepsy, till his death. 
His last illness continued a week. His father 
died the next day. 

Mr. Buckminster was a very interesting and 
eloquent preacher. Though of scarcely the mid 
dle size, yet a fine countenance, combining sweet 
ness and intelligence, appropriate, and occasionally 
animated gestures, a brilliant imagination, and a 
style of winning elegance caused his hearers to 
hang with delight upon his lips. His power, 
however, would have been increased by more of 
fervor and passion. Deeply interested in biblical 
criticism, he superintended the publication of 
Griesbach s New Testament. In his religious sen 
timents, as appears from the volume of his sermons, 
published since his death, he differed in some im 
portant respects from his father. He did not 
believe the doctrine of the trinity. He did not 
regard the human race as originally corrupt, and 
utterly lost in their depravity ; he did not admit 
that the death of Christ had any relation to the 
justice of God in the pardon of sin, nor did he 
suppose that there was any special influence of 
the Holy Spirit in the renewal of the heart. He 
quoted with approbation Paley s sermon, written 
when a young man, on caution in the use of 
Scripture language, in which he denies any agency 
of the Spirit of God on the human heart ; yet in 
his latter sermons Paley expressly declares his 
belief, that the Scripture does teach such an 
agency. He imagined that men were not able to 


obey the Divine law, and that Christ came to re 
deem and has actually redeemed all men from its 
curse, or has disclosed a new dispensation, in 
which repentance is accepted instead of obedience. 
Justifying faith he considered as only a principle 
of holiness, and not as a trust in Jesus Christ for 
salvation. Yet his views seem utterly opposed to 
the doctrine of the Socinians, for he speaks of 
" the incarnation " of the Son of God, " the vice 
gerent of Jehovah," and he saw in his life a 
" wonderful contrast of powers Divine greatness 
and mortal debility, ignominy, and glory, suffering 
and triumph, the servant of all and the Lord of 

In 1808 Mr. Buckminster published a collection 
of hymns, in which those of Watts and others 
were mutilated without notice. In a review of 
tliis collection in the Panoplist, this mutilation was 
justly reprehended, as apparently designed to lend 
the authority of Watts to the suppression of im 
portant doctrines. Mr. B. suffered under the 
charge, for he was unwilling to confess what he 
recorded in his private journal, that he took the 
altered hymns from Ivippis collection without 
being aware of the alterations. He published a 
number of reviews in the monthly anthology and 
other periodicals ; the right hand of fellowship at 
the ordination of C. Lowell, 1806 ; a sermon on 
the death of Gov. Sullivan, 1809 ; on the death 
of W. Emerson, 1811; an address to the Phi 
Beta Kappa society, 1809. After his death a vol 
ume of twenty-four sermons was published, with 
a memoir of his life and character by S. C. 
Thacher. Memoir ; Mass. Hist. Coll. s. s. n. 
271 ; Christian Spectator, v. 145. 

BUCKNAM, NATHAN, died Feb. 6, 1795, aged 
91 ; minister of Medway seventy years. He was 
born in Maiden, graduated in 1721, ordained Dec. 
29, 1724. He published a sermon at the ordina 
tion of E. Morse, 1743 ; at ordination of E. 
Harding, 1749. 

BUEL, MARY, wife of Dr. John B., of Litch- 
field, died Nov. 4, 1768, aged 90. She had thir 
teen children, one hundred and one grandchildren, 
two hundred and seventy-four great-grandchil 
dren, and twenty-two of the next generation; 
total, four hundred and ten ; of winch three hun 
dred and thirty-six survived her. 

BUEL, JESSE, editor, removed in 1813 from the 
county of Ulster to Albany and established the 
Albany Argus, which he edited till 1821. He died 
at Danbury, Conn., Oct. 6, 1839, aged 62 ; he was 
on a journey to New Haven in order to deliver a 
lecture on agriculture, to wlu ch subject he had 
devoted the last years of his life. About 1833 
he established the Cultivator, a monthly paper, 
which obtained a vast circulation. He Avas re 
spected for his talents and worth. 

BUEL, WILLIAM, M. D., died at Litchficld 
Oct. 15, 1851, aged 83. 



BUELL, SAMUEL, D. D., an eminent minister 
on Long Island, died at East Hampton, July 19, 
1798, aged 81. lie was born at Coventry in 
Connecticut, Sept. 1, 17 1G. In the seventeenth 
year of his age it pleased his merciful Father in 
heaven to renew his heart and teach him those 
truths, which are necessary to salvation. He was 
impressed with a sense of his entire destitution of 
love to God, of the incompctency of any works, 
which he could perform, to justify him, of the 
necessity of a Saviour, and of his dependence 
on Divine mercy and influence. From the depres 
sion of mind, occasioned by a full conviction of 
sin and a clear perception of his danger, he was 
relieved by a view of the wonderful plan of re 
demption by Jesus Christ, and the gladness of 
his heart now was proportionate to the thickness 
of the gloom which before hung over his mind. 
This change in his character produced a change 
in his plans of life. His father was a rich farmer, 
and he had been destined to agricultural pursuits ; 
but the belief, that it was his duty to engage in 
labors which would most advance the interest of 
religion, and to extend his usefulness as much as 
possible, induced him to relinquish the employ 
ments of husbandry, and to attend to the cultiva 
tion of his mind. He was graduated at Yale 
college in 1741. While in this seminary his 
application to his studies was intense, and his 
proficiency was such as rewarded his toils. It 
was here that he first became acquainted with 
David Brainerd with whom he was very intimate, 
till death separated them. Their friendship was 
the union of hearts attached to the same Ite- 
decmer, having the same exalted views and 
animated by the same spirit. 

It was his intention to spend a number of years 
with Mr. Edwards, of Northampton, in theologi 
cal studies ; but the extensive revival of religion 
at this period rendering the zealous preaching of 
the truth peculiarly important, he immediately 
commenced those benevolent labors, which occu 
pied and delighted him through the remainder of 
his life. After being licensed, he preached about 
two years in different parts of New England ; and 
such was the pathos and energy of his manner 
that almost every assembly was melted into tears. 
In November, 1743, he was ordained as an itiner 
ant preacher, in which capacity he was indefatiga 
ble and very successful. He was the instrument 
of doing much good, of impressing the thought 
less, of reforming the vicious, and of imparting to 
the selfish and worldly the genuine principles of 
benevolence and godliness. Carrying with him 
testimonials from respectable ministers, he was 
admitted into many pulpits, from which other 
itinerants were excluded. While he disapproved 
of the imprudence of some in those days, when 
religious truth was brought home remarkably to 
the heart, he no less reprehended the unreason- 




able opposition of others to the work of God. 
During this period his health was much impaired, 
and a severe fit of sickness brought him to the very 
entrance of the grave ; but it pleased God, \vho 
holds the lives of all in His hand, to restore his 
health, and prolong his usefulness for many }~ears. 

He was led to East Hampton, by a direction of 
Providence in some respects extraordinary, and 
was installed pastor of the church in that place, 
Sept. 19, 1746. His predecessors were Thomas 
James, the first minister ; then Nathaniel Hunt 
ing, ordained Sept. 13, 1699, and dismissed in 
his old age at the settlement of Mr. Buell. In 
this retirement he devoted himself with great 
ardor to his studies. Though he always felt the 
necessity of the special aid of the Spirit of God in 
preaching, yet he duly estimated the importance 
of diligent application of mind to the duties of the 
ministry. For a number of years he wrote all his 
sermons and preached them without notes. He 
was long engaged in writing a work on the prophe 
cies, but the publication of Newton s dissertations 
induced him to relinquish it. He sought the 
acquisition of knowledge, not that he might have 
the honor of being reputed a learned man, but 
that he might increase his power of usefulness ; 
and keeping his great object, that of doing good, 
constantly in view, he never suffered the pleasures 
of literary and theological research to detain him 
from the field of more active exertion. He could 
not shut himself up in his study, while immortal 
souls in his own congregation or in the neighbor 
hood were destitute of instruction and were ready 
to hear the words of eternal life. He frequently 
preached two or three times in the course of the 
week, in addition to his stated labors on the Sab 
bath. For a number of the first years of his 
ministry he seemed to labor without effect. His 
people paid but little attention to the concerns of 
religion. But in 1764 he witnessed an astonishing 
change. Almost every individual in the town was 
deeply impressed, and the interests of eternity 
received that attention which their transcendent 
importance demands. He had the happiness at 
one time of admitting into his church ninety-nine 
persons, who, he believed, had been renewed, 
and enlightened with correct views of the gospel, 
and inspired with benevolent principles of conduct. 
In the years 17 80 and 1791 also, he was favored, 
through the influence of the Holy Spirit on the 
hearts of his hearers, with great success. 

Dr. Buell presents a remarkable instance of 
disinterested exertion for the good of others. 
When Long Island fell into the hands of the 
British in 1776, he remained with his people, and 
did much towards relieving their distresses. As 
there was at this period but one minister within 
forty miles able to preach, the care of all the 
churches fell upon him. His natural disposition 
inclined him to do with his might whatever his 

hand found to do. He was an example of all the 
Christian virtues. He was attached to literature 
and science, and was the father and patron of 
Clinton academy in East .Hampton. His house 
was the mansion of hospitality. Possessing a 
large fund of instructive and entertaining anec 
dote, his company was pleasing to persons of 
every age. In no respect was he more distin-* 
guished, than for a spirit of devotion. He was 
fully convinced of the necessity and efficacy of 
prayer, and amid the prosperous and afflictive 
scenes, through which he passed, it was his delight 
to hold intercourse with his Father in heaven. 
He followed two wives and eight children to the 
grave. On these solemn and affecting occasions, 
such was the resignation and support imparted to 
him, that he usually preached himself. To his 
uncommon and long continued health, the strict 
rules of temperance, which he observed, without 
doubt much contributed. On the day, in which 
he was 80 years old, he rode fourteen miles to 
preach the gospel, and returned in the evening. 
In his last hours his mind was in perfect peace. 
He had no desire to remain any longer absent 
from his Saviour. He observed, as the hour of 
his departure approached, that he felt all his 
earthly connections to be dissolved. The world, 
into which he was just entering, absorbed all his 
thoughts ; so that he was unwilling to suffer any 
interruption of his most cheering contemplations 
from the last attention of his friends. While 
they were endeavoring to prolong the dying flame, 
he would put them aside with one hand, while 
the other was raised towards heaven, where his 
eyes and soul were fixed. In this happy state of 
mind he welcomed the moment of his departure 
from life. His daughter Jerusha was the mother 
of J. L. Gardner of Gardner s Island ; another 
daughter married Rev. A. Wentworth. 

He published a narrative of the revival of 
religion among his people in 1764, and fourteen 
occasional discourses, which evince the vigor of 
his mind and the ardor of his piety; among 
which are a sermon at the ordination of Samson 
Occum, Aug. 29, 1759, to which is added a letter 
giving an account of Occum, 1761 ; on the death 
of C. J. Smith, 1770 ; at the ordination of Aaron 
Woolworth, Bridgehampton, 1788.; funeral ser 
mons on his daughter, Mrs. Conkling, 1782, and 
on an only son, Samuel, who died of the small 
pox in 1787. Conn. Evan. Mag. II. 147-151, 179- 
182; Daggetfs Funeral Sermon. 

BUELL, ABEL, of Killingworth, Conn., began, 
unaided, a type foundry in 1769, and completed 
several fonts of long primer. He was a skilful 
goldsmith and jeweller. John Baine, a Scotch 
man, who died at Philadelphia in 1790, was the 
first successful type founder; and he came to this 
country after the war. Thomas, I. 214 ; II. 547 ; 
Holmes, II. 165. 


BUELL, WILLIAM, a missionary in Siam, died 
in Newcastle, Tenn., in 1856, aged about 40. An 
afflictive event recalled him from Siam. 

BUFF, MICHAEL, died in Georgia in 1839, 
aged 101, a soldier in 1758. 

BUIST, GEORGE, D. D., minister in Charleston, 
S. C., was born in 1770 in Fif eshire, Scotland. In 
the college of Edinburgh, which he entered in 
1787, he became very distinguished. In classical 
learning he excelled, having a predilection for 
Grecian literature. With the Hebrew also he was 
familiar. In French and Italian he was skilled. 
The elders of the Presbyterian church in Charles 
ton, established in 1731, sent for Mr. Buist, on 
the recommendation of Dr. llobertson and Dr- 
Blair. He arrived in June, 1793. Being ap 
pointed in 1805 principal of the college of Charles 
ton, the seminary soon became more respectable 
than ever. He died Aug. 31, 1808, after an illness 
of a few days, aged 38 years. His predecessors in 
the Presbyterian church were Stuart, Grant, Lori- 
mer, Morison, Hewatt, Graham, and Wilson. As 
a preacher he was impressive, oratorical, and pop 
ular, while he was also instructive and faithful. In 
the censure of vice he was bold and animated. 
A friend of benevolent institutions, his warm and 
eloquent appeals aroused the public feeling. lie 
wrote various articles for the British encyclopedia. 
He published an abridgment of Hume for schools, 
1792; a version of the psalms, 1790; a sermon 
on the death of Rev. Mr. Malcomson, 1805. His 
sermons in two vols. 8vo, were published in 1809. 
Sketch prefixed to Sermons. 

BULFINCH, THOMAS, M. D., a physician in 
Boston, died in Feb., 1802. He was the only son 
of Dr. Thomas B., an eminent and pious physi 
cian, who died Dec., 1757, aged 62, and whose 
father, Adino B., came from England in 1680. 
He was born in 1728, and after attending the Latin 
school of John Lovell, was graduated at Harvard 
college in 1746. He spent four years in England 
and Scotland in the prosecution of his medical 
studies, and, obtaining his medical degree in 1757, 
returned immediately to Boston. During the 
prevalence of the small-pox in 1763, his antiphlo 
gistic treatment was eminently successful. With 
Drs. Warren, Gardiner, and Perkins he attempted 
the establishment of a small-pox hospital at Point 
Shirley ; but prejudice defeated lu s efforts. Dur 
ing the occupation of Boston by the British troops 
he remained in the town and suil ered many priva 
tions and losses. He continued in practice till 
two years before his death, which occurred in 
Feb., 1802. His mother was the daughter of John 
Colman, brother of Rev. Benjamin C. His wife 
was the daughter of Charles Apthorp. He left a 
son, the architect and superintendent of the pub 
lic buildings at Washington, who married the 
daughter of John Apthorp ; and two daughters, 
married to George Storer and Joseph Coolidge. 



Dr. Bulfinch was distinguished for his personal 
appearance and elegance of manners. Like his 
father, he was mild and unobtrusive, cheerful, be 
nevolent, and pious. He published a treatise on 
the treatment of the scarlet fever ; another on the 
yellow fever. Thaclier x Med. Biog. 

BULFIXCH, CHARLES, died in Boston April 
15, 1844, aged 81. He graduated at Harvard, 
1781, and pursued his architectural studies in 
Europe, and on his return devoted himself to 
arclu tecture. He drew the plan for the State- 
house in Boston, and for the capitol at Wasliing- 

BULKLEY, PETER, first minister of Concord, 
Mass., died March 9, 1659, aged 76. He was 
born at Woodhill in Bedfordshire, Eng., Jan. 31, 
1583. He was educated at St. John s in Camb. 
and was fellow of the college. lie had a gentle 
man s estate left him by his father, Dr. Edward 
Bulkley of Woodhill, whom he succeeded in the 
ministry- For twenty-one years he continued his 
faitliful labors without interruption; but at length, 
being silenced for nonconformity to some of the 
ceremonies of the English church, he came to 
New England in 1635, that he might enjoy lib 
erty of conscience. After residing some time at 
Cambridge, he began the settlement of Concord 
in 1636 with a number of planters, who had 
accompanied him from England. He formed, 
July 5, 1636, the twelfth church which had been 
established in the colony, and in 1637 was consti 
tuted its teacher and John Jones its pastor. He 
died in Concord. His first wife was a daughter 
of Thomas Allen of Coldington ; his second, a 
daughter of Sir Richard Chitwood. By these he 
had fourteen children, three of whom were edu 
cated for the ministry. Edward, who succeeded 
him about 1659, had been the first minister 
of Marshficld, died at Chelmsford Jan. 2, 1696, 
and was buried at Concord ; his son, Peter, a 
graduate of 1660, was agent in England in 1676, 
was speaker of the house and assistant from 1677 
to- 1684, and died May 24, 1688. 

Mr. Bulkley was remarkable for his benevo 
lence. He expended a large estate by giving 
farms to his servants, whom he employed in hus 
bandry. It was his custom, when a servant had 
lived with him a certain number of years, to dis 
miss him, giving him a piece of land for a farm, 
and to take another in his place. He was famil 
iar and pleasant in his manners, though while 
subject to bodily pains he was somewhat irritable, 
and in preaching was at times considered as 
severe. So strict was his own virtue, that he 
could not spare some follies, which were thought 
too inconsiderable to be noticed. In consequence 
of his pressing importunately some charitable 
work, contrary to the wishes of the ruling elder, 
an unhappy division was produced in the church ; 
but it was healed by the advice of a council and the 



abdication of the elder. By means of this troub 
lesome affair, Mr. Bulkley said he knew more of 
God, more of himself, and more of men. He was 
an excellent scholar, and was distinguished for the 
holiness of his life and his diligent attention to 
the duties of the ministry. He gave a considera 
ble part of his library to Harvard college. He 
was very conscientious in his observance of the 
Sabbath. He was averse to novelty of apparel, 
and his hair was always cut close. Such was his 
zeal to do good, that he seldom left any company, 
without making some serious remark, calculated 
to impress the mind. When, through infirmity, 
he was unable to teach from house to house, he 
added to his usual labor on the Lord s day that 
of catechizing and exhorting the youth, in the 
presence of the whole assembly. Such was his 
reputation among the ministers of New England, 
that he was appointed one of the moderators of 
the synod of 1737. Mr. Hooker was the other. 

He published a work entitled, the gospel cove 
nant, or the covenant of grace opened, etc., Lon 
don, 1646, 4to. pp. 383. This book was so much 
esteemed, that it passed through several editions. 
It is composed of sermons preached at Concord 
upon Zechariah IX. 11, "the blood of the cove 
nant." Speaking of this work, Mr. Shepard of 
Cambridge says, " The church of God is bound to 
bless God for the holy, judicious, and learned 
labors of this aged, and experienced, and precious 
servant of Jesus Christ." Mr. Bulkley also wrote 
Latin poetry, some specimens of which are 
preserved by Dr. Mather in his history of New 
England. Mather s Magnolia, in. 96, 98; 
Neal, I. 321; Nonconformists Memorial, last 
edition, n. 200; Holmes, I. 314; Coll. Hist. 
Soc., x. 168 ; Bipley s Dedication Sermon. 

BULKLEY, JOHX, one of the first graduates 
of Harvard college, died in 1689, aged 69. He 
was the son of the preceding. He took his 
degree of A. M. in 1642. He afterwards went to 
England, and settled at Fordham, where he 
continued for several years with good acceptance 
and usefulness. After his ejectment in 1662 he 
went to Wapping, in the suburbs of London, 
where he practised physic several years with 
success. He was eminent in learning and equally 
so in piety. Though he was not often in his 
pulpit after his ejectment, he might truly be said 
to preach every day in the week. His whole life 
was a continued sermon. He seldom visited his 
patients without reading a lecture of divinity to 
them, and praying with them. He was remarkable 
for the sweetness of his temper, and his integrity 
and charitableness ; but what gave a lustre to all 
his other virtues was his deep humility. He died 
near the tower in London. Nonconformists 
Memorial, last edition, II. 200 ; James Funeral 

BULKLEY, GERSHOM, an eminent minister, 


the brother of the preceding, died Dec. 2, 1713, 
aged 77. He was born in Dec., 1636, and gradu 
ated at Harvard college in 1655. About the year 
1658 he succeeded Mr. Blinman as minister of 
New London. Here he continued till about the 
year 1666, when he became pastor of the church 
in Wethersfield, in the place of Mr. Russell, who 
had removed to Hadley. He was succeeded at 
New London by Mr. Bradstreet. Many years 
before his death he resigned the ministry at 
Wethersfield on account of his infirmities, and 
Mr. Rowlandson of Lancaster was received aa 
minister. His wife was Sarah, the daughter of 
President Chauncy. He was a man of distinction 
in his day, and was particularly eminent for hia 
skill in chemistry. From an inscription upon his 
gravestone, it appears that he was regarded as a 
man of rare abilities and extraordinary industry, 
excellent in learning, master of many languages, 
exquisite in his skill in divinity, physic, and law, 
and of a most exemplary and Christian life. 
Trumbull, I. 319, 324, 483, 519; Mass. Hist. Coll., 
X. 155. 

BULKLEY, JOHN, first minister of Colchester, 
Avas the son of Gershom Bulkley. He was gradu 
ated at Harvard college in 1699, was ordained 
Dec. 20, 1703, and died in June, 1731. His son, 
John Bulkley, a graduate at Yale college in 1756, 
eminent for learning, possessed a high reputation 
as a physician and lawyer, and when very young 
was appointed a judge of the superior court of 

Mr. Bulkley was very distinguished as a scholar. 
While a member of college, he and Mr. Dummer, 
who was a member of the same class, were con 
sidered as pre-eminent in genius and talents. 
The palm was given to the latter for quickness, 
brilliancy, and wit ; but Mr. Bulkley was regarded 
as his superior in solidity of judgment and 
strength of argument. He carried his researches 
into the various departments of the law, of medi 
cine, and theology. He was classed by Dr. 
Chauncy in 1788 among the three most eminent 
for strength of genius and powers of mind, 
which New England had produced. The other 
two were Jeremiah Dummer and Thomas Walter. 
He wrote a preface to R. Wolcott s meditations, 
and published an election sermon in 1713, entitled, 
the necessity of religion in societies. In 1724 he 
published an inquiry into the right of the aborig 
inal natives to the lands in America. This curi 
ous treatise has within a few years been reprinted 
in the collections of the lu storical society of Mas 
sachusetts. The author contends, that the Indians 
had no just claims to any lands but such as they 
had subdued and improved by their own labor, 
and that the English had a perfect right to occupy 
all other lands without compensation to the na 
tives. He published a sermon at ordination of J. 
Lewis, 1730 ; and one other tract, entitled, an im- 


partial account of a late debate at Lyme, upon the 
following points : whether it be the will of God, 
that the infants of visible believers should be bap 
tized ; whether sprinkling be lawful and sufficient ; 
and whether the present way of maintaining 
ministers by a public rate or tax be lawful, 1729. 
In this he gives some account of the rise of 
the anti-pedo-baptists. Trumbull, I. 520 ; Mass. 
Hist. Coll. IV. 159 ; Gen. Hist, of Conn. 173. 

BULL, HENRY, governor of Rhode Island, died 
in 1693, aged 84. Born in Wales, he was one of 
the early purchasers of the Island of Aquidneck, 
now Rhode Island. He settled with seventeen 
others at Newport in 1638, and was governor in 
1685, and again in 1689, when Andros was im 

BULL, WILLIAM, M. D., a physician, eminent 
for literature and medical science, died July 4, 
1791, aged 81. He was the son of Win. Bull, 
lieut.-gov. of South Carolina, who died March 
1755, aged 72. He was the first native of South 
Carolina, and probably the first American, who 
obtained a degree in medicine. S. L. Knapp, in 
his stereotype lecture on American literature, 
mistakes in representing Dr. Bull as a graduate 
of Harvard college, and also in giving his name 
Ball. He was a pupil of Boerhaave, and in 1735 
defended a thesis de colica pictonum before the 
university of Leyden. He is quoted by Van 
Swieten, as his fellow student, with the title of 
the learned Dr. Bull. After his return to this 
country, lu s services in civil life were reqmred by 
his fellow-citizens. In 1751 he was a member of 
the council; in 1763 he was speaker of the house 
of representatives, and in 1764 he was lieut.-gov. 
of South Carolina. He was many years in this 
office, and commander-in-chief. When the Brit 
ish troops left South Carolina in 1782 he accom 
panied them to England, where he resided the 
remainder of his life. He died in London. 
Ramsay s Rev. of Med. 42,43; Miller, I. 317, II. 
363 ; (rentleman s Mag. xxv. 236 ; Ramsay s 
Hist. S. C. II. 113. 

BULL, JOHN, general, a soldier of the Revolu 
tion, died at Northumberland, Penn., in Aug. 
1824, aged 94. In the French wars his services 
were important, especially in making treaties with 
the Indians for the safety of the frontiers. In the 
war for independence he engaged with zeal. In 
1776 he was a member of the assembly from the 
county of Philadelphia. At the age of 75 he was 
also a useful member of the legislature. lie died 
with composure, trusting in the atonement of the 
Saviour, with assured hope of a glorious resurrec 

BULL, NORMS, D. I).-, died in Lewiston, 
N. Y., in 1848, aged about 58. Bom in Har- 
winton, he graduated at Yale in 1813, and com 
menced bis labors as a teacher at Lansingburg. 
He was then a minister at Warsaw, and eleven 



years at Geneseo. He was afterwards both pas 
tor and teacher at Wyoming and at Clarkson. 
In 1846 he removed to Lewiston. He published 
an address to the Wilson Collegiate Institute. 
N. Y. Observer, Feb. 26, 1848. 

BULLARI), ARTEMAS, Dr., died at Sutton May 
6, 1842, aged 73. His ten children were pro 
fessors of religion. 

BULLARI), ARTEMAS, D. D., son of the pre 
ceding, minister of the 1st Presbyterian church in 
St. Louis, was killed on the railroad at Gasconade 
river, Nov. 1, 1855, aged 53. He had two broth 
ers, who were ministers, and two sisters, who 
married ministers Henry W. Beecher, and Lot 
Jones. He graduated at Amherst in 1826. He 
married Ann Jones, a teacher in Boston. For 
ten years he was the general agent of the Ameri- 
ican board of missions, residing at Cincinnati, and 
for eighteen years he had been a minister in St. 
Louis, exerting a very important influence. His 
new and costly church had just been finished. 
He was on the first railroad excursion to Jeffer 
son city, when he and nearly thirty others were 

Dr. Bullard, when the Presbyterian church was 
split into two parts, attached himself to the New 
School division. He was a man of action and 
energy. His great and very important labors in 
Missouri in the formation of new churches, the 
providing of ministers, and the promotion of 
learning, and his excellent character, are described 
in the N. Y. Evangelist for Jan. 3, 1856. By his 
efforts chiefly was Webster College founded. 

BULLARD, HENRY A., judge, died in New 
Orleans, April 17, 1851, aged 62. The son of the 
minister of Pepperell, he was graduated at Cam 
bridge in 1807 ; having studied law, he accompa 
nied Gen. Toledo in an expedition against Texas, 
but in the defeat escaped, although with difficulty, 
and opened an office in Natchitoches. He was 
district judge, and a member of congress, and 
judge of the supreme court ; afterwards he prac 
tised law in New Orleans, and gave lectures in 
the law school. The fatigue of his return from 
Washington occasioned his death. 

BULLARD, AMOS, minister of Barre, died 
Aug. 21, 1850, aged 43. Born in Medway, he 
graduated at Amherst college in 1833, was for 
some years assistant teacher in Leicester academy, 
and ordained Oct. 26, 1843. He was a good 
scholar and writer, and greatly excelled in meta 
physics. His early death was greatly lamented. 
His widow became an assistant in the academy of 

BULLOCK, WILLIAM, published a work en 
titled, Virginia impartially examined, 1649. 

BULLOCK, LYDIA, died at Rehoboth, April 
26, 1853, aged 81, relict of E. Bullock, daughter 
of Roger Rogcrson, minister of Rehoboth from 
1759 to 1799. She had a cultivated mind, was 




intelligent, refined, dignified, affable, of rich con 
versation, and much-valued correspondence. Her 
writings gratified her friends, but were not made 
public. She was a specimen of the domestic in 
telligence and refinement, which, unknown to the 
world, hath blessed many a habitation of New 
England. For fifty years she was a devoted dis 
ciple of Christ. She was a member of a female 
charitable society, raising for many years an an 
nual sum for the cause of missions. 

BUNKER, BENJAMIN, minister of Maiden, died 
Feb. 3, 1670, aged about 30. He was the son of 
George Bunker, who lived in Charlestown in 
1634, and in 1637 was disarmed, with many 
others, by order of the general court, for being a 
follower of Wheelwright and Mrs. Hutchinson, 
lest in some revelation they should make an 
assault upon the government ; from whom, or 
from some descendant, the name of Bunker s Hill 
is doubtless derived. The celebrated battle was 
fought on Breed s Hill, distant 120 rods S. E. 
from Bunker s, which is a loftier hill. Mr. 
Bunker was graduated at Harvard college in 
1658. Savage s Wintlirop, \. 248. 

BURBANK, CALEB, general, died at Millbury, 
Dec. 9, 1849, aged 83; extensively known as a 
paper manufacturer. 

BURBECK, HENRY, general, died at New 
London, Oct. 2, 1848, aged 94, being born in 
Boston, June 8, 1754. His father was an officer 
at Castle William before the Revolution. He 
joined his father s company in the American army 
in 1775, and shared in the battles and sufferings 
of the war, at the close of which he held the office 
of major. He afterwards was engaged in the 
Indian wars along the western frontier ; for years 
he commanded at Mackinaw. In the war of 
1812 he served as a brigadier-general; but in 
1815 retired to private life, and lived at New 
London till his death. 

BURCH, STEPHEN B., D. D., died at George 
town, in Sept., 1833, aged 87. 

BURD, BENJAMIN, general, died Oct. 5, 1822, 
aged 69. He was a soldier of the Revolution. At 
the age of twenty-one he joined Col. Thompson s 
regiment of Pennsylvania riflemen, and marched 
as a volunteer to Boston, where he arrived Aug., 
1775. He was afterwards in the battle of Long 
Island. In 1777, as captain in the 4th Pennsyl 
vania regiment, he was in the battles of Trenton 
arid Princeton, and afterwards at the battle of 
Brandywine. In the capacity of major he was 
engaged in the battles of Germantown and Mon- 
mouth. In 1779 he accompanied Sullivan in his 
expedition against the Indians. In all his ser 
vices he was brave and active. After the war he 
settled down on his paternal farm at fort Little 
ton, where he was long known for his hospitable 
and gentlemanly deportment. For the ten last 
years of his life he resided at Bedford, Penn. ; 

where he died of the dropsy in the chest. His 
wife died on the preceding day. Farmer s 
Coll. n. App. 99. 

. BURGESS, TRISTAM, judge, died at Watchem- 
oket farm, Providence, Oct. 13, 1853, aged 83. 
He was born in Rochester, Mass., Feb. 26, 1770, 
the son of a soldier, Lieut. John B., who died in 
1791. The father and three sons were farmers 
and coopers. He had attended school but a few 
weeks before he was twenty-one ; he afterwards 
graduated at Brown university in 1796. While 
teaching school and studying law, he was per 
suaded to buy a ticket on credit, costing 5 dollars, 
which drew a prize of 2000, and gave him relief in 
his poverty. He married the daughter of Wel 
come Arnold, a merchant of Providence. He had 
great business as a lawyer, associated with such 
men as Howell, Burrill, Robbins, Hunter, Bridg- 
ham, and Hazard. After being chief justice a short 
time, he was appointed professor of oratory in 
Brown university. He entered congress in 1825. 
From him Mr. Randolph received such a retort as 
from no one else, a rebuke that silenced him : 
" Moral monsters cannot propagate ; we rejoice 
that the father of lies can never become the father 
of liars." In 1835 he retired to private life. He 
was a diligent student of the Bible. His memoirs 
were by II. L. Bowen. He published five ora 
tions at different times, and several speeches in 

BURGESS, BENJAMIN, died in Wayne, Me., 
June 13, 1853, aged 102, leaving 170 descendants. 

BURGESS, Mrs. N. M. HALL, missionary to 
the Indians on the Alleghany reservation, died 
Dec. 30, 1851. For sixteen years she had labored 
with her brother, Rev. W. Hall, devoted to her 
work. Her end was peaceful, saying, "Dear Sav 
iour, come quickly ! " She had been married but a 
few weeks. 

BURGESS, Mrs., missionary at Satara in 
India, died April 26, 1853, the wife of E. Burgess. 
She was at Ahmednuggur in 1849. From the 
time of her arrival at S., in 1851, she was devoted 
to her work, in the schools, with the native wo 
men, and in the church. 

BURGOYNE, JOHN, a British lieutenant-gen 
eral in America, died Aug. 4, 1792. He was the 
natural son of Lord Bingley. He entered early 
into the army, arid in 1762 had the command of a 
body of troops, sent to Portugal for the defence 
of that kingdom against the Spaniards. After 
his return to England he became a privy council 
lor, and was chosen a member of parliament. In 
the American war he was with the British army 
in Boston, at the battle of Bunker s Hill in 1775, 
and in the same year was sent to Canada. In 
the year 1777 he was intrusted with the command 
of the northern army, which should rather have 
been given to Sir Guy Carlton, who was much 
better acquainted with the situation of the couu- 




try. It was the object of the campaign of 1777 
to open a communication between New York and 
Canada, and thus to sever New England from 
the other States. Burgoyne first proposed to pos 
sess himself of the fortress of Ticonderoga. With 
an army of about 4,000 chosen British troops and 
Germans, he left St. John s June 6, and, proceed 
ing up lake Champlain, landed near Crown Point, 
where he met the Indians and gave them a war 
feast. lie made a speech to them, calculated to 
secure their friendly co-operation, but designed 
also to mitigate their native ferocity. He en 
deavored to impress on them the distinction 
between enemies in the field and helpless, un 
armed inhabitants, and promised rewards for 
prisoners, but none for scalps. The attempt to 
lay some restraint upon the mode of warfare, 
adopted by the savages, is honorable to the 
humanity of Burgoyne ; but it may not be easy to 
justify the connection with an ally, upon whom it 
was well known no effectual restraints could be 
laid. He also published on June 29th, a mani 
festo, intended to alarm the people of the coun 
try, through which he was to march, and con 
cluded it with saying : " I trust I shall stand 
acquitted in the eyes of God and man in denounc 
ing and executing the vengeance of the State 
against the wilful outcasts. The messengers of 
justice and of wrath await them in the field, and 
devastation, famine, and every concomitant hor 
ror, that a reluctant but indispensable prosecution 
of military duty must occasion, will bar the way 
to their return." 

On the first of July he proceeded to Ticonder 
oga, where Gen. St. Clair was stationed with 
about o,000 effective rank and file, many of whom 
were without bayonets. The works were exten 
sive and incomplete, and required 10,000 men for 
their defence. The British army was larger than 
had been expected. When the investment was 
almost complete, Gen. St. Clair called a council 
of war, and the immediate evacuation of the fort 
was unanimously advised. Preparations for the 
retreat were accordingly made in the night of July 
5th. Burgoyne the next morning engaged in the 
pursuit, and with the grand division of the army in 
gun-boats and two frigates proceeded to the falls of 
Skeensborough ; but, meeting with opposition in 
this place from the works wlu ch had been con 
structed, he returned to South Bay, where he 
landed. He followed the Americans, however, 
from Skeensborough to fort Edward on the Hud 
son river, where, after conducting his army with 
incredible labor and fatigue through the wilder 
ness, he arrived July 30. Had he returned to 
Ticonderoga, and embarked on lake George, he 
might easily have proceeded to fort George, 
whence there was a wagon road to fort Edward. 
But he disliked the appearance of a retrograde 
motion, though it would have brought him to the 

place of his destination much r.nd wilh 
much less difficulty. On his approach Gen. 
Schuylcr, who had been joined by St. Clair, passed 
over to the west bank of the Hudson, and 
retreated to Saratoga. Col. St. Leger had been 
destined to reach Albany from Canada by a differ 
ent route. He was to ascend the St. Lawrence 
to Lake Ontario; and thence to proceed down 
the Mohawk. He had accordingly reached the 
head of this river, and was investing fort Schuyler, 
formerly called fort Stanwix, when intelligence of 
his operations was brought to Burgoyne, who per 
ceived the importance of a rapid movement down 
the Hudson in order to aid him in his project, and 
to effect the junction of the troops. But this inten 
tion could not be executed without the aid of ox 
teams, carriages, and provisions. In order to pro 
cure them he detached Lieut. Col. Baum with about 
six hundred men to Bennington, a place about 
twenty-four miles to the eastAvard of Hudson s river, 
where large supplies were deposited for the north- 
em American army. But Baum was defeated at 
Walloon creek, about seven miles from Benning 
ton, Aug. IGth, and Col. Breyman, who had ad 
vanced to his assistance with about five hundred 
men, was obliged to retreat. This was the first 
check which the northern army received. This 
disaster was followed in a few days by another ; 
for St. Legcr, being deserted by his Indian allies, 
who were alarmed by the approach of Gen. Arnold 
and by a report of the defeat of Burgoyne, was 
obliged to raise the siege of fort Schuyler in such 
haste, that the artillery, with a great part of the 
baggage, ammunition, and provisions fell into the 
hands of the Americans. As he returned imme 
diately to Canada, Burgoyne was cut off from the 
hope of being strengthened by a junction, and 
the American forces were enabled to concentrate 
themselves in order to oppose him. Gen. Gates 
arrived, to supersede Schuyler and to take the 
command of the northern American army, Aug. 
19th ; and his presence, with the recent events, 
procured a vast accession of militia, and inspired 
them with the hope of capturing the whole Brit 
ish army. Burgoyne was prevented from com 
mencing his march by the necessity of transport 
ing provisions from fort George, and every 
moment s delay increased the difficulty of pro 
ceeding. Having thrown a bridge of boats over 
the Hudson, he crossed that river Sept. 13th and 
14th, and encamped on the heights and plains of 
Saratoga. Gates immediately advanced towards 
him, and encamped three miles above Stillwater. 
Burgoyne was not averse to battle. He accord 
ingly approached, and on the 19th the action 
commenced at about three o clock and lasted till 
night, when the Americans under the command 
of Arnold retired to their camp. The loss on the 
part of the Americans in killed and wounded was 
between three and four hundred. The loss of 



the British was about six hundred. Burgoyne 
now found that the enemy, which he had to meet, 
was able to sustain an attack in open plains with 
the intrepidity and the spirit of veterans. As he 
had given up all communication with the lakes, 
he now felt the necessity of a diversion in his favor 
by the British army. lie accordingly wrote upon 
this subject in the most pressing manner to Sir 
William Howe and Gen. Clinton ; but no effectual 
aid was afforded. lie was also at this time de 
serted by his Indian allies, who had been disap 
pointed in their hopes of plunder, and whose 
enthusiasm Avas chilled. These hordes of the 
wilderness, of whom in his proclamation he 
boasted, that " he had but to lift his arm and 
beckon by a stretch thereof," and they would 
execute his vengeance, were now " deaf to every 
consideration of honor, and unmoved by any rep 
resentation made to them of the distress, in which 
their secession would involve him." Difficulties 
thickened around him. His army was reduced to 
about five thousand men, and they were limited 
to half the usual allowance of provision. As the 
stock of forage was entirely exhausted, his horses 
were perishing in great numbers. The American 
army was so much augmented, as to render him 
diffident of making good his retreat. 

In this exigency he res